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Towards Interoperability in the European Poetry Community: the Standardization of Philological Concepts

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The presentation has been done by the researcher Helena Bermudez Sabel on the Language, Data and Knowledge 2017 Conference (http://ldk2017.org/). The paper that is presented there stems from the ERC Starting Grant 2015 project Poetry Standardization and Linked Open Data project (POSTDATA). As its name reveals, one of the main aims of POSTDATA is to provide a means to publish European Poetry (EP) data as Linked Open Data (LOD). Thus, developing a metadata application profile (MAP) as a common semantic model to be
used by the EP community is a crucial step of this project. This MAP will enhance interoperability among the community members in particular, and among the EP community and other contexts in general (e.g. bibliographic records). This paper presents the methodology followed in the process of defining the concepts of the domain model of this MAP, as well as some issues that arise when labeling philological terms.
The full paper can be found here: http://postdata.linhd.es/papers/

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Towards Interoperability in the European Poetry Community: the Standardization of Philological Concepts

  1. 1. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Towards Interoperability in the European Poetry Community the Standardization of Philological Concepts H. Berm´udez-Sabel1 M. Curado Malta1 2 E. Gonz´alez-Blanco1 1Laboratorio de Innovaci´on en Humanidades Digitales Universidad de Educaci´on a Distancia (Spain) 2Polythecnic of Oporto, CEOS.PP (Portugal) Language, Data and Knowledge 2017 Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  2. 2. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References 1 Rationale 2 Methodology 3 Concepts Standardization 4 Conclusion Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  3. 3. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Table of Contents 1 Rationale 2 Methodology 3 Concepts Standardization 4 Conclusion Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  4. 4. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Occidental Literature Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  5. 5. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References However... • Diversity of paradigm • Fragmentary access to poetic resources Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  6. 6. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Consequences • Hindrance to research • Partiality of methods (and results) Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  7. 7. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Proposal Our paradigm: Linked Open Data Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  8. 8. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Table of Contents 1 Rationale 2 Methodology 3 Concepts Standardization 4 Conclusion Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  9. 9. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Importance of data modeling • (Effective) semantic interoperability • Data needs of the community are met • Relevance of a method Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  10. 10. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Main task • Defining a Metadata Application Profile (MAP) for European Poetry • MAP: a semantic model in the context of LOD Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  11. 11. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References The method • Method for the development of Metadata Application Profiles (Me4MAP) [1] • Second milestone of Me4MAP: to define a Domain Model • Domain Model: a model that presents the concepts of the context (we want to capture) and its relations Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  12. 12. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Starting Point • Repertoires of European Poetry and Poetry Metrics • Data models • Functionalities of the Websites (GUI of the repertoires) • Report of data needs of the community Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  13. 13. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Tasks • Analysis of the data model of a representative sample of EP databases • Analysis of a survey addressed to the final users of the repertoires in order to understand the data needs of the users of poetry databases. Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  14. 14. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Analysis of data model • Analysis of the file sent by each partner with the structure of the database (SQL dump, XML schema files, Excel file with sample data) • Study of the structure of the database • Identification of every concept of the database, as well as the properties that characterize that concept • Identification of the relationships between concepts • concept, properties, relations = Concept Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  15. 15. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Sequence of actions of a Concept analysis process Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  16. 16. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References The tension between semantics and interoperability • Level of abstraction tends to increase (and names are changed retroactively) • Semantics may be lost in favor of interoperability gain Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  17. 17. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Table of Contents 1 Rationale 2 Methodology 3 Concepts Standardization 4 Conclusion Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  18. 18. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Starting point: analysis of related “standards” • Metadata schema: Dublin Core Metadata Terms [2] • Conceptual model: FRBR [3] • Mark-up vocabulary: TEI [4] Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  19. 19. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Criteria • Lingua franca • Neutrality of the term • Semantic efficiency • Acceptance by the community Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  20. 20. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Lingua franca Lingua franca Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  21. 21. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Lingua franca Issues • Multi-linguistic data Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  22. 22. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Lingua franca Metrical line in a poetic composition PT verso CA vers RU cтих Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  23. 23. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Lingua franca verse [5] Definition: 1 A single metrical line in a poetic composition; one line of poetry. 2 A division of a metrical composition, such as a stanza of a poem or hymn. 3 A poem. Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  24. 24. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Lingua franca Issues • Multi-linguistic data • Diachronic corpora Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  25. 25. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Lingua franca Group of lines forming the basic metrical unit of a poem PT - med cobra PT - mod estrofe Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  26. 26. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Lingua franca Issues • Multi-linguistic data • Diachronic corpora • Different philological traditions Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  27. 27. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Lingua franca Diaeresis di´er`ese Prononciation en deux syllabes d’une s´equence qui comporte deux sons formant habituellement une seule syllabe [6] dieresis A pause in a line of verse occurring when the end of a foot coincides with the end of a word [7] Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  28. 28. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Lingua franca Lingua franca • English term • Most prevalent • Less ambiguous Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  29. 29. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Neutrality Neutrality Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  30. 30. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Neutrality Issues • Same term in different technical vocabularies • Different terms depending on the theoretical background for similar concepts Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  31. 31. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Neutrality Recording of variants • Critical apparatus • Apparatus criticus Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  32. 32. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Neutrality Recording of variants • Critical apparatus • Apparatus criticus • Apparatus Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  33. 33. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Neutrality Neutrality • Avoidance of marked terms Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  34. 34. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Semantic efficiency Semantic efficiency Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  35. 35. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Semantic efficiency Issues • Data modeling made for the specific needs of each project • Except for the ones that used “standards”, interoperability was not considered Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  36. 36. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Semantic efficiency Types of modeling [8] egoistic modeling to express specific research ideas in cases where data is being created to support the creator’s own research needs altruistic modeling to serve as an interchange format for some types of users and user communities where data is typically being created and modeled with someone else’s needs in mind Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  37. 37. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Semantic efficiency Depending of the prosodic tradition • we count syllables • we discern the distribution of stresses • we analyse the length of the syllables Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  38. 38. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Semantic efficiency Semantic efficiency metrical scheme syllabicMetricalScheme accentualMetricalScheme Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  39. 39. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Semantic efficiency Semantic efficiency • Evaluation of which concepts should be integrated • Evaluation of which concepts should be merged • Evaluation of which concepts should be distinguished Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  40. 40. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Validity check Validity check Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  41. 41. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Validity check Issues • We might create a rigorous model from a semantic and philological point of view, but lack the acceptance of the community [9] • The conceptualization of certain elements might be perceived as “intrusive” Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  42. 42. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Validity check di ´er `ese −→ hiatus (The separate pronunciation of the two vowels in a diphthong for the sake of meter) Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  43. 43. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Validity check Validity check • Validation activities planned in the method • Presentation and discussion of the model with delegates from the community • Fluid contact with delegates: ask for their input in issues that could be “conflictive” Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  44. 44. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Table of Contents 1 Rationale 2 Methodology 3 Concepts Standardization 4 Conclusion Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  45. 45. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Where we are • We presented the first draft of the Domain Model (v.0.1) • In response to discussion, we created the second version (v.0.2) • We are now adding more databases to the analysis, the analysis of the report, and currently working on v.0.3 Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  46. 46. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Map of the repertoires V. 0.1 V. 0.2 2nd validation Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  47. 47. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Future work • Once we have a stable Domain Model we will match each Concept with a term of a RDF vocabulary Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  48. 48. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Future work • Once we have a stable Domain Model we will match each Concept with a term of a RDF vocabulary • We will define constraints to the Concepts Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  49. 49. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Future work • Once we have a stable Domain Model we will match each Concept with a term of a RDF vocabulary • We will define constraints to the Concepts • Validate the semantic model Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  50. 50. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Future work • Once we have a stable Domain Model we will match each Concept with a term of a RDF vocabulary • We will define constraints to the Concepts • Validate the semantic model • Encode the semantic model Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  51. 51. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Future work • Once we have a stable Domain Model we will match each Concept with a term of a RDF vocabulary • We will define constraints to the Concepts • Validate the semantic model • Encode the semantic model • Report on how to enrich the repertoires’ data with links to existent resources Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  52. 52. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Future work • Once we have a stable Domain Model we will match each Concept with a term of a RDF vocabulary • We will define constraints to the Concepts • Validate the semantic model • Encode the semantic model • Report on how to enrich the repertoires’ data with links to existent resources • Develop documentation: Manuals, HowTos, Use Case examples Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  53. 53. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References References I [1] Mariana Curado Malta and Ana Alice Baptista. Me4MAP V1.0: A method for the development of metadata application profiles. Submitted for publication. [2] DCMI Usage Board. DCMI Metadata Terms, 2012. URL http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-terms/. [3] IFLA. Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, 2009. URL http://archive.ifla.org/VII/s13/frbr/ frbr_current_toc.htm. [4] TEI Consortium. TEI P5: Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange, volume Version 3.1.0. 2016. URL http://www.tei-c.org/release/doc/ tei-p5-doc/en/html/SG.html. Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  54. 54. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References References II [5] verse. In American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. 2011. URL http://www.thefreedictionary.com/verse. [6] di´er`ese. In Larousse. Dictionnaire de Fran¸cais. 2017. URL http://www.larousse.fr/dictionnaires/francais. [7] dieresis. In American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. 2011. URL http://www.thefreedictionary.com/verse. [8] Fotis Jannidis and Julia Flanders. A concept of data modeling for the humanities. In Digital Humanities 2013: Conference Abstracts, pages 237–39, Lincoln, 2013. Center for Digital Research in the Humanities. URL http: //dh2013.unl.edu/schedule-and-events/program/. Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  55. 55. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References References III [9] F. D. Davis. A technology acceptance model for empirically testing new end-user information systems: Theory and results. PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1985. Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco
  56. 56. Rationale Methodology Concepts Standardization Conclusion References Thank you for your attention Helena Berm´udez Sabel helena.bermudez@linhd.uned.es Mariana Curado Malta mariana@iscap.ipp.pt Elena Gonz´alez-Blanco egonzalezblanco@flog.uned.es Interoperability in the European Poetry Bermudez-Sabel, Curado Malta & Gonz´alez-Blanco

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