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FACILITATING CURATION OF OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES
THROUGH THE USE OF AN APPLICATION-LINKED REPOSITORY
I. Otero1
, V. Goyanes2
, A. Sánchez3
, D. Docampo1
1. University of Vigo, AtlanTTic Research Center for Telecommunication Technologies
2. Teltek Video Research, S.L.
3. University of Vigo, Department of Chemical Engineering
Abstract
Open educational resources (OER) refer to any kind of learning and research materials that reside in
the public domain or have been released under a broad open license. The Paris OER Declaration of
2012 provided a set of recommendations to foster the sustainable development of quality learning
resources through the adoption of appropriate standards to encourage open licensing of educational
materials produced with public funds. Since January 2017 the authors are involved in a Horizon 2020
project, Up to University (Up2U), aimed at developing an innovative ecosystem to facilitate open
design and use of digital content adapted for high school students preparing for University. Following
the guidelines and recommendations from various organizations (UNESCO and the EU among
others), we need to adopt clear licensing as well as sound copyright policies. Furthermore, rights
including permissions, access control and (when needed) anonymity must be carefully designed and
thoroughly upheld. Besides meeting compliance with guidelines, resolutions, and recommendations
from international agencies, adopting effective curation policies becomes paramount to ensuring the
sustainability of the project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to curation of open educational
resources, in which an application-linked repository plays a key role as the integrator of the other
components of an OER based e-learning service: Open Content Creation, Learning Management
System (LMS), and Data Analytics. Once this application-linked repository takes its place as the
central unit of the learning resources management, curation policies and procedures become
embedded in the operational workflow of the OER based e-learning service in a seamless way. We
believe that our approach will not only be useful for our project but also for any other OER initiative.
Keywords: curation, application-linked repository, OER, open educational resources, open access
1 INTRODUCTION
The Paris OER Declaration, adopted during a UNESCO meeting in 2012, constituted a major
step in the progressive development of policies supporting and fostering the use of OER. The
Declaration marked “a historic moment in the growing movement for Open Educational Resources and
calls on governments worldwide to openly license publicly funded educational materials for public use”
[1]. UNESCO member States were prompted to foster awareness and use of OER, promote the
understanding and use of open licensing frameworks and facilitate finding, retrieving and sharing of
OER; in short, the Paris Declaration invited member States to encourage the open licensing of
educational materials produced with public funds.
The term OER “was meant to emphasize knowledge construction as an ongoing process that
required editable, digital materials more in keeping with the dynamics of online learning and teaching”
[2]; it now refers to any kind of educational resources that are openly available for use by educators
and students, without an accompanying need to pay royalties or licence fees. In a nutshell, an OER is
“simply an educational resource that incorporates a license that facilitates reuse, and potentially
adaptation, without first requesting permission from the copyright holder” [3]. Therefore, “every person
in the world enjoys free (no cost) access to the OER and free (no cost) permission to engage in the 4R
activities when using the OER: revise—adapt and improve the OER so it better meets your needs,
remix—combine or “mash up” the OER with other OER to produce new materials, reuse—use the
original or your new version of the OER in a wide range of contexts, and redistribute—make copies
and share the original OER or your new version with others”.
The use of OER in educational courses, through resource-based learning means, is
proportional to the ease of use of digitized resources, multimedia objects in particular, via the Internet.
Resource-based learning should not be thought of as an alternative to replace traditional education;
rather, by enabling the friendly use of digital technology to facilitate the learning process through the
use of different media, resource-based learning constitutes a complementary way of teacher-student
interaction which is bound to become a key component of any formal education program.
In January 2017, under the Horizon 2020 Call, a number of European institutions and firms
launched the Up2U [4] project, aimed at bridging the gap between schools and universities through the
integration of formal and informal learning scenarios using technology that students will most likely be
facing in universities. The main task of Up2U is to provide a learning ecosystem to facilitate open,
more effective and efficient co-design, co-creation, and use of digital content, tools, and services
adapted for personalized learning and teaching of high school students preparing for university. In
order to achieve this main goal, the project will make use of cloud-based infrastructure services with
proven track records in higher education and research, integrating and adapting them to the specific
learning context of secondary schools through the design of a scalable and flexible integrated
application toolbox [5].
We are fully aware of the need to adopt clear licensing as well as sound copyright policies
within the Up2U multi-institutional consortium. We acknowledge the relevant recommendations from
OECD, UNESCO and the European Union, starting from the applicable principles and standards
established by the OECD to facilitate access to research data generated with public funding. We also
acknowledge the General Data Protection and Regulation (GDPR) approved by the European Union
Parliament on 14 April 2016. The GDPR, designed to harmonize data privacy laws across Europe, will
have direct application in all member states in two-year time. Because we believe that trustworthiness
is a quality of utmost importance at present, we acknowledge as well the guidelines produced by the
European Framework for Audit and Certification of Digital Repositories.
In this paper, we present a novel approach to the curation policies and procedures required for
the smooth operation of the Up2U project, and, by extension, of any open educational resource based
e-learning ecosystem. Our approach is centered on the repository of learning objects and resources,
which is bound to play a key role as the integrator of the other components of the OER based e-
learning service: content creation, learning management system(s), and data analytics. Our
contribution consists of providing a feasible architecture through which curation policies and
procedures can be effectively embedded in the operational workflow of any OER based service. The
architecture is based upon the use of an application-linked repository.
The remainder of the paper proceeds as follows. In section 2 we give a short overview of
some of the key sources of recommendation and guidelines for managing ethical issues in OER that
should be dealt with as part of the curation procedures. In section 3 we describe our approach to
curation in OER. Finally, in section 4 we introduce the “application-linked repository” architecture to
fully integrate curation in the operational workflow of the OER. Our conclusions follow.
2 SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS FROM INTERNATIONAL
ORGANIZATIONS ON ETHICAL ISSUES
Ethical issues affect how data is stored and how long it is kept. Managing ethical concerns include
provisions for acknowledging intellectual property rights, anonymization for data analytics, and formal
consent agreements, particularly when some of the users are very young. We summarize below some
principles and guidelines of application to the management of ethical issues in OER services:
● OECD Principles and Guidelines for Access to Research Data from Public Funding [6].
Encourage open access in the broadest possible form, ensuring privacy and confidentiality, respecting
the legal rights and legitimate interests of all stakeholders.
Adopt data access arrangements which describe good practices for methods, techniques, and
instruments employed in the collection, dissemination and accessible archiving of data.
Subject the performance of data access arrangements to periodic evaluation by user groups,
responsible institutions, and funding agencies.
● New General Data Protection and Regulation [7].
GDPR pertains solely to the protection of information that can be used to directly or indirectly identify
the person. Identification should be allowed for only as long as is necessary.
Consent must be clear and distinguishable from other matters. Any person has the right to obtain
confirmation as to whether or not personal data concerning them is being processed, where and for
what purpose.
No notifications/registrations of processing activities will be needed, just internal recordkeeping
requirements.
● European Framework for Audit and Certification of Digital Repositories [8].
A transnational open educational resources service should actively pursue the maximum level of
recognized trust. To that extent, we think that a great deal of attention should be paid to the guidelines
produced by the European Framework for Audit and Certification of Digital Repositories, as defined in
the memorandum of understanding signed in July 2010 between several working groups interested in
setting up appropriate standards to recognize trusted digital repositories [9]. The framework
establishes three certification levels:
Basic: self-assessment following the Data Seal of Approval [10] requirements.
Extended: externally reviewed self-audit against ISO 16363 [11] or DIN 31644 [12] requirements.
Formal: validation of the self-certification with a third-party audit based on ISO 16363 or DIN 31644
● Edinburgh: Digital Curation Centre [13].
Digital curation involves maintaining, preserving and adding value to digital data throughout its
lifecycle. Since OERs resources are going to be reused for educational purposes, part of the curation
is to prepare the data for sharing and preservation, including provisions for changing file formats if
needed. We summarize below some steps in the digital curation lifecycle, taken from the DCC
guidelines, which we consider relevant for our project.
Assign administrative, descriptive, structural and technical archival metadata to digital objects.
Transfer digital objects to a trusted digital repository.
Undertake actions to ensure the long-term access and preservation of digital objects.
Create new digital objects from the original, for example, by migration into a different form.
3 CURATION OF OER
An important part of the success of any OER endeavor is to safeguard the sustainability, beyond the
lifetime of the project, of all the learning resources that are going to be deployed. To that end, it is
necessary to incorporate basic curation tasks, targeting the appropriate content selection and
annotation, to enable the creation of the learning environment.
However, we understand OER curation in a much broader sense. In addition, to carry out the
recommendations outlined in section 2, concerning open licensing, copyright policies, access control,
and privacy rights, curation policies should facilitate the following experiences of the various
stakeholders of the teaching/learning community:
● For students/researchers: better access to an extensive pool of multimedia multilingual OER
that can enrich learning, especially video lectures, practical experiences, and tutorials.
● For content providers: better visibility of their content, in some cases presenting content that
has never been linked or findable before; metadata harvestable by other services; metadata
quality control; metadata analytics and visualization; tools for improvement of their metadata
feedback and updating.
● For professors: better access to teaching material, support for online courses and blended
learning, combining face-to-face learning with additional digital resources.
● For institutions: learning materials shared with other institutions, promotion of the use and
reuse of learning resources, increased exposure of the institution to the public and to potential
students within an environment based on a trusted repository.
● For other OER aggregators: availability of open source software and more OER metadata.
In this context, we see curation as an integral part of the normal workflow of data creation and
managing of open educational resources, much in the same way as what Miles [14] dubbed sheer
curation or curation at source, a “lightweight and virtually transparent” curation process based upon
the hypothesis that “good data and digital asset management at local levels is also good practice in
preparing for publication and/or preservation of data and other digital assets”. The success of this
approach to digital curation, where “curation activities are quietly integrated into the normal workflow of
those creating and managing data and other digital assets”, relies on “curators having close contact or
‘immersion’ in data creators’ working practices” [15].
The first step in the curation process is, therefore, to ensure the quality of the metadata since it will
help primary users to effectively make use of the data held in the repository, and secondary users to
understand and reuse such data. The most accurate providers of metadata are by and large the
content creators themselves; hence, the OER service architecture should enable content creators to
seamlessly add metadata to their learning objects. Besides, using the appropriate technology at the
recording point is of utmost importance.
Additionally, we believe that collecting information from secondary users (para-data), including the
context in which the material has been reused, along with feedback from both teachers and students,
can and should be effectively used to enhance the metadata of the learning objects, completing a
virtuous circle that would benefit the value and trustworthiness of the repository. There are then a
number of activities around the learning objects from an OER service that need to be properly
managed through a feasible operational workflow. Moreover, emerging Multimedia OER’s, like Up2U,
need to create, manage and integrate a great deal of multimedia content, resulting in a substantial
increase of metadata generation tasks. The use of Opencast Matterhorn, a flexible and customizable
video capture and distribution system built by a growing community of developers [16], ensures within
Up2U the extraction of metadata in an automated way through the video content itself and/or the
inclusion of appropriate QR coding for the teacher and the course. However, in order to streamline the
workflow of the multimedia content creation, we need to connect the multimedia recording (Opencast
in Up2U) with the repository and the particular LMS to which the multimedia object is going to be
added.
Hence, our ideal architecture should facilitate the task of the content creators by providing an
appropriate connection of all the elements of the OER service with the central repository. In section 4
we present our idea of an application-linked repository as the central element of this ideal architecture.
4 CURATION OF OER THROUGH AN APPLICATION-LINKED REPOSITORY
Curation in an OER service is made easier if all the learning objects are stored in a centralized
repository. The idea of an integrated content repository was first introduced in 2006, within the context
of information management, through MIKE2, an open source methodology that provides a framework
for information development and management. In MIKE2 the repository is “a federated hub of shared
assets from the Internet and content held internally by an organization” [17]. The idea of an integrated
repository has also been used in the context of application delivering to managed devices via HTTP
protocol [18].
Some of the benefits from a strong integration of content in a central repository have been extensively
reported in the literature. Centrally controlled and integrated systems, provided with powerful, flexible,
consistent searching and browsing, may come at a high cost –their content should be proactively
managed to enable reliable validation data processes [19] – but will ensure high usability [20]; [21]
reports that a centralized repository, integrating content from different sources, is a safe way to enable
the implementation of a robust content reusability strategy. An institutional implementation of a strongly
centralized and integrated information management system reported by Ashfari & Jones [22]
demonstrated the “advantages of producing integrated systems, especially with regard to lowering
adoption barriers through easing academics' deposit workflows”.
Institutions concerned with generating, preserving, and disseminating open educational resources
encourage their faculty to share the learning materials they create and use in the classroom by way of
specific policies and guidelines. Since institutions are very well aware of the benefits of a centralized
repository, faculty in charge of generating open educational resources for their LMS institutional
platform are usually asked to carry out an additional task: cataloguing the learning objects and
uploading them into a centralized institutional repository, thus facilitating their proper identification,
access and reuse by third parties. If the learning objects are to be placed in a central repository,
faculty will have to deal with the standard curation procedures associated with the creation of
educational resources as well as with the institutional recommendations for managing ethical issues
pointed out in section 2.
It is therefore clear that content creators would greatly benefit from receiving institutional support to
understand the underlying copyright guidelines behind open-access archiving, as well as to realize the
potential benefits derived from the use of well-crafted, user-friendly interfaces to facilitate the
integration of the content into the central repository. In spite of receiving that kind of support it is
apparent that the extra step of caring about the objects to be placed into the institutional repository
requires a very demanding additional effort from the teachers without providing any obvious added
value to their daily duties. This is, we believe, the reason behind the lack of success of many such
institutional repositories, including integrated content repositories, since only a few faculty will, by and
large, take the necessary extra step to properly catalog and upload the material to the central
repository, no matter the willingness to share.
Being the repository in a position to integrate all the learning objects used in the system is, therefore, a
necessary but not a sufficient condition for the solution to the curation at source problem we have
outlined above. Within Up2U we understand that a new architecture for the OER service, in which the
central repository can effectively become the curation hub, is the best path to success.
4.1 The application-linked repository
To make the central repository play the role of a central hub for curation, we propose to link it with the
applications by means of suitable plugins to streamline curation at source: those plugins should enable
content creators (usually the faculty from an institution) to help in upgrading the repository without any
extra effort, as “Fig. 1” shows.
LMS with an Application-linked OER Repository
Figure 1. Application-Linked Repository workflow.
Within an architecture in which an application-linked repository takes a central place, content creators
will not need any extra effort to add objects to the repository; their daily experience within their
institutional online teaching platform will remain the same; as a matter of fact, they will think they are
just uploading the learning materials to their courses through the institutional LMS (Moodle, Sakai,
OpenEdX, etc ...) when in fact the materials are first being stored and catalogued in a repository,
external but linked to the LMS, and then seamlessly added to the teacher’s online platform.
