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CCCOER: Impact of OER Adoption Findings

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Open educational resources (OER) efficacy research shows that the use of OER does not negatively impact student success metrics such as grades, course completion, retention, and persistence rates. In numerous research studies involving more than 46,00 students across different types of institutions, Hilton (2016) found that students performed comparably in courses using OER vs. traditional materials.

Join us to hear from two 2017-18 Open Education Research Group Fellows as they share their research conducted at a community college and a private university about how high textbooks prices and open textbook adoptions affect students. Regina Gong, from Lansing Community College, will share her research on open textbook adoptions in high-enrollment, multi-section introductory courses (psychology and economics). David Rose, from American University in Washington, DC, will share his research which shows that rising textbook prices similarly affect students at an expensive private university as has been demonstrated at more affordable public institutions (Are Private Universities Exempt from Student Concerns About Textbook Costs? A Survey of Students at American University).

When: Wednesday, December 5th, 11am PT/ 2pm ET
Featured Speakers
David Rose, Online Learning Trainer & Curriculum Designer, American University, Washington, D.C.
Regina Gong, Librarian and OER Project Manager, Lansing Community College, Lansing, MI

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CCCOER: Impact of OER Adoption Findings

  1. 1. Impact of OER Adoption on Cost, Outcomes, and Stakeholder Perceptions Dec 5, 2018, 11:00 am PST Welcome to image: pixabay.com
  2. 2. Agenda • Introductions • CCCOER Overview • Are Private Schools Exempt from Student Concerns About Textbook Costs? • The Impact of OER Adoption on Cost, Outcomes, and Stakeholder Perceptions • Stay in the Loop • Spring webinars: TBA • Q & A
  3. 3. Speakers David Rose Online Learning Trainer & Curriculum Designer American University Washington, D.C. Regina Gong Librarian and OER Project Manager Lansing Community College Lansing, MIModerator: Una Daly CCCOER Director
  4. 4. ● Expand awareness & access to high- quality OER ● Support faculty choice & development ● Improve student success CCCOER Mission
  5. 5. Membership Fall 2018 Map http://cccoer.org/Member 75 CCOER-OEC Members, 11 Systemwide Memberships, 32 U.S. States Welcome to our newest member: Grayson College
  6. 6. Student Impact Image: pixabay.com
  7. 7. David Rose Online Learning Trainer & Curriculum Designer American University Washington, D.C.
  8. 8. Are Private Schools Exempt from Student Concerns About Textbook Costs? David Rose Instructional Designer, American University OER Research Fellow, Open Education Group Certificate in OER Librarianship, Designer & Instructor, Open Textbook Network
  9. 9. No.
  10. 10. Thank you for coming! Contact: rose@american.edu
  11. 11. Open.american.edu
  12. 12. Lindsay Murphy
  13. 13. AU Undergraduate Demographics in 2015 84% received need-based financial aid (~82% nationally) 56% received some form of institutional grant/scholarship (~66% nationally) 52% used a loan to pay for their education (~34% nationally) 17.9% were Pell eligible (~34% nationally)
  14. 14. http://bit.ly/ AUTextbookSurve y
  15. 15. Methodology ● Survey conducted in fall 2015, report written in summer 2018 ● 13 courses across undergraduate levels, schools/colleges, disciplines ● List price of textbooks $40-$325, with majority $100+ ● Drawing for two $25 gift cards to incentivize survey completions ● Method of survey capture was contingent upon professor ● n=110 (365 students invited to participate → 30% response rate)
  16. 16. Primary Research Question Do the coping mechanisms to high textbook prices that have been demonstrated in the research by students at public universities present themselves in students at private universities as well?
  17. 17. Fill in the blanks… From 1977 to 2015, textbook prices rose by _____% … … which is over _____ times the rate of inflation and faster than any other consumer product. The College Board estimates that in 2017-2018, undergraduates could expect to pay $_____ for books and supplies alone. ​ Roughly, studies show ___/___ of students don’t purchase required textbooks due to cost concerns.
  18. 18. Fill in the blanks… From 1977 to 2015, textbook prices rose by 1,041% … … which is over _____ times the rate of inflation and faster than any other consumer product. The College Board estimates that in 2017-2018, undergraduates could expect to pay $_____ for books and supplies alone. ​ Roughly, studies show ___/___ of students don’t purchase required textbooks due to cost concerns.
  19. 19. Fill in the blanks… From 1977 to 2015, textbook prices rose by 1,041% … … which is over 3 times the rate of inflation and faster than any other consumer product. The College Board estimates that in 2017-2018, undergraduates could expect to pay $_____ for books and supplies alone. ​ Roughly, studies show ___/___ of students don’t purchase required textbooks due to cost concerns.
