John Bennett


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Ppt John Bennett, Researcher of the Innocenti Report Card 8 on the importance of the early childhood.

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  • John Bennett

    1. 1. Table ronde L’accueil et l’éducation de la petite enfance: Un levier pour réduire les inégalités des chances? Ronde tafel Kinderopvang en kleuteronderwijs: Een hefboom voor het milderen van ongelijke levenskansen? 11 mars/maart 2009 Salle des Congrès – Congreszaal Avec la collaboration de – in samenwerking met
    2. 2. For comments: The importance of the early years in the human development cycle Dr. John Bennett Senior researcher for the OECD Starting Strong Network
    3. 3. Contents of the presentation <ul><li>Part I – What the scientific evidence says about the early years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The neurosciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The economic evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The education sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Part II – How might countries respond </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce child poverty and ensure equitable educational outcomes for children at-risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide better quality in existing services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refuse the vocabulary of child care, child minding… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turn back the century old tradition of ‘schoolification’ </li></ul></ul></ul>For comments:
    4. 4. Part I What the scientific evidence says For comments:
    5. 5. 0 1 4 8 12 16 AGE Human Brain Development – Synapse Formation The years from birth – to – three are an optimal time to support language and cognitive growth Sensing Pathways (vision, hearing) Language Higher Cognitive Function 3 6 9 -3 -6 Months Years C. Nelson, in From Neurons to Neighborhoods , 2000 Conception For comments:
    6. 6. The risk of irreversibility in early childhood if the environment fails to reinforce the genetic disposition <ul><li>Sensing pathways - : infant cataracts… infant middle-ear infection… </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-emotional development – the Romanian orphans </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive development – the higher order functions, such as reasoning, conservation, concept and vocabulary building, etc. develop more slowly… but note the ‘window’ for language development and the language deficit of excluded children </li></ul>For comments:
    7. 7. Language and Vocabulary Growth – First 3 Years Source: B.Hart & T. Risley. Meaningful Differences in Everyday Experiences of Young American Children, 1995 (Reference: Mary Young, World Bank) For comments: [email_address] High SES Middle SES Low SES 1200 600 0 12 16 20 24 26 32 36 Vocabulary Age- Months
    8. 8. Ignoring the neuroscience research <ul><li>Many European countries do not give sufficient attention to early childhood as the foundation stage of human development…; </li></ul><ul><li>In particular, pre- and post-natal services may not be easily accessible to low-income families </li></ul><ul><li>Parental care (opportunities to breast feed), and the avoidance of stress in infancy may not be given due importance </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of touching and verbal interaction with infants and toddlers may be overlooked </li></ul>For comments:
    9. 9. The economic research <ul><li>Economic ‘returns’ analyses are driven essentially by the avoidance of negative consequences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal activity – especially when linked to a culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower academic achievement (including lack of concentration and aggressiveness) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teenage pregnancy and delinquency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor psychological well-being </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor peer relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment or the inability to hold a job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children from low-income SES groups are more likely to have poorer health outcomes; a prevalence to illness; mental health problems; longer illnesses; longer hospitalisations; more delinquency; longer terms of unemployment … </li></ul>For comments:
    10. 10. Heckman’s curve - Rates of return to human capital investments across all ages: in addition, 0-3 investment pays in terms of labour market, job creation, enlarged tax base… For comments: [email_address] and their families
    11. 11. The education evidence <ul><li>Education evidence comes from a score of countries </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Brooks-Gunn, Columbia University, confirmed before the US Senate that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High quality programmes improve the school outcomes and behaviour of most young children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects are strongest for poor children and for children whose parents have little education. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive benefits continue into late elementary school and high school years, although effects are smaller than they were at the beginning of elementary school. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmes that are continued into primary school, include parents and offer intensive early intervention, have the most sustained long-term effects. </li></ul></ul>For comments:
    12. 12. The pattern of US (and most other countries!) education investment For comments: [email_address]
    13. 13. Part II How might countries respond? For comments:
    14. 14. Reduce child poverty - child poverty in OECD countries, c. 2005 For comments:
    15. 15. Access of low-income children to care services in Flanders (Source: Kind en Gezin, Child in Flanders, 2006 ) For comments: [email_address]
    16. 16. The PISA findings for Belgium <ul><li>Ensure equitable educational outcomes for children at-risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ 13% of 15-year-old students in Belgium have an immigrant background, compared to 9.3% across the OECD. Generally, these students lag considerably behind. In Belgium, first-generation immigrant students – that is, students who are born outside the country of assessment and who also have foreign-born parents – lag 93 score points behind their native counterparts, a sizeable difference considering that 38 score points are roughly equivalent to a school year’s difference. This performance lag compares to the OECD average (58 score points)… Unlike, for example, Switzerland, a similar picture emerges for second-generation immigrant students.” PISA, 2007) </li></ul></ul>For comments:
    17. 17. Provide better quality in existing early childhood services <ul><li>Refuse the vocabulary of child care, child minding … a losing concept that does not correspond to the neuroscience evidence which points to foundations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health, well-being and motor development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and emotional development, including learning to live together, participation… To support the competent child requires positive approaches to the child’s natural learning strategies, to autonomous learning , to parental inputs… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language development and emergent literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive development and general knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turn back the tradition of ‘schoolification’ , that is, organising the pre-school along primary school lines: excluding parents; high child:staff ratios (unsuited to children from excluded backgrounds); lack of a ‘fit-for-purpose’ training; inadequate curricula and pedagogies… </li></ul>For comments:
    18. 18. Thank you! For comments: