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Ecological and Environmental Impacts of Cyclones.pdf

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Ecological and Environmental Impacts of Cyclones.pdf

  1. 1. ECOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF CYCLONES
  2. 2. What are CYCLONES! In meteorology, a cyclone is a large air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure, counter clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere as viewed from above. Cyclones are characterized by inward-spiraling winds that rotate about a zone of low pressure.
  3. 3. Hurricanes Hurricanes Cyclones Cyclones
  4. 4. Formation of CYCLONES! • Cyclones form only over warm ocean waters near the equator. • When the warm, moist air rises upward over the ocean, it causes an area of lower air pressure below. • Air from surrounding areas with higher air pressure pushes in to the low pressure area. Then this new “cool” air becomes warm and moist and rises, too. And the cycle continues…
  5. 5. Impacts of CYCLONES! Major impact of cyclone includes heavy rainfall, strong wind, landslides, large storm surges at landfall, and tornadoes. The destruction from a cyclone depends mainly on its intensity, its size, and its location. Some of the disaster caused by cyclones are: ▪ Wind ▪ Floods ▪ Erosion ▪ Storm churn
  6. 6. WINDS The winds in the cyclones can travel with speed of more than 156mph which can rip trees from the ground and flatten buildings. This often results in loss of animal habitats, destroying vegetation, interrupting and changing ecosystems. Cyclonic winds also can damage infrastructure, such as power lines, communication towers, bridges and roads.
  7. 7. FLOODS Floods caused by cyclones can drown people and animal, and are often the greatest killer in cyclone. Streets can become swift moving rivers and the underpasses can become the most deadliest traps. Overflowing waters can damage buildings and can also damage the infrastructure in coastal areas.
  8. 8. EROSION In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes that removes soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transports it to another location where it is deposited. Removal of rock or soil as clastic sediment is referred to as physical or mechanical erosion which contrasts with chemical erosion, where soil or rock material is removed from an area by dissolution.
  9. 9. Causes of Cyclones Damage to coastal homes Redistribution of sand Rise in river level Overflow of seawater Collapse of Trees and Buildings Migration or Displacement of people Outbreak of infectious disease Lose of biodiversity
  10. 10. Categories of CYCLONES!
  11. 11. It is one of the deadliest natural disasters ever recorded. The storm formed over the Bay of Bengal in November 1970 and made landfall on the coast of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) before continuing on to West Bengal. At its peak, the cyclone generated winds of up to 115 mph devastating the coastal regions it encountered. It’s estimated that between 300,000 and 500,000 people were killed during the disaster, making it the deadliest tropical cyclone on record. The Bhola Cyclone 1970
  12. 12. The Bangladesh Cyclone 1991 Another deadly cyclone that formed over the Bay of Bengal was the 1991 Bangladesh cyclone. By the time it reached land in Bangladesh and eastern India, winds of up to 155 mph were recorded, making it one of the most powerful on record. The cyclone caused a deadly storm surge that was 20ft high. It swept over the coastline, claiming the lives of at least 138,866 people. In the fallout of the storm, various countries carried out one of the largest military relief efforts on record, Operation Sea Angel.
  13. 13. The Odisha Cyclone 1999 This storm was the most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded in the North Indian Ocean. It was also one of the most destructive in the region. At the peak of the storm, winds of up to 160 mph were recorded, as well as a record-low pressure. As well as hitting the state of Odisha in India, Thailand, Myanmar, and Bangladesh also all felt the impact. Nearly 10,000 people died, and it caused around $4.44 billion worth of damage.
  14. 14. Distribution of Cyclones in India
  15. 15. Safety Measures!! When your area is under cyclone warning get away from low-lying beaches or other low-lying areas close to the coast: • Leave early before your way to high ground or shelter gets flooded. • Do not delay and run the risk of being marooned. • If your house is securely built on high ground take shelter in the safe part of the house.
  16. 16. Conclusion ➢ A cyclone is a spinning storm caused by a low-pressure area in the atmosphere. ➢ The process of Cyclone formation and intensification is described as cyclogenesis. ➢ We cannot avoid natural disasters like cyclones, but being aware of the signs and following all the safety measures we can mitigate the loss of life and property.

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