  20. 20. Fill in the blanks… From 1977 to 2015, textbook prices rose by 1,041% … … which is over 3 times the rate of inflation and faster than any other consumer product. The College Board estimates that in 2017-2018, undergraduates could expect to pay $1,170 for books and supplies alone. ​ Roughly, studies show ___/___ of students don’t purchase required textbooks due to cost concerns.
  21. 21. Fill in the blanks… From 1977 to 2015, textbook prices rose by 1,041% … … which is over 3 times the rate of inflation and faster than any other consumer product. The College Board estimates that in 2017-2018, undergraduates could expect to pay $1,170 for books and supplies alone. ​ Roughly, studies show ⅔ of students don’t purchase required textbooks due to cost concerns.
  22. 22. 67% of students surveyed had not purchased a textbook because of cost (Florida Virtual Campus, 2016, n=22,906) https://www.flvc.org/research
  23. 23. 64% of students surveyed had not purchased a textbook because of cost (Florida Virtual Campus, 2012, n=22,129)
  24. 24. 65% of students surveyed had not purchased a textbook because of cost (Florida Virtual Campus, 2010)
  25. 25. 65% of students surveyed had not purchased a textbook because of cost (Student PIRGs, 2014, n=2,039) https://uspirg.org/reports/usp/fixing-broken-textbook-market
  26. 26. 70% of students had skipped buying book due to cost (Student PIRGs, 2011)
  27. 27. Compared to those numbers, what would you expect of AU student textbook buying habits?​ buy more often buy less often same same
  28. 28. 67% of American University students have also chosen not to acquire required textbooks or other course materials because or prohibitive costs
  29. 29. $577 Average AU student textbook expenditure per year​
  30. 30. Perception of value: “In general, when you prepare for your tests/exams, what percent of studying do you devote to each of the following?”
  31. 31. Learned behavior ● “I think it’s stupid to buy textbooks. Too expensive! Never buy them anymore!” ● “I honestly don’t end up using most of my textbooks. I’ve reached a point where I buy books later into the semester, and only those I’ve seen used.” ● “They are RIDICULOUSLY expensive and professors often require them when they aren’t necessary” ● “Class says required and most of the time it's not”
  32. 32. Year in School and Purchasing Behavior
  33. 33. “What else would you like to share about how the cost of course materials influences your learning habits?”
  34. 34. Negative Effects on Learning ● “When studying, I find highlighting the text is incredibly beneficial. Unfortunately, with the prices of textbooks I tend to rent rather than buy, as it is more cost effective. With rented textbooks I am not able to highlight.” ● “Some textbooks are really expensive and I will decide not to buy the hard copy. But digital copy makes it harder to focus since it's on a digital device” ● “[N]ot buying the book because it is too expensive leaves me to use course reserves but that limits my access to the information to allow me to succeed in class.”
  35. 35. More comments from students who pay $50,000 a year in tuition… ● “I know people who have dropped out of classes because the book was too expensive.” ● “Because books are so expensive, I need to work more hours to pay for them and keep up with monthly expenses, instead I could use those hours to do school work.” ● “I would buy more of the books if they were cheaper, I don't make enough to spend it all on textbooks” ● “... the cost of textbooks causes significant financial stress on me and takes away from other semester needs (food, rent, etc.)” ● “I try to stay away from courses that I know require very expensive textbooks” ● “I don't take a certain class because of the expensive or multiple textbooks.”
  36. 36. Are Private Schools Exempt from Student Concerns About Textbook Costs? No.
  37. 37. In your academic career, has the cost of required textbooks caused you to: 2012 2016 63.6% 66.5% Not purchase the required textbook 49.2% 47.6% Take fewer courses 45.1% 45.5% Not register for a specific course 33.9% 37.6% Earn a poor grade 26.7% 26.1% Drop a course 17.0% 19.8% Fail a course Florida Virtual Campus, 2012 vs 2016
  38. 38. textbooks may be “developing into a systematic barrier to student learning” Stein et al., 2017
  39. 39. Thanks to https://openedgroup.org/fellowship
  40. 40. Thank you for coming! Contact: rose@american.edu
  41. 41. Regina Gong Librarian and OER Project Manager Lansing Community College Lansing, MI
  42. 42. The Impact of OER Adoption on Cost, Outcomes, and Stakeholder Perceptions Regina Gong, OER Project Manager Lansing Community College Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources (CCCOER) Webinar December 5, 2018 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  43. 43. LCC AT A GLANCE • Founded in 1957 and located in downtown Lansing • 26,000 students enrolled/year • Faculty started using OER in fall 2015 semester • No grants/stipends/incentives were offered when we started. • $500K approved by Board of Trustees in Fall 2017 semester.
  44. 44. Textbook affordability Allow faculty exploration and innovation in finding new, better, and less costly ways to deliver quality learning materials to students in addition to improved pedagogy. Goals of the OER Initiative at LCC