This is the "Application-linked Repository" architecture that we propose for our project and for any
OER service. The success of this architecture is based on the curation at source approach discussed
in section 3. By connecting the repository to the LMS, we make sure that any modification in the
metadata of a learning object the teacher makes in the LMS (as simple as a title spelling correction, for
instance) will be automatically transferred to the repository. Since all the elements of the OER service
will be connected with the repository in a seamless way, simple and effective guidelines can be
designed to facilitate curation at source, including provisions for ethical issues that would be easily
conveyed to content creators.
The use of data analytics may also help institutions to manage their OER effectively. Analytics map
how visitors move through content, leading to the identification of the areas and resources which
attract the most interest from users [23]. By connecting all data analytics with the application-linked
repository, the additional data supplied by courses which make use of the open educational resources
will enhance, without any extra work, the quality and reusability of the repository; such data (para-
data) may be used to update and enhance the metadata of the open educational resources, thus
placing the repository in a better position for being identified and accessed. We refer here for instance
to course titles, course level of complexity, or the number of courses in which the OER has been
included. Moreover, the valuable information data analytics convey would seamlessly be passed on to
the content creators through the LMS.
The architecture we have in mind has already been tested, in a preliminary setting, at the University of
Vigo web Tv Portal, in which an open source video platform to manage large media repositories has
been in operation for more than twelve years. The platform [24] includes an integration module with
Opencast-MH, and has also been adopted by the pan-European GÉANT network for scientific
excellence, research, education, and innovation as the front end of its OER repository [25].
5 CONCLUSIONS
Emerging Multimedia OER services, like the one just being launched within the Up2U project, will have
to devise curation policies and procedures that facilitate content creators to effectively contribute to the
OER service repository. We have outlined the ethical issues and metadata requirements that will have
to be dealt with in the process of content creation. We have also pointed out the extra duties imposed
on the faculty by the operational workflow of standard institutional OER services.
To make the institutional repository play the role of a central hub for curation activities, we have
presented in this paper a novel architecture in which an application-linked repository integrates the
other components of an OER based e-learning service: Open Content Creation, LMS and Data
Analytics. The architecture has been thought off as a way to embed curation policies and procedures
in the OER service operational workflow in a seamless way.
A great deal of development effort will be needed throughout the three years span of the Up2U project
to make the architecture fully operational. However, given that any multimedia content placed on
PuMuKIT (a central element of the preliminary version of the architecture already in place in several
institutions, including the University of Vigo) can be automatically distributed to most used video
platforms (Youtube, ITunesU,...), and integrated into commonly used LMS (Moodle, OpenEdx,...), its
adoption within Up2U constitutes the first step towards realizing the potential of the application-linked
repository presented in this paper.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council
(ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant
agreement No 732049): project Up2U (Up to University - Bridging the gap between schools and
universities through informal education).
REFERENCES
[1] UNESCO, “2012 Paris OER Declaration,” 2012. [Online]. Available:
https://www.openeducationeuropa.eu/en/directory/2012-Paris-OER-Declaration.
[2] P. Ware and M. Warshauer, “The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics,” Qual. Res. Inf.
Commun. Technol., vol. 22, no. 4, p. 248, 2012.
[3] M. Thomas, “Butcher, Neil (2011) A basic guide to open educational resources Commonwealth
of learning (Vancouver) isbn 978-1-894975-41-4 133 pp CDN12 (free download)
http://www.col.org/resources/publications/Pages/detail.aspx?PID=357 Commonwealth of
learning (2011) G,” Br. J. Educ. Technol., vol. 43, no. 6, pp. E171--E172, 2012.
[4] H2020-EU.2.1.1. - INDUSTRIAL LEADERSHIP, “UP2U (2017a), Up to University - Bridging the
gap between schools and universities through informal education,” 2017. [Online]. Available:
http://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/206177_en.html. [Accessed: 10-Jan-2018].
[5] H.-E. 2. 1. 1.-I. LEADERSHIP, “UP2U (2017b), Project Overview,” 2017. [Online]. Available:
https://up2university.eu. [Accessed: 10-Jan-2018].
[6] Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, “OECD Principles and Guidelines
for Access to Research Data from Public Funding,” Data Sci. J., vol. 6, p. 23, 2007.
[7] The European Parliment and The Council of the European Union, GDPR. 2016.
[8] J. Dryden, “Measuring Trust: Standards for Trusted Digital Repositories,” J. Arch. Organ., vol.
9, no. 2, pp. 127–130, 2011.
[9] Key Perspective Ltd, “Data dimensions: disciplinary differences in research data sharing, reuse
and long term viability. A comparative review based on sixteen case studies,” Dcc Scarp Synth.
Rep., no. January, pp. 1–31, 2010.
[10] P. Trilsbeek, “Data Seal of Approval: Overview,” Data Seal Approv. Conf. Ann Arbor, 2013.
