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Higher education in facts and figures 2014

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Higher education in facts and figures - 2014.
Universities UK's popular statistics publication presenting information related to students at UK higher education institutions, and the income and expenditure of these institutions. The booklet gives a snapshot of universities’ research activity, student employability, and provides information on international students and staff.

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Higher education in facts and figures 2014

  1. 1. HIGHER EDUCATION IN FACTS AND FIGURES Higher education: a core strategic asset to the UK 2014
  2. 2. Highlights • Universities contributed £73 billion to the UK economy in 2011–12 (2.8% of GDP). • Higher education generated £10.7 billion of export earnings for the UK (2011–12). • Universities are major local employers. For every 100 jobs at universities an additional 117 are created in the wider economy. • Over 80% of new jobs created by 2020 will be in occupations with high concentrations of graduates. • Student satisfaction has continued to increase, reaching a new high of 86% in 2014. For further information: Tel +44 (0)20 7419 4111 Web www.universitiesuk.ac.uk Email info@universitiesuk.ac.uk www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/ highereducationinfocus
  3. 3. Contents Students and employability Students at higher education institutions in the UK by country of institution, 2012–13 5 Higher education participation rates, 2006–07 to 2012–13 6 Student satisfaction, 2005 to 2014 7 Trends in higher education student enrolments at UK higher education institutions, 2003–04 to 2012–13 8 Participation rate of young people from the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods (POLAR3 quintile 1), 1998–99 to 2011–12 9 Higher education qualifi cations awarded at UK higher education institutions, 2012–13 10 Destinations of leavers by level of qualifi cation, 2012–13 11 Unemployment rates in the UK by group, 1992 to 2013 12 Percentage of graduates within occupations, 2014 13 Funding Public expenditure on higher education institutions as a percentage of GDP, 2011 14 Income and size of UK higher education institutions, 2011–12 and 2012–13 15 Income of and expenditure by UK higher education institutions, 2012–13 16 Contents 3
  4. 4. Contents Research and innovation R&D performed in UK higher education institutions by sector of funding, 2012 17 Government-fi nanced GERD – UK total and as a proportion of GDP, 2007 to 2010 18 Full-time and part-time higher education students by level of study at UK higher education institutions, 2012–13 19 Students by subject area at UK higher education institutions, 2012–13 20 International students and staff Institutional income from non-EU-domiciled students, 2002–03 to 2012–13 and non-EU-domiciled student numbers 21 Higher education students by domicile and level of study at UK higher education institutions, 2012–13 22 New enrolments of non-EU students by level of study, 2008–09 to 2012–13 23 Domicile of non-UK students at UK higher education institutions, 2012–13 24 Academic staff by domicile at UK higher education institutions, 2012–13 25 Annexe Sources 26 Abbreviations 27 Contents 4
  5. 5. Students at higher education institutions in the UK by country of institution, 2012-13 • In 2012–13, there was a decline in most levels and modes of study in most UK countries. 1,000 500 0 150 0 Scotland England N. Ireland 150 100 50 0 Wales 100 50 150 100 50 0 UG full-time UG part-time PG full-time PG part-time Increase from 2011-12 Decrease from 2011-12 Marginal change from 2011-12 18 HEIs 4 HEIs 9 HEIs 130 HEIs (Thousands) Students and employability 5
  6. 6. Higher education participation rates, 2006–07 to 2012–13 • The decrease in participation (English-domiciled) is largely due to students choosing not to defer entry in 2011–12, resulting in reduced participation from 19-year-olds in 2012–13. 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 Participation rate (%) 2007-08 2006-07 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 HEIPR – English domiciled 17-30-year-old students Scottish HEIPR: Scottish domiciled 16-30-year-old students Higher Education Age Participation Index (Northern Ireland) students aged under 21 Students and employability 6