  45. 45. OER ADOPTIONS DATA AT LCC
  46. 46. $2.2M Photo by Fabian Blank on Unsplash
  47. 47. How do OER contribute to student success?
  48. 48. OER Efficacy Research •Studies show that students assigned OER have lower withdrawal and drop rates. •More likely to pass with a C or better. •Higher persistence and retention rates.
  49. 49. Research Study Background • PSYC 200 (Intro to Psychology) • ECON 201 (Intro to Economics – Microeconomics) • ECON 202 (Intro to Economics – Macroeconomics) ALL sections adopted an open textbook in Fall 2016
  50. 50. Research Study Background Compared publisher textbook use (AY 2015-2016) vs. open textbook use (AY 2016-2017) We eliminated the confounding variable of the instructor
  51. 51. Study Population Summary Control/ Treatment No. of Faculty No. of Sections No. of Students Control (2015- 2016 academic year) 46 126 3,726 Treatment (2016 -2017 academic year) 46 113 2,876 Total 92 239 6,602
  52. 52. Data collection strategies: Student surveys Faculty surveys Mixed methods • quantitative • qualitative Center for Data Science supplied data from Banner, Argos Photo by Fancycrave on Unsplash
  53. 53. COUP framework Cost Outcomes Use Perceptions
  54. 54. • What is the cost of traditional textbooks in PSYC 200, ECON 201, and ECON 202 courses over the past two academic years (2015-16 and 2016-17) and how much did students save with an open textbook? • How much money students report as a typical amount spent for textbooks each semester for PSYC 200, ECON 201, and ECON 202? Cost
  55. 55. Outcomes • Is there a significant difference in PSYC 200, ECON 201, and ECON 202 student grades when comparing a faculty member using or not using an open textbook? • Is there a significant difference in PSYC 200, ECON 201, and ECON 202 course withdrawal rates when comparing a faculty member using or not using an open textbook? • Is there a significant difference in PSYC 200, ECON 201, and ECON 202 persistence rates when comparing a faculty member using or not using an open textbook? • Is there a significant difference in PSYC 200, ECON 201, and ECON 202 retention rates when comparing a faculty member using or not using an open textbook? •
  56. 56. • How has the adoption of open textbooks changed in PSYC 200 and ECON 201 and ECON 202 courses at Lansing Community College in the past two academic years (2015-16 and 2016-17)? • What is student’s intent to register for PSYC 200, ECON 201, and ECON 202 courses that offer OER textbook? • If students had a choice, do they prefer open textbook or traditional textbook use in their PSYC 200, ECON 201, and ECON 202 classes? Use
  57. 57. • How do PSYC 200, ECON 201, and ECON 202 students perceive the quality of open textbooks, as compared to traditional textbooks in other courses? Perceptions
  58. 58. Research Results: Cost Fall 2016 Spring 2017 Summer 2017 TOTALS ECON 201 # sections 17 16 6 39 # students 472 444 158 1,074 Cost per textbook $78.00 $78.00 $78.00 n/a Savings $36,816.00 $34,632.00 $12,324.00 $83,772.00 ECON 202 # sections 6 8 3 17 # students 172 214 79 465 Cost per textbook $78.00 $78.00 $78.00 n/a Savings $13.416.00 $16,692.00 $6,162.00 $36,270.00 PSYC 200 # sections 38 30 9 77 # students 1,135 778 195 2,108 Cost per textbook $151.25 $154.00 $154.00 n/a Savings $171,668.75 $119,812.00 $30,030.00 $321,510.75
  59. 59. Typical Amount Spent on Textbooks Each Semester
  60. 60. Course Completion Rates
  61. 61. Course Completion Rates
  62. 62. OER Use by Number of Faculty, Number of Students, Number of Sections for PSYC and ECON courses
  63. 63. Students’ Intent to Register and Choice of Selecting Open Textbook Course Sections
  64. 64. Students’ Perceptions of Open Textbook Quality
  65. 65. Further observation • Our recent analysis that looked at 2 years, demonstrated no significance between OER and non- OER student success rates. • The only rate we are seeing a higher average is in college retention. Our 2 year analysis shows OER students at about 1.5% higher retention rate • BUT This is not currently a significant difference, so we can’t yet say OER has a relationship to retention rates. • Need to take a look at our longitudinal data to show this relationship.
  66. 66. Forthcoming paper An Analysis of Cost, Outcomes, Use, and Perceptions in a Multi-Section Adoption of Open Textbooks in Introductory Psychology and Economics Courses Regina Gong and Karen Hicks Lansing Community College
  67. 67. Image source: https://unsplash.com/collections/167234/questions?photo=i--IN3cvEjg Regina Gong, gongr1@lcc.edu
  68. 68. Open Education Week openeducationweek.org Call for Participation now open, promotional materials available. http://www.openeducationweek.org
  69. 69. Stay in the Loop ● Upcoming Conferences See our website under “Get-Involved” ● Stay in touch thru Community Email -- https://www.cccoer.org/community-email/ Image: pixabay.com http://cccoer.org
  70. 70. The Spring Webinar series is coming soon! Happy Holidays! Image: pixabay.com
  71. 71. Questions? Contact Info: @unatdaly -- unatdaly@oeconsortium.org @quill_west -- oclquill.west@gmail.com Liz Yata -- lizyata@oeconsortium.org Thank you!

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