[11] International Organisation for Standards (ISO), “ISO 16363:2012 - Space data and information
transfer systems -- Audit and certification of trustworthy digital repositories,” 2012-02, 2017.
[Online]. Available: https://www.iso.org/standard/56510.html.
[12] F. Walcher et al., “[Standardized documentation in emergency departments with the core
dataset of the DIVI].,” Unfallchirurg, vol. 115, no. 5, pp. 457–63, 2012.
[13] M. Donnelly and S. Jones, “DCC Checklist for a Data Management Plan,” Digit. Curation Cent.,
vol. 3, no. March, p. 12, 2011.
[14] S. Higgins, “Draft DCC Curation Lifecycle Model,” Int. J. Digit. Curation, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 82–
87, 2007.
[15] M. Hedges, T. Blanke, S. Fabiane, G. Knight, and E. Liao, “Sheer curation of experiments:
Data, process, provenance,” J. Digit. Inf., vol. 13, no. 1, 2012.
[16] Opencast, “Opencast,” 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.opencast.org.
[17] S. Rindler, A., Hillar, R., McClowry, S., & Mueller, “Information Development Using MIKE2.0,”
Motion Publ. LCC, 2013.
[18] “ZENworks Configuration Management: Content Management.,” 2017. [Online]. Available:
https://www.novell.com/documentation/zenworks2017/zen_cm_deployment_bp/data/b18zqk2d.
html.
[19] E. M. Awad and H. M. Ghaziri, Knowledge Management. 2007.
[20] P. Morville and L. Rosenfeld, Information architecture for the world wide web, vol. 73. 2006.
[21] S. K. Shivakumar, Enterprise Content and Search Management for Building Digital Platforms.
2016.
[22] F. Afshari and R. Jones, “Developing an Integrated Institutional Repository at Imperial College
London,” Progr. Electron. Libr. Inf. Syst., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 338–352, 2007.
[23] E. Scime, “The Content Strategist as Digital Curator,” A List Apart, 2009. [Online]. Available:
http://www.curatingfaithformation.net/uploads/5/1/6/4/5164069/the_content_strategist_as_digita
l_curator.pdf.
[24] U. of Vigo, “PuMuKIT,” 2015. [Online]. Available: http://pumukit.org.
[25] EduOER, “eduOER The Open Educational Resource Hub & Portal Service of GÉANT
https://oer.geant.org/about-eduoer/,” 2016.

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Facilitating curation of open educational resources through the use of an application linked repository uvigo

  • 1. FACILITATING CURATION OF OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES THROUGH THE USE OF AN APPLICATION-LINKED REPOSITORY I. Otero1 , V. Goyanes2 , A. Sánchez3 , D. Docampo1 1. University of Vigo, AtlanTTic Research Center for Telecommunication Technologies 2. Teltek Video Research, S.L. 3. University of Vigo, Department of Chemical Engineering Abstract Open educational resources (OER) refer to any kind of learning and research materials that reside in the public domain or have been released under a broad open license. The Paris OER Declaration of 2012 provided a set of recommendations to foster the sustainable development of quality learning resources through the adoption of appropriate standards to encourage open licensing of educational materials produced with public funds. Since January 2017 the authors are involved in a Horizon 2020 project, Up to University (Up2U), aimed at developing an innovative ecosystem to facilitate open design and use of digital content adapted for high school students preparing for University. Following the guidelines and recommendations from various organizations (UNESCO and the EU among others), we need to adopt clear licensing as well as sound copyright policies. Furthermore, rights including permissions, access control and (when needed) anonymity must be carefully designed and thoroughly upheld. Besides meeting compliance with guidelines, resolutions, and recommendations from international agencies, adopting effective curation policies becomes paramount to ensuring the sustainability of the project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to curation of open educational resources, in which an application-linked repository plays a key role as the integrator of the other components of an OER based e-learning service: Open Content Creation, Learning Management System (LMS), and Data Analytics. Once this application-linked repository takes its place as the central unit of the learning resources management, curation policies and procedures become embedded in the operational workflow of the OER based e-learning service in a seamless way. We believe that our approach will not only be useful for our project but also for any other OER initiative. Keywords: curation, application-linked repository, OER, open educational resources, open access 1 INTRODUCTION The Paris OER Declaration, adopted during a UNESCO meeting in 2012, constituted a major step in the progressive development of policies supporting and fostering the use of OER. The Declaration marked “a historic moment in the growing movement for Open Educational Resources and calls on governments worldwide to openly license publicly funded educational materials for public use” [1]. UNESCO member States were prompted to foster awareness and use of OER, promote the understanding and use of open licensing frameworks and facilitate finding, retrieving and sharing of OER; in short, the Paris Declaration invited member States to encourage the open licensing of educational materials produced with public funds. The term OER “was meant to emphasize knowledge construction as an ongoing process that required editable, digital materials more in keeping with the dynamics of online learning and teaching” [2]; it now refers to any kind of educational resources that are openly available for use by educators