  7. 7. Student satisfaction, 2005 to 2014 • Student satisfaction has continued to increase, reaching a new high of 86% in 2014. 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 Student satisfaction (%) 2006 2005 2007 2008 2009 2010 2013 2012 2011 2014 Students and employability 7
  8. 8. Trends in higher education student enrolments at UK higher education institutions, 2003–04 to 2012–13 • Since 2003–04, full-time student numbers have increased and part-time student numbers have declined, for both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Percentage change 2003-04 2010-11 to to 2012-13 2012-13 4.7% -5.7% 21.4% 1.3% -28.0% -23.3% 12.3% -8.9% 34.5% -4.4% -6.7% -13.9% 6.4% -6.4% 2003-04 2010-11 2012-13 Undergraduate 1,722,684 1,912,580 1,803,840 Full-time Part-time Postgraduate 477,493 588,720 536,435 Full-time Part-time All students 2,200,177 2,501,300 2,340,275 Students and employability 8
  9. 9. Participation rate of young people from the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods (POLAR3 quintile 1), 1998–99 to 2011–12 • The participation rate of young students from disadvantaged neighbourhoods increased by six percentage points between 2004 and 2011, or 43%. 24% 22% 20% 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 1999-00 1998-99 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2006-07 2005-06 2004-05 2010-11 2009-10 2008-09 2007-08 2011-12 Students and employability 9
  10. 10. Higher education qualifi cations awarded at UK higher education institutions, 2012–13 • 787,905 students obtained a UK higher education degree in 2012–13. Undergraduate Postgraduate First degree Other UG qualification Foundation degree Other higher degree PGCE Other PG qualification Doctorate Mode of study Full-time 364,385 45,550 15,725 130,470 19,640 14,535 18,160 Part-time 39,385 51,330 9,515 40,665 1,410 33,135 4,000 Totals 403,770 96,880 25,240 171,135 21,050 47,670 22,160 Students and employability 10
  11. 11. Destinations of leavers by level of qualifi cation, 2012–13 • Six months after graduation, 94% of the graduates who are working, studying or unemployed are in employment or further study. Other undergraduate Working part time First degree Postgraduate Working full time Due to start a job in the next month Engaged in full-time further study, training or research Engaged in part-time further study, training or research Taking time out in order to travel Something else Unemployed and 0 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% looking for work Students and employability 11
  12. 12. Unemployment rates in the UK by group, 1992 to 2013 • Graduates, including recent graduates, are less likely to be unemployed than non graduates, even in a recession. 15 12 9 6 3 0 Non-graduates aged 21 to 30 Recent graduates Graduates (out of full-time education for more than 5 years) 2010 2005 2000 1995 1992 2013 Unemployment rates in % Students and employability 12
  13. 13. Percentage of graduates within occupations, 2014 • 20% of GDP growth in the UK from 1982 to 2005 was due to increased graduate skills. Occupations with a growing share of the UK workforce employ a high percentage of graduates. 49% 86% 56% 27% Skilled trades occupations Occupations with a growing share of the workforce Occupations with a declining share of the workforce Sales and customer services Process, plant and machine operatives 20% of GDP growth in the UK from 1982 to 2005 was due to increased graduate skills Administrative and secretarial Elementary occupations Managers, directors and senior o cials Professional occupations Associate professional and technical Caring, leisure and other services 32% 15% 22% 10% 13% Students and employability 13
  14. 14. Public expenditure on higher education institutions as a percentage of GDP, 2011 • The UK’s public spending on higher education is 0.88% of its GDP, which is lower than most other OECD countries. Finland spends 1.87%, Germany 1.12% and the United States 0.94%. 0.0%-0.49% 0.50%-0.74% 0.75%-0.99% 1.00%-1.24% 1.25%-1.49% 1.50% and above No data Funding 14
