M sc genetics


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M sc genetics

  1. 1. M.Sc Applied Genetics Theory Syllabus I SemesterPAPER-101 (FUNDAMENTALS OF CELL BIOLOGY) 52 Hrs 1. Overview of cells: 03 Hrs • structure, types & kinds of cells, Differences between prokarotic & eukaryotic cells. 2. Membrane System 15 Hrs • Plasma Membrane Structure & chemical composition : Fluid mosaic model, Membrane lipids, Carbohydrates & Proteins, transport across membrane: Diffusion, Active transport, Co-transport & bulk transport, membrane potentials- resting potential & types of propagation of action potentials, liposomes. Organelle Membrane • Endoplasmic reticulum The smooth & rough endoplasmic reticulum & their functions. • Golgi Complex Types & mechanisms of vesicular transport within the Golgi complex & their functions. • Lysosomes Lysosomal membranes & their functions. • Mitochondria Ultrastructure, oxidative metabolism, protein gradients, ATP synthesis, importing of mitochondrial proteins. • Chloroplast Ultrastructure, overview of photosynthesis, photophosphorylation, fixation of carbon dioxide & the synthesis of carbohydrates, importing of chloroplast proteins. • Nucleus Structural organization & function of nuclear membrane. 3. Cellular interactions & their environment: 08 Hrs • Interaction of cells with non cellular substrates
  2. 2. The extra cellular space, the extracellular matrix, collagens, proteoglycans, fibronectin, laminin & other proteins, integrins, focal adhesions & hemidesmosomes. • Interactions of cells with other cells Selection, immunoglobulin super family & integrin super family, cadherins, Junctions: tight junctions, gap junctions & Desmosomes, Plasmodesmata.4. Cytoskeleton & Cell motility: 08 Hrs • Microtubules-structure & function, dynamic property, Molecular motors, Cilia & flagella- structure & function, Intermediate filaments, muscle contractility, non muscle motility.5. Cell signaling: 08 Hrs • Communication Between Cells & their environment, basic characteristics, second messengers & G protein complex – coupled recertors, role of calcium as a second messenger, receptor tyrosine kinases, MAP kinase cascade, other signaling pathwaysin plants.6. Techniques in cell & molecular biology: 10 Hrs • Microscopy, Bright field, Phase contrast, polarization, Fluorescence, Confocal, Microphotography, Video Processing & image processing, cell culturing, Ultracentrifugation, Isolation, Purification & fractionation of proteins & nucleic acids, Autoradiography, flow cytometry.
  3. 3. PAPER- 102: BASIC GENETICS1. Introduction to Science of Inheritance: 04 Hrs • Model genetic organisms. Life history & inheritance pattern in Bacteriophage (T4), fungi (Neurospora), Algae (Chlamydomonas), Bacteria (E.coli), Plant (Arabidopsis), Caenorhabitis, Drosophila, Zebra fish, Mouse.2. Mendel’s Principles: 06 Hrs • Mendel & his laws, Application of laws & probability tests. Chi-square test & its application in the analysis of genetic data. Pattern of inheritance in Haploid & Diploid organisms. Extension of Mendelism- alleles, allelic variation & genetic factor, dominant relationship, Basis of dominant & recessive inheritance. Multiple alleles & allelic series, lethal alleles, Penetrance & Expressivity. Inheritance of genes. Pleiotropy.3. Chromosomal basis of inheritance: 08 Hrs • Concepts & evidences, Sex linked inheritance in Drosophila & man. Sex chromosomes, Sex determination, Multiple sex chromosomes, Sex linked & sex- limited traits.4. Linkage & Crossing over: 10 Hrs • Concepts, Genetic recombination & Construction of genetic map. Genetic & linkage map in Drosophila, Neurospora, Algae & Plants. Interference & coincidence. Mitotic recombination.5. Non Mendelian inheritance/ Extra nuclear genes: 10 Hrs • Mendelian inheritance, Extra nuclear inheritance in Neurospora, Chlamydomonas, Paramecium, Yeast, Drosophila & Man, Mitochondrial genomes, Chloroplast genome, Transposable genetic elements.6. Somatic Cell Genetics: 08 Hrs • Cell-cell hybridization, cell hybrids, mapping of genes by cell hybridization methods, Mapping by in-situ hybridization.7. Behavioral genetics: 06 Hrs • Methodology, Type & examples, Genetic basis of behavioral traits in Drosophila, Mice & Humans.