and students, without an accompanying need to pay royalties or licence fees. In a nutshell, an OER is “simply an educational resource that incorporates a license that facilitates reuse, and potentially adaptation, without first requesting permission from the copyright holder” [3]. Therefore, “every person in the world enjoys free (no cost) access to the OER and free (no cost) permission to engage in the 4R activities when using the OER: revise—adapt and improve the OER so it better meets your needs, remix—combine or “mash up” the OER with other OER to produce new materials, reuse—use the original or your new version of the OER in a wide range of contexts, and redistribute—make copies and share the original OER or your new version with others”. The use of OER in educational courses, through resource-based learning means, is proportional to the ease of use of digitized resources, multimedia objects in particular, via the Internet. Resource-based learning should not be thought of as an alternative to replace traditional education; rather, by enabling the friendly use of digital technology to facilitate the learning process through the
  • 2. use of different media, resource-based learning constitutes a complementary way of teacher-student interaction which is bound to become a key component of any formal education program. In January 2017, under the Horizon 2020 Call, a number of European institutions and firms launched the Up2U [4] project, aimed at bridging the gap between schools and universities through the integration of formal and informal learning scenarios using technology that students will most likely be facing in universities. The main task of Up2U is to provide a learning ecosystem to facilitate open, more effective and efficient co-design, co-creation, and use of digital content, tools, and services adapted for personalized learning and teaching of high school students preparing for university. In order to achieve this main goal, the project will make use of cloud-based infrastructure services with proven track records in higher education and research, integrating and adapting them to the specific learning context of secondary schools through the design of a scalable and flexible integrated application toolbox [5]. We are fully aware of the need to adopt clear licensing as well as sound copyright policies within the Up2U multi-institutional consortium. We acknowledge the relevant recommendations from OECD, UNESCO and the European Union, starting from the applicable principles and standards established by the OECD to facilitate access to research data generated with public funding. We also acknowledge the General Data Protection and Regulation (GDPR) approved by the European Union Parliament on 14 April 2016. The GDPR, designed to harmonize data privacy laws across Europe, will have direct application in all member states in two-year time. Because we believe that trustworthiness is a quality of utmost importance at present, we acknowledge as well the guidelines produced by the European Framework for Audit and Certification of Digital Repositories. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the curation policies and procedures required for the smooth operation of the Up2U project, and, by extension, of any open educational resource based e-learning ecosystem. Our approach is centered on the repository of learning objects and resources, which is bound to play a key role as the integrator of the other components of the OER based e- learning service: content creation, learning management system(s), and data analytics. Our contribution consists of providing a feasible architecture through which curation policies and procedures can be effectively embedded in the operational workflow of any OER based service. The architecture is based upon the use of an application-linked repository. The remainder of the paper proceeds as follows. In section 2 we give a short overview of some of the key sources of recommendation and guidelines for managing ethical issues in OER that should be dealt with as part of the curation procedures. In section 3 we describe our approach to curation in OER. Finally, in section 4 we introduce the “application-linked repository” architecture to fully integrate curation in the operational workflow of the OER. Our conclusions follow. 2 SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS FROM INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS ON ETHICAL ISSUES Ethical issues affect how data is stored and how long it is kept. Managing ethical concerns include provisions for acknowledging intellectual property rights, anonymization for data analytics, and formal consent agreements, particularly when some of the users are very young. We summarize below some principles and guidelines of application to the management of ethical issues in OER services: ● OECD Principles and Guidelines for Access to Research Data from Public Funding [6]. Encourage open access in the broadest possible form, ensuring privacy and confidentiality, respecting the legal rights and legitimate interests of all stakeholders. Adopt data access arrangements which describe good practices for methods, techniques, and instruments employed in the collection, dissemination and accessible archiving of data. Subject the performance of data access arrangements to periodic evaluation by user groups, responsible institutions, and funding agencies. ● New General Data Protection and Regulation [7]. GDPR pertains solely to the protection of information that can be used to directly or indirectly identify the person. Identification should be allowed for only as long as is necessary.