  15. 15. Income and size of UK higher education institutions, 2011–12 and 2012–13 • Half of all UK higher education institutions have between 5,000 and 20,000 students. One quarter have more than 20,000, another quarter have fewer than 5,000. Income More than £1bn £500-1000m £200-500m £100-200m £50-100m £20-50m £10-20m Less than £10m Number of students More than 200,000 50,000-200,000 30,000-50,000 25,000-30,000 20,000-25,000 15,000-20,000 10,000-15,000 5,000-10,000 1,000-5,000 Less than 1,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Total income 2012-2013 Total income 2011-2012 Number of students 2012-2013 Number of students 2011-2012 Funding 15
  16. 16. Income of and expenditure by UK higher education institutions, 2012–13 • In 2012–13, 24% of institutions’ income came from funding council grants, compared with 30% in the previous year. Total expenditure £27.9 billion Interest and other finance costs 1.4% Staff costs 55.2% Depreciation 5.8% Other operating expenses 37.6% Total income £29.1 billion Funding council grants 24.1% Full-time UK and EU HE fees 22.7% Part-time UK and EU HE fees 2.6% Endowment investment income 1% Other income 18.5% Research grants contracts 16.4% Non-EU domicile HE fees 12.1% Other fees and support grants* 2.6% * including non credit-bearing course fees Funding 16
  17. 17. RD performed in UK higher education institutions by sector of funding, 2012 • Under two-thirds of RD performed in higher education institutions is funded by public sources, with the rest funded by UK businesses, charities, and public and private overseas investors. £2,185m £1,955m £1,022m £1,068m £406m £292m £284m Higher education funding councils Research councils Overseas Private non-profit Government Business enterprise Higher education The work carried out by universities and research institutes produces substantial returns on public investment, which have been estimated at 20-50% Research and innovation 17
  18. 18. Government-fi nanced GERD – UK total and as a proportion of GDP, 2007 to 2010 • Government-fi nanced UK GERD* declined by nearly £0.5 billion (or 7%) in cash terms from 2009 to 2012. The percentage as a proportion of UK GDP is smaller than both the OECD and EU averages. Govt-financed GERD as a % of GDP 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2012 Germany United States France OECD EU28 Canada Japan United Kingdom Italy China 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 £7,729m £7,863m £8,420m £8,509m £8,338m £7,808m * Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and innovation 18 Research and Development
  19. 19. Full-time and part-time higher education students by level of study at UK higher education institutions, 2012–13 • Part-time students make up about a quarter of all undergraduate and postgraduate research students, and half of postgraduate taught students. UG PG research PG taught Total 1,803,840 109,125 427,310 2,340,275 658,130 1,682,145 418,165 29,445 216,790 79,680 210,520 1,385,675 Mode of study Full-time Part-time Research and innovation 19
  20. 20. Students by subject area at UK higher education institutions, 2012–13 • Education, business, medicine, architecture and engineering are the most popular postgraduate degrees. 300,000 200,000 100,000 0 Business Health allied subjects Social studies Biological sciences Education Arts and design Engineering Languages Physical sciences History Computing Law Postgraduate female Undergraduate male Combined subjects Medicine dentistry Architecture communication Mathematics Mass Agriculture Veterinary science Postgraduate male Undergraduate female Research and innovation 20
  21. 21. Institutional income from non-EU-domiciled students, 2002–03 to 2012–13 and non-EU-domiciled student numbers • Income to institutions from non-EU students continues to rise. This is part of the overall contribution of non-EU students to the UK economy, which amounted to £7 billion in 2011–12. Total non-EU-domiciled students Real terms income 3.5 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0 Real terms income in £billion Non-EU student numbers 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 3.0 International students and sta 21
  22. 22. Higher education students by domicile and level of study at UK higher education institutions, 2012–13 • 13% of undergraduate students and 37% of postgraduate students are non-UK. First degree Other UG PG research PG taught Total 1,528,480 275,360 109,130 427,310 2,340,280 16,070 121,845 31,860 130,875 73,050 125,295 1,915,015 299,970 1,324,555 252,885 6,405 273,605 63,970 31,180 13,980 Domicile UK EU Non-EU International students and sta 22