  4. 4. PAPER: 103 ESSENTIALS OF CYTOGENETICS1. Chromosome Structure: 10 Hrs • Chromosomal theory of inheritance, Interphase nucleus, Nuclear matrix & other structures, Molecular organization of prokaryotic & eukaryotic chromosomes, Nucleosome structure, Chromosomal protein, Higher order of eukaryotic chromosomes, DNA scaffolds & loops, Molecular organization of chromosomes, Chromomeres, Kinetochores, Centromeres & Telomeres, Heterochromatin & Euchromatin.2. Cell division: 08 Hrs • Mitotic & Meiotic transmission of chromosomes, Specialized chromosomes, Lampbrush chromosomes, Types, Occurance, Organization & Biological significance. Polytene chromosomes, Occurance, Structural organization & their functional role. Supernumerary chromosomes: Occurance, role during meiosis & mitosis & their evolutionary significance.3. Chromosome mutation: 06 Hrs • Changes in chromosome structure, Origins of changes in chromosome structure. Deletions, Duplications, Inversions & Translocations. Genetic significance of non- Robertsonian chromosome changes.4. Changes in Chromosome number : Anueuploidy: 08 Hrs • Causes & Consequences. Polyploidy: Occurance,types & genetic significance, Overview of chomosome dynamics during cell division. Mechanisms of chromosome inheritance. Chromosome mechanisms in plant breeding.5. Role of chromosomes during Evolution: 10 Hrs • Chromosomes in karyotype changes & species differentiation, chromosomal mechanics in speciation processes (Rodents, Insects), Polytene chromosome polymorphism in Dipteran examples. Role of heterochromotin in species evolution & Karyotypic differentiation.6. Chromosomal basis of Sex Determination: 10 Hrs • Evolution of chromosomal heteromorphism, Evolution of sex chromosomes, Sex chromosome type, simple & multiple sex chromosome, mechanism & systems of sex determination in C.elegans, Drosophila & Humans. Chromosome imprinting phenomena.
  5. 5. PAPER- 104 BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY1. Cell Environment: 03Hrs • Properties of water, acids & bases. Water in cell environment, salts, electrolytes, pH, Henderson- Hesselbach equation, Buffers, Bufferung capacity & Zwitter-ions, Physiological systems.2. Biomolecules: 14 Hrs • Carbohydrates – Classification, Structure & Properties of different classes, Chemical reactions, derived sugars. • Amino acids & proteins- Structure, Classification & properties of amino acids & proteins, non- protein amino acids, essential amino acids, amphoteric properties of amino acids, dissociation, chemical reaction, Classes & properties of proteins. Structural organization of proteins (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary & Quarternary structure). • Lipids- Classification, structure of lipids, fatty acids, phospholipids, spingolipids, glycolipids & steroids, Chemical reaction. • Nucleic acids- Structure & properties of different types of RNA, structure of DNA. Watson-Crick model of DNA, Polymorphism in DNA structure.3. Enzymes: 08Hrs • History, classification & nomenclature, specificity of enzymes; Kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reaction- chemical kinetics, Michaelis-Menten equation, Transformation of M- M equation, L-B plot, Quantitative assay of enzyme activity. Mechanism of enzyme action- Hypothesis, catalytic mechanisms, acid base & covalent catalysis- activation & inhibition of enzymes, allosteric modulation, co-enzymes & isoenzymes.4. Biological oxidation: 05Hrs • Oxidation-reduction reactions, biological redox potential, mitochondrial electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation, chemical & chemiosmotic hypothesis.5. Bioenergetics: 05 Hrs • Laws of thermodynamics & their application to biological process, basic concepts of metabolic energy, capture & transfer, biochemical energetics-free energy concepts, high energy phosphate copounds (ATP & others).6. Carbohydrates: 10Hrs • Glycogenolysis: Glycogenesis, regulation of glycogen metabolism, glycolysis, TCA cycle, fermentation reaction, glyoxylate cycle, pentose phosphate pathway.
  6. 6. • Proteins & amino acids metabolism: Enzymatic & chemical hydrolysis of protein, general metabolism of amino acids- transamination, deamination, decarboxylation, Urea cycle & Uric acid biosynthesis. • Lipids: Biosynthesis of fatty acids- Regulation of fatty acid synthesis.Oxidation of fatty acids- scheme of β- oxidation , energetics of β- oxidation, other pathways. • Nucleic acids : Biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines.7. Vitamins: 03Hrs • Chemistry, lipid and water soluble vitamins
  7. 7. I SEMESTER – PRACTICAL SYLLABUS PAPER- 105: CELL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS1. Vital staining of Mitochondria2. Meiosis: Study of meiotic stages of a Grosshopper testis (Poecilocera/Oxya sps).3. Special Chromosomes: Preparation of Dipteran(Drosophila/Chironomus sps.) larval salivary gland chromosomes and study of naturally occuring inversion polymorphism.4. Demonstration and identification of sperms: Insect, Amphibian,Annelid and Mammalian.5. Study of Drosophila life cycle and its external morphology.6. Study of phenotypic mutations of Drosophila.7. Study of abnormal sperms of mouse. PAPER -106: CYTOGENETICS AND BIOCHEMISTRY 1. Study of meiosis in Laccotrephis and Sphaerodema 2. Studies of inversion polymorphism in Chironomus/ mosquito polytene chromosomes. 3. Study of chromosomal aberrations induced by means of chemicals and X- rays(Rat). 4. Feulgen staining of DNA in Protozoa (Paramecium). 5. Study of Sodium-Potassium ATPase activity in two tissues (Frog/Rat). 6. Estimation of acetyl choline esterase activity by Hestrin’s method (Frog/Rat). 7. Preparation of phosphatides from egg yolk. 8. Estimation of proteins in liver/mouse by Lowry’s/Bradford’s method. 9. Estimation of amino acids by Sorenson’s method. 10. Determination of blood glucose and serum cholesterol in clinical samples.
  8. 8. M.Sc Theory Syllabus II SemesterPAPER- 201: CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY 52 Hrs 1. Cell Membrane: 08 Hrs • Lipids, proteins, channels , pumps, transporters, membrane receptors, transport across cell membrane, transport across epithelial cells. 2. Cell water and electrolyte homeostasis: 06 Hrs • Volume and distribution, normal balance of water electrolytes. Cell volume regulations. 3. Channel and control of membrane potential: 08 Hrs • Measuring membrane potential, separation of charge, generation of resting potential, factors controlling ion movements, Nerst equilibrium potential, and Goldman-Hodgkin equation. Changes in membrane potentials. Passive properties of cell. 4. Action potential, role of voltage: 08 Hrs • Sensitive sodium channels, voltage clamping, threshold, refractory periods. Action of drugs and toxins on ion channels. Extra cellular recordings- compound action potential, cardiac action potential. 5. Synapsis: 06 Hrs • Presynaptic process, amino acids, catechol amines, post synaptic process, integrated synaptic currents, presynaptic inhibition. 6. Muscle and other contractile systems: 06 Hrs • Force generation and shortening. Control of intracellular calcium, mechanical output. 7. Plant cell, Photosynthesis and bioluminescence. 04 Hrs 8. Cell in stress: 06 Hrs • Various stressors, Stress responses, modulation of metabolic pathways due to stress. Cell responses to promote cell survival. Disorders due to chronic stresses.
  9. 9. PAPER-202 (GENETICS OF DEVELOPMENT)1. Gametogenesis & Differentiation: 02 Hrs • Oogenesis & Spermatogenesis, Hormonal regulations.2. Fertilization & Development: 06 Hrs • Molecular events of fertilization, activation of sperm motility, gamete fusion, role of calcium during egg activation, Genetics of multicellularity cleavage, Molecular events.3. Pattern Formation: 06 Hrs • Cell fate & Pattern formation, mutational & molecular analysis of basic body plan, communication between & among cells, genetics of axis specification in Drosophila, C.elegans, Amphibians & Mammals.4. Metamorphosis: 08 Hrs • Molecular mechanisms of Ecdysone action Signaling during larval organ differentiation. Hormone response during metamorphosis. Genetics of eversion & differentiation of imaginal disc cells- Regeneration. Cellular Processes. Formation of blastomeres. Neuronal innervation. Transdifferentiation.5. Cellular aging & death: 06 Hrs • Concepts of aging, Cellular change during aging, theories, Caspases, Cellular death receptors, Signaling cell survival, Apoptotic genes.6. Control of Gene expression in Bacteriophages & Eukaryotic viruses: 06 Hrs • Regulation of Gene expression by lytic bacteriophages & during phage λ infection, Gene regulation by SV40 infection.7. Control of Gene expression in Bacteria: 08 Hrs • Regulation of lactose utilization & control of tryptophan biosynthesis, Translational control.
  10. 10. PAPER- 203 (GENES AND GENOMES)1. Conceptual definition of a Gene: 06 Hrs • Clinical features, DNA & RNA as a genetic material. Biochemistry of a gene. Experimental set up of Griffiths, Avery et al, Harshey & Chase. Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic version.2. Gene Expression: 16 Hrs • Transcription, types of RNA prokaryotic & eukaryotic transcriptional process, Post transcriptional modifications. • Translation: Genetic code, Universality & Evolution of code. Translational enzymes. Translational machinery Ribosomes & its biogenesis. • Recombination mechanisms: Enzymes involved in recombination. Various modes & models.3. Viral Genomes: 04 Hrs • Viral infecting cycle, viral genome analysis, complementation. Gene mapping strategies in Bacteriophages. Recombination frequency mapping. Deletion mapping. Mapping without recombination.4. Bacterial genomes & Plasmidology: 06 Hrs • Molecular overview of bacterial transformation, conjugation & transduction. Mapping of bacterial genomes, Plasmids-Replication, Control & Transfer, Properties of Transposons.5. Recombination in Fungi: 06 Hrs • Tetrad analysis in Fungi, Neurospora & Aspergillus genomes & mapping of their genomes.6. Mapping of Algal Genome: 04 Hrs • Fine structure of algal genome, gene expression & control in Acetabularia. Plastid inheritance.7. Mapping of Eukaryotic Chromosomes: 04 Hrs • Classical studies on linkage & recombination. Mapping in Drosophila in sexual crosses. Cytological mapping. Linkage groups & Chromosomes.8. Proteomics: 06 Hrs • Tools & Application of Proteomics.
  11. 11. PAPER- 204 (POPULATION & EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS)1. Quantitative genotype & phenotype distribution: 08 Hrs • Determining norms of reactions, Heritability of traits & quantification.2. Population Genetics I: 12 Hrs • General principles & Mendelian populations: Allele & genetic variation in populations; Mendelian populations. Source of variations: Hardy-Weinberg principles & its applications. Population Genetics II: • Evolutionary agents: Fitness, Selection, Migration, Random drift in small population, polymorphism, Neutral theory. Population Genetics III: • Speciation & Molecular evolution, Speciation concept, modes of speciation, Pattern of changes in nucleotide & amino acid sequences, Molecular clock & evolution.3. Molecular Phylogenetics: 10 Hrs • Construction of phylogenetic tree, phylogenetic inferences, Distance method, Parsimony, maximum – likelihood method, Molecular phylogenetics of Homo sapiens & related issues, Hominid evolution.4. Human Population Genetics Evolution: 12 Hrs • Basic attributes & polymorphic structure in human protein coding genes. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism. Y-Chromosome polymorphism & single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), Human society.5. Genetics in Forensic Science: 10 Hrs • Protein comparisons, DNA comparisons, RFLPs, genetic finger-printing, VNTRs, Genetic profiles. Unique correlation, Sociobiology, Alltruism, Kin selection & inclusive fitness, Haplodiploidy, Imprinting phenomena.