  • 3. Consent must be clear and distinguishable from other matters. Any person has the right to obtain confirmation as to whether or not personal data concerning them is being processed, where and for what purpose. No notifications/registrations of processing activities will be needed, just internal recordkeeping requirements. ● European Framework for Audit and Certification of Digital Repositories [8]. A transnational open educational resources service should actively pursue the maximum level of recognized trust. To that extent, we think that a great deal of attention should be paid to the guidelines produced by the European Framework for Audit and Certification of Digital Repositories, as defined in the memorandum of understanding signed in July 2010 between several working groups interested in setting up appropriate standards to recognize trusted digital repositories [9]. The framework establishes three certification levels: Basic: self-assessment following the Data Seal of Approval [10] requirements. Extended: externally reviewed self-audit against ISO 16363 [11] or DIN 31644 [12] requirements. Formal: validation of the self-certification with a third-party audit based on ISO 16363 or DIN 31644 ● Edinburgh: Digital Curation Centre [13]. Digital curation involves maintaining, preserving and adding value to digital data throughout its lifecycle. Since OERs resources are going to be reused for educational purposes, part of the curation is to prepare the data for sharing and preservation, including provisions for changing file formats if needed. We summarize below some steps in the digital curation lifecycle, taken from the DCC guidelines, which we consider relevant for our project. Assign administrative, descriptive, structural and technical archival metadata to digital objects. Transfer digital objects to a trusted digital repository. Undertake actions to ensure the long-term access and preservation of digital objects. Create new digital objects from the original, for example, by migration into a different form. 3 CURATION OF OER An important part of the success of any OER endeavor is to safeguard the sustainability, beyond the lifetime of the project, of all the learning resources that are going to be deployed. To that end, it is necessary to incorporate basic curation tasks, targeting the appropriate content selection and annotation, to enable the creation of the learning environment. However, we understand OER curation in a much broader sense. In addition, to carry out the recommendations outlined in section 2, concerning open licensing, copyright policies, access control, and privacy rights, curation policies should facilitate the following experiences of the various stakeholders of the teaching/learning community: ● For students/researchers: better access to an extensive pool of multimedia multilingual OER that can enrich learning, especially video lectures, practical experiences, and tutorials. ● For content providers: better visibility of their content, in some cases presenting content that has never been linked or findable before; metadata harvestable by other services; metadata quality control; metadata analytics and visualization; tools for improvement of their metadata feedback and updating. ● For professors: better access to teaching material, support for online courses and blended learning, combining face-to-face learning with additional digital resources. ● For institutions: learning materials shared with other institutions, promotion of the use and reuse of learning resources, increased exposure of the institution to the public and to potential students within an environment based on a trusted repository. ● For other OER aggregators: availability of open source software and more OER metadata.
  • 4. In this context, we see curation as an integral part of the normal workflow of data creation and managing of open educational resources, much in the same way as what Miles [14] dubbed sheer curation or curation at source, a “lightweight and virtually transparent” curation process based upon the hypothesis that “good data and digital asset management at local levels is also good practice in preparing for publication and/or preservation of data and other digital assets”. The success of this approach to digital curation, where “curation activities are quietly integrated into the normal workflow of those creating and managing data and other digital assets”, relies on “curators having close contact or ‘immersion’ in data creators’ working practices” [15]. The first step in the curation process is, therefore, to ensure the quality of the metadata since it will help primary users to effectively make use of the data held in the repository, and secondary users to understand and reuse such data. The most accurate providers of metadata are by and large the content creators themselves; hence, the OER service architecture should enable content creators to seamlessly add metadata to their learning objects. Besides, using the appropriate technology at the recording point is of utmost importance. Additionally, we believe that collecting information from secondary users (para-data), including the context in which the material has been reused, along with feedback from both teachers and students, can and should be effectively used to enhance the metadata of the learning objects, completing a virtuous circle that would benefit the value and trustworthiness of the repository. There are then a number of activities around the learning objects from an OER service that need to be properly managed through a feasible operational workflow. Moreover, emerging Multimedia OER’s, like Up2U, need to create, manage and integrate a great deal of multimedia content, resulting in a substantial increase of metadata generation tasks. The use of Opencast Matterhorn, a flexible and customizable video capture and distribution system built by a growing community of developers [16], ensures within Up2U the extraction of metadata in an automated way through the video content itself and/or the inclusion of appropriate QR coding for the teacher and the course. However, in order to streamline the workflow of the multimedia content creation, we need to connect the multimedia recording (Opencast in Up2U) with the repository and the particular LMS to which the multimedia object is going to be added. Hence, our ideal architecture should facilitate the task of the content creators by providing an appropriate connection of all the elements of the OER service with the central repository. In section 4 we present our idea of an application-linked repository as the central element of this ideal architecture. 4 CURATION OF OER THROUGH AN APPLICATION-LINKED REPOSITORY Curation in an OER service is made easier if all the learning objects are stored in a centralized repository. The idea of an integrated content repository was first introduced in 2006, within the context of information management, through MIKE2, an open source methodology that provides a framework for information development and management. In MIKE2 the repository is “a federated hub of shared assets from the Internet and content held internally by an organization” [17]. The idea of an integrated repository has also been used in the context of application delivering to managed devices via HTTP protocol [18]. Some of the benefits from a strong integration of content in a central repository have been extensively reported in the literature. Centrally controlled and integrated systems, provided with powerful, flexible, consistent searching and browsing, may come at a high cost –their content should be proactively managed to enable reliable validation data processes [19] – but will ensure high usability [20]; [21] reports that a centralized repository, integrating content from different sources, is a safe way to enable the implementation of a robust content reusability strategy. An institutional implementation of a strongly centralized and integrated information management system reported by Ashfari & Jones [22] demonstrated the “advantages of producing integrated systems, especially with regard to lowering adoption barriers through easing academics' deposit workflows”. Institutions concerned with generating, preserving, and disseminating open educational resources encourage their faculty to share the learning materials they create and use in the classroom by way of specific policies and guidelines. Since institutions are very well aware of the benefits of a centralized repository, faculty in charge of generating open educational resources for their LMS institutional platform are usually asked to carry out an additional task: cataloguing the learning objects and uploading them into a centralized institutional repository, thus facilitating their proper identification, access and reuse by third parties. If the learning objects are to be placed in a central repository,