  23. 23. New enrolments of non-EU students by level of study, 2008–09 to 2012–13 • Between 2010 and 2012, non-EU postgraduate entrants declined by 2.8% and non-EU undergraduates increased by 0.9%. 40% of non-EU enrolments are undergraduates. 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 Postgraduates Undergraduates 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 International students and sta 23
  24. 24. Domicile of non-UK students at UK higher education institutions, 2012–13 • Around 44% of all non-UK students studying in the UK came from Asia. Of total non-UK students, 20% were from China and 5% from India. Student numbers from India fell by 7,500 and numbers from China increased by 5,100 in 2012-13, compared with the previous year. * European Economic Area (EEA), excluding UK Middle East 6.2% 26,380 (-265) Up to 1% 1-5% 5-10% Legend Region name Total non-UK domiciled students at UK HEIs in % Total students in 2012-13 (Dierence from 2011-12) 10-30% 30-40% 40-50% UK Australasia 0.6% 2,505 (+30) South America 1.0% 4,345 (+255) North America 6.3% 26,920 (-180) Asia 43.9% 186,545 (-1,980) EEA* 29.5% 125,290 (-7,260) Other Europe 4.5% 19,115 (+535) Africa 8.0% 34,160 (-1,095) International students and sta 24
  25. 25. Academic staff by domicile at UK higher education institutions, 2012–13 • In aggregate, there are diff erences in the age profi le and qualifi cations held by UK and non-UK academic staff . 74% of academic staff are UK-domiciled, 14% are from the EU and 11% from non-EU countries. Within each column, percentages for different parameters are given. UK staff EU staff Non-EU staff Aged 34 or under 20% 39% 39% Aged 35 to 49 40% 48% 44% Aged 50 or over 40% 13% 16% Professorial status 10.6% 7.5% 7.2% Highest qualification held: PhD 45% 61% 61% Research only 18% 36% 37% Fixed term contract 32% 43% 46% Female 44% 47% 41% International students and sta 25
  26. 26. p. 5 HESA (2014) Students p. 6 DIUS, BIS, Scottish Executive, DEL and HEFCE (multiple years) p. 7 NSS (multiple years) p. 8 HESA (2014) Students p. 9 HEFCE (2013) Trends in young participation in higher education p. 10 HESA (2014) Students p. 11 HESA (2014) DLHE p. 12 ONS (2013) Graduates in the UK Labour Market 2013 p. 13 ONS Labour Force Survey 2014 Q1 and UKCES (2014) Working Futures 2012-2022 p. 14 OECD (2014) p. 15 HESA (2014) Finance and Students p. 16 HESA (2014) Finance p. 17 ONS (2014) UK Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development p. 18 OECD (2014) Main Science and Technology Indicators p. 19 HESA (2014) Students p. 20 HESA (2014) Students p. 21 HESA Finance and Students (multiple years) p. 22 HESA (2014) Students p. 23 HESA (2014) Students p. 24 HESA (2014) Students p. 25 HESA (2014) Staff All data and further information on sources can be found on our website: www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/highereducationinfocus Sources Annexe 26
  27. 27. DLHE Destinations of Leavers in Higher Education EEA European Economic Area (EU countries plus Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein) GERD Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development HEFCE Higher Education Funding Council for England HEI Higher education institution HEIPR Higher Education Initial Participation Rate HESA Higher Education Statistics Agency NSS National Student Survey OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development PG Postgraduate PGCE Postgraduate Certifi cate in Education POLAR Participation of Local Areas (HEFCE) RD Research and development UG Undergraduate Abbreviations Annexe 27
  28. 28. About Universities UK Universities UK is the representative organisation for the UK’s universities. Founded in 1918, our mission is to be the defi nitive voice for all universities in the UK, providing high quality leadership and support to our members to promote a successful and diverse higher education sector. With 134 members and offi ces in London, Cardiff and Edinburgh, we promote the strength and success of UK universities nationally and internationally. Woburn House, 20 Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9HQ Tel +44 (0)20 7419 4111 Email info@universitiesuk.ac.uk Web www.universitiesuk.ac.uk Twitter: @UniversitiesUK ISBN 978-1-84036-327-2 November 2014 © Universities UK

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