  12. 12. II semester – Practical Syllabus PAPER- 205 (CELL PHYSIOLOGY & DEVELOPMENTAL GENETICS)1. Paper chromatography of amino acids.2. Thin layer chromatography of eye pigments (Drosophila).3. Estimation of RNA & DNA by Orcinol & Diphenyl amine method (Burton’s method).4. Study of the early development of Frog/ chick.5. Mounting of chick embryos during development.6. Morphogenetic movements in chick in vivo experiment.7. Study of imaginal discs in Drosophila.8. Studies of absorption spectra of nucleic acids & proteins.9. Frog: induction, spawning & early embryogenesis. PAPER- 206 (GENOMICS & POPULATION GENETICS)1. Isolation of cellular DNA by rapid method.2. Estimation of cellular DNA by standard method (Burtons).3. Estimation of concentration of DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis.4. Analysis of genomic DNA by Agarose gel electrophoresis.5. Study of Isozymes by (PAGE) electrophoresis.6. Quantitative characters in Drosophila : Sternoplurals & Acrostichals, Mean & standard error.7. Calculation of change in gene frequencies.8. Application of Hardy-Weinberg principles & Genetic problems.9. Experiments on Genetic Drift: • Population Size • Sampling error10. Studies on Homolog Analogy.
  13. 13. M.Sc Theory syllabus III semester PAPER- 301 (HUMAN CYTOGENETICS)1. Organization of Human Genome: 08 Hrs • General features of Human chromosome complement, Reiterated sequences occupy one-third of the total genome, Most structurl genes occur in small families of closely knit sequences, Most protein genes are complex internal organization, Pseudogenes are common, The structure & Variations of functional genes.2. Human Genome Mapping: Historical account. 10 Hrs • Physical mapping by means of somatic cell hybrids at chromosomal & subchromosomal level, Gene mapping by in-situ-hybridization, Isolation of indivitual chromosomes, the top-to-down approach to molecular mapping, Restriction maps & contig construction- the bottom up (reverse genetics) approach. • Linkage analysis & Genetic maps, RFLP & linkage analysis to assess dominance & recessive disease, Linkage analysis to set up with genetic heterogeneity, Linkage equilibrium & disequilibrium.3. Cellular & Molecular Cytogenetic technologies: 08 Hrs • Cell lines, Cell & Tissue culture practices, Harvesting of cells for chromosomal analysis, conventional & specialized staining protocols, FISH & spectral karyotyping, imaging in cytogenetic practices, Chromosome jumping & walking, Evolving molecular cytogenetic technologies, Chromosome instability & fragile sites.4. Clinical Cytogenetics: 08 Hrs • Heritable chromosomal abnormalities, incidence of chromosome aberrations, Disorders of autosomes, Disorders of sex chromosomes, Disorders of sexual differentiation, chromosome breakage syndromes.5. Prenatal Diagnosis: 08 Hrs • Amniocentesis, Chorionic villi biopsy, Cytogenetics of prenatal chromosomal abnormalities with clinical citations, Genetic counseling, Transplantation changes in bone marrow, Peripheral stem cells & Umbilical cord cells with chromosomal features.6. Chromosomal Diagnostics in Haematopoietic disorders: 10 Hrs • Myeloid disorders,AML,CML & Lymphoid leukemia, Lymphoblastic lymphoma & their chromosomal changes, chromosome changes in benign & malignant tumors, Cytogenetics of Breast cancer.
  14. 14. PAPER- 302 (RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY)1. Making of Recombinant DNA: 04 Hrs • Cloning of a specific gene using a cloned DNA.2. Applications: 10 Hrs • In-vitro mutagenesis, RFLP mapping, Reverse Genetics, Expressing eukaryotic gene in bacteria, Recombinant DNA technology in eukaryotes, Transgenic eukaryotes & Genetic engineering in baker’s yeast, Genetic engineering in plants & animals, Gene therapy, Human Gene therapy.3. Genomics: 08 Hrs • Genome projects, Structural Genomics, Assigning loci to specific chromosomes, High resolution chromosome maps, Physical mapping of genomes, Genome sequencing.4. Functional Genomics: 06 Hrs • Gene disruption knockouts, the study of developmental regulation by using DNA chips, benefits of genome sequencing.5. Comparative Genomics: 08 Hrs • Orthologous, paralogous & Gene displacement, Comparative genomes of prokaryotes, Organelles eukaryotes. Phylogenetic finger printing.6. Protein structural Genomics: 08 Hrs • Classification, High throughput determination of protein structure, Using protein structure to predict function, other routes to functional the annotation Rosetta Coevolution.7. Global Expression Profiling: 08 Hrs • Traditional approaches to expression profiling, the proteosome application of genome analysis & Genomics, Developmental Genomics.