  • 5. faculty will have to deal with the standard curation procedures associated with the creation of educational resources as well as with the institutional recommendations for managing ethical issues pointed out in section 2. It is therefore clear that content creators would greatly benefit from receiving institutional support to understand the underlying copyright guidelines behind open-access archiving, as well as to realize the potential benefits derived from the use of well-crafted, user-friendly interfaces to facilitate the integration of the content into the central repository. In spite of receiving that kind of support it is apparent that the extra step of caring about the objects to be placed into the institutional repository requires a very demanding additional effort from the teachers without providing any obvious added value to their daily duties. This is, we believe, the reason behind the lack of success of many such institutional repositories, including integrated content repositories, since only a few faculty will, by and large, take the necessary extra step to properly catalog and upload the material to the central repository, no matter the willingness to share. Being the repository in a position to integrate all the learning objects used in the system is, therefore, a necessary but not a sufficient condition for the solution to the curation at source problem we have outlined above. Within Up2U we understand that a new architecture for the OER service, in which the central repository can effectively become the curation hub, is the best path to success. 4.1 The application-linked repository To make the central repository play the role of a central hub for curation, we propose to link it with the applications by means of suitable plugins to streamline curation at source: those plugins should enable content creators (usually the faculty from an institution) to help in upgrading the repository without any extra effort, as “Fig. 1” shows. LMS with an Application-linked OER Repository Figure 1. Application-Linked Repository workflow. Within an architecture in which an application-linked repository takes a central place, content creators will not need any extra effort to add objects to the repository; their daily experience within their institutional online teaching platform will remain the same; as a matter of fact, they will think they are just uploading the learning materials to their courses through the institutional LMS (Moodle, Sakai, OpenEdX, etc ...) when in fact the materials are first being stored and catalogued in a repository, external but linked to the LMS, and then seamlessly added to the teacher’s online platform.
  • 6. This is the "Application-linked Repository" architecture that we propose for our project and for any OER service. The success of this architecture is based on the curation at source approach discussed in section 3. By connecting the repository to the LMS, we make sure that any modification in the metadata of a learning object the teacher makes in the LMS (as simple as a title spelling correction, for instance) will be automatically transferred to the repository. Since all the elements of the OER service will be connected with the repository in a seamless way, simple and effective guidelines can be designed to facilitate curation at source, including provisions for ethical issues that would be easily conveyed to content creators. The use of data analytics may also help institutions to manage their OER effectively. Analytics map how visitors move through content, leading to the identification of the areas and resources which attract the most interest from users [23]. By connecting all data analytics with the application-linked repository, the additional data supplied by courses which make use of the open educational resources will enhance, without any extra work, the quality and reusability of the repository; such data (para- data) may be used to update and enhance the metadata of the open educational resources, thus placing the repository in a better position for being identified and accessed. We refer here for instance to course titles, course level of complexity, or the number of courses in which the OER has been included. Moreover, the valuable information data analytics convey would seamlessly be passed on to the content creators through the LMS. The architecture we have in mind has already been tested, in a preliminary setting, at the University of Vigo web Tv Portal, in which an open source video platform to manage large media repositories has been in operation for more than twelve years. The platform [24] includes an integration module with Opencast-MH, and has also been adopted by the pan-European GÉANT network for scientific excellence, research, education, and innovation as the front end of its OER repository [25]. 5 CONCLUSIONS Emerging Multimedia OER services, like the one just being launched within the Up2U project, will have to devise curation policies and procedures that facilitate content creators to effectively contribute to the OER service repository. We have outlined the ethical issues and metadata requirements that will have to be dealt with in the process of content creation. We have also pointed out the extra duties imposed on the faculty by the operational workflow of standard institutional OER services. To make the institutional repository play the role of a central hub for curation activities, we have presented in this paper a novel architecture in which an application-linked repository integrates the other components of an OER based e-learning service: Open Content Creation, LMS and Data Analytics. The architecture has been thought off as a way to embed curation policies and procedures in the OER service operational workflow in a seamless way. A great deal of development effort will be needed throughout the three years span of the Up2U project to make the architecture fully operational. However, given that any multimedia content placed on PuMuKIT (a central element of the preliminary version of the architecture already in place in several institutions, including the University of Vigo) can be automatically distributed to most used video platforms (Youtube, ITunesU,...), and integrated into commonly used LMS (Moodle, OpenEdx,...), its adoption within Up2U constitutes the first step towards realizing the potential of the application-linked repository presented in this paper. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No 732049): project Up2U (Up to University - Bridging the gap between schools and universities through informal education). REFERENCES [1] UNESCO, “2012 Paris OER Declaration,” 2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.openeducationeuropa.eu/en/directory/2012-Paris-OER-Declaration. [2] P. Ware and M. Warshauer, “The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics,” Qual. Res. Inf. Commun. Technol., vol. 22, no. 4, p. 248, 2012.
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