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[Workshop en économie de développement:"Pertinence des politiques publiques de développement dans les pays d'Afrique subsaharienne" ]

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[Workshop en économie de développement:"Pertinence des politiques publiques de développement dans les pays d'Afrique subsaharienne" ]Pr noumba powerpoint dschang

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[Workshop en économie de développement:"Pertinence des politiques publiques de développement dans les pays d'Afrique subsaharienne" ]

  1. 1. PARENTAL EDUCATION, HOUSEHOLD HEALTH, AND HOUSEHOLD STANDARD OF LIVING: EVIDENCE FROM RURAL CAMEROON
  2. 2. PLAN OF THE PRESENTATION 1/ BACKGROUND 2/ THE PROBLEM 3/ OBJECTIVES 4/ METHODOLOGY 5/ RESULTS
  3. 3. BACKGROUND • Health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being (WHO, 2001); • Health is an important factor of individual or household production; • Healthier individuals should olso be wealthier individuals; • Education can be defined as knowledge and skills accumulated by an individual; • Education is also one of the must valuable elements of the human capital; • Educated individuals are likely to be more productive, and to earn high income.
  4. 4. THE PROBLEM RECENT TREND IN POVERTY IN CAMEROON (%) SOURCE: INS (2015) 2001 2007 2014 National 40.2 39.9 37.5 Urban 17.9 12.2 8.9 Rural 52.1 55.0 56.8
  5. 5. THE PROBLEM (CONT.) TREND IN SOME EDUCATION AND HEALTH INDICATORS 2004 2011 EDUCATION INDICATORS Urban Rural Urban Rural Gross enrollment ratio in primary 87.5 70.5 87.4 72.1 Gross enrollment ratio in secondary 48.3 17.4 61.8 30.3 Net enrollment ratio in primary 124.0 128.4 116.5 106.9 Net enrollment ratio in secondary 69.8 20.4 91.3 40.5 HEALTH Total fertility rate 4.0 6.1 4.0 6.4 Infant mortality rate 68 91 58 77 Diarrhea prevalence (children aged less than five years old) 0.3 1.4 0.9 2.6 Neonatal mortality ratio 13.2 18.4 17.7 23.3
  6. 6. THE PROBLEM REAL ECONOMIC GROWTH RATE (%) SOURCE: INS (2015) 2 0 0 9 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 2 2 0 1 3 2 0 1 4 1.9 3.3 4.1 4.6 5.6 5.9
  7. 7. OBJECTIVES Main objective: understanding the linkages between household education and household heal, household health and household standard of living. (1) Estimating the impact of household education on household health; (2) Establishing a link between household health and household standard of living; (3) Estimating the combined effect of household health and education on household standard of living.
  8. 8. METHODOLOGY The theoretical fundation of the study is the household economics. Decisions relating to the health issues are made by the family that struggles to get all its members being in good health. Health lies among ‘‘goods’’ and services that a household consumes in order to maximize his well-being.
  9. 9. METHODOLOGY (CONT.) EMPIRICAL MODELS HEALTH: H= a0 + x1β+ γHHE+ a1ἓ2 + µ(ἓ2 x HHE) + ζMILLSH+ η1 (ἓ2 x HHE) ἓ2 is fitted residual of HHE MILLSH is inverse Mills ratio
  10. 10. METHODOLOGY (CONT.) ECONOMIC WELL-BEING: ECW = Economic well-being index Ḣ = Predicted health; y = Vector of exogenous variables Ψ and Are parameters to be estimated. ECW=yψ+ωḢ+µ2 µ2ω
  11. 11. RESULTS: DATA Regional distribution of clusters and households selected Number of Clusters Selected Number of Households Selected Region Urban Rural Urban Rural Adamaoua 19 25 418 700 Center 18 30 396 840 Douala 54 0 1188 0 East 17 26 374 728 Far North 15 44 330 1232 Littoral 30 11 660 308 North 15 36 330 1,008 North West 18 32 396 896 South 15 24 330 672 South West 18 29 396 812 West 24 28 528 784 Yaoundé 52 0 1,144 0 CAMEROON 295 285 6490 7980
  12. 12. RESULTS: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS Variables Observations Means Stad. Dev. H (number of household members who felt sick… 30 days before the interview) 1518 1.3208 0.6777 Household head’s education (1 = literate and 0, otherwise) 7503 0.5051 0.5000 Household size (number of people living permanently in the household) 7503 5.376 3.668 Household head’s sex (1 = male and 0, otherwise) 7503 0.3122 0.3534 Household head’s age (number of years) 7501 48.6464 16.5919 Household head’s age squared 7501 2641.733 1727.745 Marital status (Martal_stat1 (1 = bachelor and 0, otherwise) 7503 0.0641 0.2449 Marital status (Marital_stat2 (1 = married and 0, otherwise) 7503 0.7095 0.4539 Marital status (Marital_stat3 (1 = divorcee and 0, otherwise) 7503 0.0579 0.2337 Marital_stat4 (1 = widow and 0, otherwise) 7503 0.1598 0.3664
  13. 13. RESULTS: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS EDUCATION (ECW) Primary education (education1; yes = 1 and 0, otherwise) 7503 0.3317 1.3530 Secondary education (education2; yes =1 and 0, otherwise) 7503 0.1547 0.6984 Secondary high education (education3; yes = 1 and 0, otherwise) 7503 0.1243 0.8449 University education (education4, yes = 1 and 0, otherwise) 7503 0.0392 0.4882 INSTRUMENTS FOR LITERACY AND SAMPLE SELECTION Owns the land cultivated (1 = yes and 0, otherwise) 7501 0.8924 0.3098 Agricultural land owned by the household (acres ) 6686 88.9324 219.6128 Distance to the source of drinking water (kilometers) 7476 1.9942 6.95269 Time to reach the drinking water source (minutes) 7448 92.0443 26.2339 Type of toilet facility (1 = improved and 0, otherwise) 7495 0.16035 0.4689 Shares toilet with other households (1 = yes and 0, otherwise) 6703 0.2794 0.4487
  14. 14. RESULTS: EMPIRICAL ESTIMATIONS (HEALTH) MEAN RESULTS 1/ Education is strongly and positively linked to household health, showing that household head’s education complements with other inputs to affect household health; 2/ Being a male household head’s has no significant effect on the household health; 3/ The household size increases the risk of having a sick household member; 4/ Using shared toilets yields the same result.
  15. 15. RESULTS: ECONOMIC WELL-BEING 1/ Our results seem to be indicating that the higher the household head’s education level, the higher the economic well-being; 2/ The coefficient attached to the predicted health from control function is negative and significant, meaning that economic well-being may be improved with a weak level of the household head’s education.
  16. 16. CONCLUSION The work done so far can allow for only one prelimanary conclusion: Education matters both to health and economic well- being in rural Cameroon.

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