  15. 15. PAPER- 303 (IMMUNOGENETICS & HAEMATOLOGY) PART-A ( IMMUNOGENETICS)1. B cell & Antibody response: 12 Hrs • Antibody proteins & their genes, cells & Organs of immune systems, Characteristics of antigens, Molecular characteristics of immunoglobulins, construction & Expression of light & heavy chain genes, Overview of the genetic basis of antibody diversity, Monoclonal antibodies.2. The T cell response: 06 Hrs • Cell mediated immunity, Molecular architechture of TCR, BCR & MHC, Antigen processing & presentation.3. Immunodisorders & Diseases: 10 Hrs • Autoimmunity- Organ & non organ specificity (systemic), Tolerance & Autoimmunity, Autoimmune diseases, Deficiency-disorders of the immune systems. PART-B (HAEMATOLOGY)1. Blood & blood group antigens: 10 Hrs • General Characteristics of ABO, Lewis, Rh, Mn & Xg antigens, Leucocyte & platelet & isoantigens, Blood transfusion, Erythroblastosis fetalis.2. Molecular structure of Haemoglobins: 06 Hrs • Genetic Significance of Hemoglobin, Structural variation, Chemical & Biochemical characterictics of hemoglobin biosynthesis.3. Genetic basis of Globin gene variation: 08 Hrs • Gene duplication & Evolution of globin genes, Genetic disorders of hemoglobin, Hemoglobinopathies, Tropical vector borne disease.
  16. 16. PAPER-304 (BIOINFORMATICS & BIOSTATISTICS) PART- A (Bioinformatics)1. Introduction to Bioinformatics: 02 Hrs • Application, Gene, Genome & Genomics, Proteomics.2. Sequence Analysis: 06 Hrs • Nucleotide & proteomic sequence analysis, Homology sequence analysis- BLAST, FASTA, Pairwise sequence analysis, Multiple sequences- CLUSTALW, Phylogenetic analysis.3. Biological databases: 05 Hrs • Significance, Primary & Secondary Databases, Nucleotide & Proteome databases, Database querying softwares.4. Introduction to Web tools & softwares: 07 Hrs • 3D structures & significance, Introduction to Human Genome Project, Pharmacogenetics & Genomics, Drug design & Microarrays.5. Computer application: Computer organization: 08 Hrs • Computer hardware & Computer software. Operating systems.Spread sheet & its applications. Databases. Computer networks. Internet, World wide web & applications. Information technology, Multimedia. Computer applications in genomics. PART- B (Biostatistics)1. Introduction: 06 Hrs • Data reduction, Frequency distribution, Histogram & frequency curve. Stem & leaf & box plot techniques. Time series graph. Measures of central tendency & dispersion. Skewness & kurtosis.2. Probability: 05 Hrs • Conditional probability. Addition & multiplication rules of probability. Probability distributions. Binomial, Poisson & normal distributions. Applications in genetics.3. Bivariate Data: 07 Hrs • Scatter plot, Product moment coefficient of correlation, rank correlation. Simple linear regression. Fitting of equation of the type y=y=αeβᵡ & y=αᵡ β to the given data. Random sampling- simple random & stratified random sampling.4. Tests of significance: 09 Hrs • Tests for single population mean ,two means. Variance, proportions, Chi-square tests. Analysis of variance of one-way and two-way classified data
  17. 17. III- SEMESTER – PRACTICAL SYLLABUS PAPER-305: CLINICAL CYTOGENETICS AND RDT1. Study of normal human karyotype (a) Lymphocyte culture, harvesting, conventional staining preparation of human normal karyotype. (b) Chromosome staining and banding techniques. (c) Chromosomal preparations using solid tumor/leukemia samples.2. Differential staining of human blood3. PCR amplification, agarose gel electrophoresis.4. AFLP/RFLP/RAPD5. Blotting techniques: a) Southern b) Western c) Dot6. Isolation of Bacteriophage from sewage water. PAPER-306 IMUNOGENETICS AND BIOINFORMATICS 1. PAGE of Haemoglobin. Characterization and electrophoresis of serum proteins. 2. Single radial immunodiffusion and determination of immunoglobulin concentration 3. Double radial diffusion by Ouchterlony method 4. Enzyme – linked immunosorbent assay 5. Microscopy and image analysis (a) Microphotography and digital microscopy (b) Image analysis. 6. Probability and test of significance 7. Computer applications 8. Bioinformatics
