UNICEFOffice of ResearchResearch priorities to ensure betterequity for childrenGordon AlexanderDirector, UNICEF Office of ...
Outline of today’s presentation      • why equity is important for children in this changing world      • look briefly at ...
Clarifying concepts      ‘Inequity’ - associated with ‘fairness’ . A working consensus as      ‘avoidable inequality’ . Th...
Child Mortality – the fundamental right to survival      Trends over time                                       Domenican ...
Children are particularly dependent on essential  services  Coverage of interventions for maternal & child health by wealt...
Revisiting the life-course approach      ‘Trajectories’ and ‘Transitions’                                                 ...
Towards a richer set of indicators       Building from the past to          … the future?       $1/day monetary poverty me...
Two Views of Child Poverty           Iceland             4.7                                                     Iceland  ...
Making the link to Policy       • cannot be too many indicators       • analytical frame has to be robust       • have to ...
For today and tomorrow’s discussion      • What do we need to understand better in terms of ‘pathways’ and ‘drivers’ of   ...
UNICEF               11Office of Research
Determinants analysis addressing core issues  affecting child wellbeing                                                   ...
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Research priorities to ensure better equity for children

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Présentation de Gordon Alexander, Directeur de la recherche, l’UNICEF, à la Conférence Internationale d'Experts sur la mesure et les approches politiques pour améliorer l'équité pour les nouvelles générations dans la région MENA à Rabat, Maroc du 22 au 23 mai 2012.

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  • Research priorities to ensure better equity for children

    1. 1. UNICEFOffice of ResearchResearch priorities to ensure betterequity for childrenGordon AlexanderDirector, UNICEF Office of Research, FlorenceConference on Measurement and Policy Approachesto equity for children, Rabat, 22-23 May 2012 unite for children
    2. 2. Outline of today’s presentation • why equity is important for children in this changing world • look briefly at 4 complementary approaches to measuring equity for children • why we need further research that is grounded in country realities and can inform policyUNICEF 2Office of Research
    3. 3. Clarifying concepts ‘Inequity’ - associated with ‘fairness’ . A working consensus as ‘avoidable inequality’ . The degree of inequality that arises from ‘socially modifiable causes’. ‘Inequality’- a lack of equality, whether in opportunity, income, status or other items we choose to value. About disparities. Can be measured.UNICEF 3Office of Research
    4. 4. Child Mortality – the fundamental right to survival Trends over time Domenican Republic Egypt 200 200 Wealthiest Average Poorest Wealthiest Average Poorest 180 180 160 160 140 140 Under 5 Mortality Under 5 Mortality 120 120 100 100 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 0 1986 1991 1996 1999 2002 2007 1988 1992 1995 2000 2003 2005 2008 Survey Year Survey Year Source: DHSUNICEF 4Office of Research
    5. 5. Children are particularly dependent on essential services Coverage of interventions for maternal & child health by wealth quintile Source: Barros et al. 2012UNICEF 5Office of Research
    6. 6. Revisiting the life-course approach ‘Trajectories’ and ‘Transitions’ Pregnancy & birth Old age Infancy Birth registration 1 year Parenting skills Intergenerational programs allocation policies Family planning Nutrition & health programs packages Childhood Anti discrimination legal frameworks Daycare programs Budget reform 5 years Cash transfers Child labour laws Girls school enrollment subsidies Adulthood Urban safety Income interventions Teacher training generation programs initiatives Political and social movements School age Vocation training schemes 10 years 25 years Adolescence &YouthUNICEF 6Office of Research
    7. 7. Towards a richer set of indicators Building from the past to … the future? $1/day monetary poverty measures Non-monetary measures that are multidimensional Absolute measures Absolute and Relative Female participation Female agency Educational enrollment Quality education and retention Children and households measured A life course approach U5 Mortality rate Child wellbeingUNICEF 7Office of Research
    8. 8. Two Views of Child Poverty Iceland 4.7 Iceland 0.9 5.3 Sweden 1.3 Cyprus 6.1 Norway 1.9 6.1 Norway 6.1 Finland 2.5 6.3 Denmark 2.6 Denmark 6.5 Netherlands 2.7 7.3 Austria 7.3 Luxembourg 4.4 7.4 Ireland 4.9 Switzerland 8.1 United… 5.5 8.4 Germany 8.5 Cyprus 7.0 8.8 Spain 8.1 Malta 8.9 Slovenia 8.3 10.2 Hungary 10.3 Austria 8.7 10.9 Czech… 8.8 Slovakia 11.2 Germany 8.8 11.7 Estonia 11.9 Malta 8.9 12.1 Belgium 9.1 Luxembourg 12.3 France 10.1 13.3 Poland 14.5 Estonia 12.4 14.7 Italy 13.3 Japan 14.9 Greece 17.2 15.4 Italy 15.9 Slovakia 19.2 16.0 Lithuania 19.8 Spain 17.1 Poland 20.9 17.8 Latvia 18.8 Portugal 27.4 23.1 Latvia 31.8 Romania 25.5 Hungary 31.9 Bulgaria 56.6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Romania 72.6 child poverty rate 0 20 40 60 80 child deprivation (% of children living in households with equivalent (% of children lacking two or more items) income lower than 50% of national median)UNICEF 8Office of Research
    9. 9. Making the link to Policy • cannot be too many indicators • analytical frame has to be robust • have to be simple (simple enough so that they are understood by even finance ministers!) • ‘Something to catch hold of … by the policy and political community’ ‘the level achieved, on any individual indicator, by the children of the poorest 20%’.UNICEF 9Office of Research
    10. 10. For today and tomorrow’s discussion • What do we need to understand better in terms of ‘pathways’ and ‘drivers’ of inequality? • Can we set out a consistent model of monitoring child wellbeing across countries- a sufficiently rich set of indicators to capture the situation of children but not to get overwhelmed by complexity? • For hard hitting policy change, we need to agree on a small set of telling indicators • There are no trade-offs in reducing inequality for childrenUNICEF 10Office of Research
    11. 11. UNICEF 11Office of Research
    12. 12. Determinants analysis addressing core issues affecting child wellbeing Distal Proximate Structural Determinants Macro Micro Individual Shocks environment environment Economic status How to scale up pro-poor projects to national Poverty Urban/Rural - Empirical policies? migration Catastrophic Drought analysis Health Human Rights Income Expenditures How to empower rights holders? Distribution - Rooted in evidence Governance How can we strengthen governance Human Rights - Reflective & mechanisms in a decentralizing environment? Institutions Conflict contextualised Gender inequality What are the linkages between gender equity Corruption Control over programs and strategies focused on new fertility norms and standards for children? Social norms and culture Examples of interventions •Poverty •Employment •Cash •Humanitarian How do we prioritize across effective alleviation guarantee transfers assistance strategies schemes •Birth programs interventions? •Budget reform •Education registration policies to •Family support girls planning programs Examples of drivers, questions and interventions are illustrativeUNICEF 12Office of Research

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