  18. 18. M.Sc THEORY SYLLABUS IV SEMESTER PAPER – 401 : MEDICAL GENETICS1. Genetic factor in common diseases: 06 Hrs • Genetic susceptibility to common diseases. Types and mechanisms of susceptibility. Genetic approaches to common diseases. Diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Coronary artery diseases, Schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, congenital abnormalities.2. Single gene disorders: 05 Hrs • Huntington’s disorder, Myotomic dystrophy,Neurofibromatosis, Cystic fibrosis, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy(DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy, Hemophilia A and B. Trinucleotide Repeat expansion mutations and their remediation.3. Genetics of disorders with complex inheritance: 05 hrs • Genetic analysis of quantitative traits, Genetic mapping of complex traits with examples ,Diseases with complex patterns and their examples.4. Biochemical genetics: 10 Hrs • Inborn errors of metabolism, molecular and biochemical pathways and their basis of Phenylketonuria, Alkaptonuria, Maple syrup urine disease, Mucopolysaccharide and Galactosemia, Albinism.5. Pharmacogenetics: 10 Hrs • Definition, drug metabolism, Genetic variation revealed solely by the effect of drugs,Hereditary disorders with altered drug response, Pharmacogenomics, Ecogenetics, Molecular detection of diseases after human genome project, Drug discovery, Animal models in pharmacogenomics.6. Molecular pathology: 10 Hrs • Classes of gene mutations in humans, Human mitochondrial diseases,loss of function and gain of functional mutations in humans, Agammaglobinemia,Diseases of collagens.7. Genetics and Society: 06 Hrs • Population screening for genetic diseases, ethical issues involved in medical genetics, subsequent to human genome project and its practical implications, Eugenic and dysgenic effects on gene frequencies.
  19. 19. PAPER- 402 (MUTATION & CANCER BIOLOGY)1. Radiation Components: 04 Hrs • Ionizing & non ionizing radiations, Radiation dosimetry, Effect of radiation on cells & chromosomes, Radiation implications on human population.2. Mechanism of Gene Mutation: 10 Hrs • Molecular basis of gene mutations, Spontaneous mutation, Relation between mutagens & carcinogens, Clastrogens, biological repair mechanism, Repair defects & Human diseases.3. DNA repair mechanisms & their role in mutagenesis: 08 Hrs • DNA replication mechanism, direct mutagenesis, Chemical alterations of nucleotide structure, Site directed mutagenesis, Repair mechanisms, Mismatch repair, SOS repair,Photoreactivation.4. Cancer as a Genetic disease: 10 Hrs • An overview of cancer & control of cell number, cell proliferation mechinery, Machinery for Programmed cell death, cancer, the genetics of aberrant cell control, Cancer research in genomic analysis.5. Oncogene in Human Cancer & their Genetic relevance: 10 Hrs • Tumour suppressor genes, Role of Protooncogenes during development , Metastasis, Genetic basis of Carcinogenesis, Genetics of Leukemia, Lymphomas, Myelomas, myeloproliferative disease.6. Diagnostics & therapy: 10 Hrs • Methods of diagnosis, Radiation therapy, Chemotherapy, Use of immunotoxins in cancer therapy.
  20. 20. PAPER-403 (MOLECULAR MEDICINE)1. Gene Therapy: 14 Hrs • Gene therapy towards molecular genetic disease through therapeutic approaches, principles & different strategies, The technology of classical Gene therapy, Therapeutics based on targated inhibition of gene expression & mutation corrections in- vivo, Gene therapy for inherited diseases- SCID, DMD, Cystic fibrosis, Hungtington’s disease, Myotomic dystrophy, Neoplastic & infectious diseases, The ethical issues related to Human Gene therapy practices. Vaccines.2. Biology & Genetics of Stem Cells: 12 Hrs • Stem cells molecular circuitry of pluripotency & nuclear reprogramming, Stem cells & niches: mechanism that promotes stem cell maintenance through life, mechanism of asymmetric cell divisions, Cellular programming of plant gene imprinting, Germ cells are for ever, Chromatin remodeling & epigenetic features, Cancer stem cells an experience with Leukemia, Development of neuronal stem cells, Prospectus for stem cell based therapy & tissue engineering, Ethical & Social considerations of stem cell research.3. The Genetics of RNA World: 12 Hrs • Catalytic diversity of RNAs, RNA silencing in plants, the functions of animal micro RNAs, Cross talk between RNA metabolic pathways- an Rnomics approach, Understanding altrnative splicing: Towards a cellular code, Gene discovery by ribozyme & siRNA libraries.4. Epigenetics a landscape takes center stage: 14 Hrs • Genetics & epigenetic regulators of pluripotency, Non coding RNA & Gene silencing, The mammalian epigenome, Genome regulation by polycomb & Trithorax proteins, Prions of Yeast as epigenetic phenomena, Mammalian genomic imprinting elicited through Human examples.
  21. 21. PAPER- 404 (APPLIED BIOTECHNOLOGY)1. Cell & tissue culturing practices: 10 Hrs • Advantages & Disadvantages in animal & plant tissues, Culture media, Preparation of tissue cultures for short term & long term utilizations, Large scale production, Cryopreservations, Plant tissue culture practices: Inoculation, Propagation & Explantation practices in the case of direct & indirect regeneration, Callus, Meristem culture, Isolation & Propagation of gynogenic & androgenic haploids & diploids their significance in plant breeding.2. Fermentation Technology: 06 Hrs • Fermenters, Bioreactors, Selection of microbes, Media & antibodies.3. Protolast Technology: 10 Hrs • Isolation, maintenance, Viability tests for protoplast generation, Regeneration from protoplasts, Methodology adopted in protoplast fusion & their application in plant research, biofertilizers: Production & Beneficial roles of Rhizobium, Inoculants of Azatobacter, Azospirullum, Bluegreen Algae, Mycorhizal fungi & Azolla, Transgenic plants: Genetic manipulation of plasmids, Molecular mechanism & Differentiation of T4- DNA, Production & improvements of transgenic plants in crop improvement, Gene transfer in Dicots & Monocots, Altering crops at cellular level, Seed & Cell Bank, Patent Protection, Plant breeders Right.4. Artificial Animal Breeding: 10 Hrs • Cloning Technology, In-vitro fertilization, Cell manipulation Practices, superovulation experiments, Transgenic animals, Expression of foreign genes in transgenic model organisms, Use of transgenics In animal & Agricultural practices, Methods of Recombinants into Chicken & other embryo of animal systems, Transgenic Goat & Sheep.5. Immunotoxicology: 10 Hrs • Serological tests, Hybridoma technology, Immunotoxins, Nucleic acid probes, Animal vaccines, Pollution & Environmental pollutants, Water & Sewage treatment.6. Role of Biosensors, Biochips, Bioremediation & Biodegredation. 06 Hrs
  22. 22. IV semester- PRACTICAL SYLLABUS PAPER- 405 (MEDICAL GENETICS & CANCER BIOLOGY)1. Differential Gene expression: Demonstration of Ecdysone/ Heat induced gene expression in Polytene Chromosome of Drosophila.2. Induction of chromosomal abnormalities by treating with Cyclophosphamide- Mitotic & Meiotic Chromosomes of Rat.3. Genetic basis of insecticide resistance • Susceptibility studies by using different insecticides in Culicine mosquitoes. • Genetic Basis of insecticide resistance by using adulticide.4. Pedigree analysis.5. DNA isolation from Blood/ Liver & electrophoresis.6. Molecular Diagnosis of Biochemical disorders (Phenylketonuria, Alkaptonuria, Survey of mucopolysaccharide disorders).7. Studies on Serum proteins by electrophoresis. PAPER- 406 (MOLECULAR MEDICINE & BIOTECHNOLOGY)1. Analysis of gene expression in carbon tetra chloride treated Rat livers.2. Restriction digestion & mapping.3. Plant tissue culture- Protoplast extraction.4. Observation of Gren Fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged reporter expression in embryos, imaginal discs & others.5. Reporter lac gene expression in imaginal discs.6. Bacterial culture & Gram’s staining.7. Extraction of DNA from bacterial cells.8. Replica plating technique.9. Methyl green-pyronin staining to localize nucleic acids in appropriate tissue.10. Toluidine blue staining for RNA & DNA.