REPORT OF FOUR-MONTHS INDUSTRIAL TRIAINING AT
O’GALA TABLE WATER COMPANY, NSUKKA
STUDENT INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPEIRENCE SCHEME
(SIWES): EMT 412
ODIKE CHIBUZOR NGOZI
REG. NO. EMT/14/82120
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND
FACULTY OF NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
MICHAEL OKPARA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, UMUDIKE,
Water (H2O) is a chemical compound
consisting of two hydrogen atoms and one
oxygen atom and existing in gaseous, liquid
and solid states. H2O is important to our
everyday life and key to our survival. H2O plays
many important roles in the body including
flushing waste from the body, regulating body
temperatures, transportation of nutrients and
is necessary for digestion. H2O is one the best
of all around solvent.
Pure water (purified water) is water that has been mechanically filtered or
processed to remove impurities and make it suitable for use.
Pure water (H2O) has a neutral pH of 7. pH is a measure of how acidic basic
water is. The range goes from 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral. pHs of less than
7 indicate acidity, whereas a pH of greater than 7 indicates a base.
pH is really a measure of the relative amount of free hydrogen and hydroxyl
ions in the water. Water that has more free hydrogen ions is acidic, whereas
water that has more free hydroxyl ions is basic.
Since pH can be affected by chemicals in the water, pH is an important indicator
of water that changes chemically.
Diagram of pH
As this diagram shows, pH ranges from 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral.
pHs less than 7 are acidic while pHs greater than 7 are alkaline (basic).
Normal rainfall has a pH of about 5.6 slightly acidic due to carbon
dioxide gas from the atmosphere.
IMPORTANT OF pH
The pH of water determines the solubility amount
that can be dissolved in the H2O, and biological
availability (i.e. amount that can be utilized by
aquatic life) of chemical constituents such as nutrients
(phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon) and heavy metals
like lead, copper, cadmium etc. for example, in
addition to affecting how much and what form of
phosphorus is most abundant in the water, pH also
determines where aquatic life can use it.
In the case of heavy metals, the degree to which
they are soluble determines their toxicity. Metals tend
to be more toxic at lower pH because they are more
Pure Water (H2O) Sachet Equipment
• Overhead Tanks 1000l x 4
• Treatment plant
• Automatic packing machine with a UV light
• Activated Carbon filter & micro filter
• Packing materials like nylon, row.
• Using ultraviolet (UV) light for water purification is
necessary because it is the most effective method for
disinfecting bacteria from the water (H2O). Ultraviolet
(UV) rays penetrate harmful pathogens in our home’s water
and destroy illness. Ca using microorganisms by attacking
their genetic core (DNA). This is extremely efficient in
eliminating the ability to reproduce. Disinfecting our water
with ultraviolet (UV) light is exceptionally simple,
effective and environmentally safe or friendly. Ultraviolet
systems destroy 99.99% of harmful microorganisms
without adding chemicals or changing our water’s taste or
odor ultraviolet water purification is usually used with
other forms of filtration such as micron filters, activated
carbon filters or carbon block filters and reverse osmosis
Quartz sleeve Ultraviolet lamp
This diagram shows how ultraviolent work.
Ultraviolet light is cleave (split) into several
different ranges: (near the visible light range) UV-A,
UV-B, UV-C, Vacuum UV (near the x-ray range).
This ultraviolet-B (UV-B) range is what causes
sunburn on humans. Ultraviolet water purifies uses
the UV-C range because of its germicidal abilities. In
this range the light will break molecular bonds in the
DNA of viruses and bacteria, rendering them unable
to reproduce and effectively killing them.
It is important to avoid drinking any that is
potentially contaminated from bacteria to protect
ourselves from any water borne bacterial disease.
• Ultraviolet (UV) H2O purification Advantages
• Chemical free – Ultraviolet purification does not use
any chemicals like chlorine or leave any harmful by
• Taste or odor free – ultraviolet does not add any
chemical taste or odor to the H2O.
• Extremely effective – one of the most effective was to
kill disease causing microbes by destroying 99.99%.
• Requires very little energy: uses about the same
energy as it would to run a 60 Walt light bulb.
• Low maintenance – set and forgets types of system,
just change UV bulb annually.
• Limitation in Ultraviolet Water System
• Ultraviolet purification itself is not
enough to purify water down to drinking
water purposes. This is because the
ultraviolet radiation is only effective for
treating bacteria and viruses. Ultraviolet
(UV) light does not work to eliminate
contaminants such as chlorine, heavy
metals like copper, iron and volatile
organic compound (VOC’s).
• Ozone generator water treatment
• By ozonation: This can work by injected into water, and
immediately starts oxidizing and eliminating
contaminants, such as bacteria, viruses and metals.
Ozone oxidizes organic material in the membranes of
bacteria, viruses, and parasites.
• Activated carbon H2O filter or carbon block filters.
These carbon water filters are effective ways to remove
most chemical contaminants like chlorine, lead,
pesticides, petrochemicals and toxins. It work by passing
the water through a permeable membrane that absorbs
• Using chlorine as water disinfectant. These work when
chlorine is added to water, it destroys the membrane of
micro organism and kills them.
• The range of chlorine is 0.2 to 0.5 mg/l
so, water requires 2.0mg/l of chlorine to
destroys all organisms.
• Adding 1.5mg/l water not disinfected
• Adding 2.0mg/l all organisms destroyed
but no chlorine left to deal with future
• Adding 2.5mg/l all organisms destroyed
and 0.5mg residual chlorine remaining.
Water treatment plant refers a plant that used to purify
These substances may be solid, liquid and semi-solid.
Advantages of H2Opurification
1. It improves water quality: Water purification system remove all types of
contaminants and hazardous substances from water, which makes the water
clean and safe to drink.
2. It removes lead from the water: Lead is deemed (considered) to be the
major cause of nervous disorders in kids, while it makes adults suffer from
severe health issues such as increased blood pressure, cardiovascular effects,
and incidence of hypertension.
3. It prevents carcinogens from invading your body: contaminated H2O
contain several hazardous minerals and metals that can precipitate into
cancer in your body.
1. It also removes chlorine from H2O: It is crucial to ensure that the water
you are drinking is chlorine-free.
2. Clean water equals better skin: Water is crucial for our body as it helps in
cleaning out harmful toxins from the body. Consumption of clean water
makes sure that toxins are eliminated and pH is maintained in your skin and
3. It keeps the Doctor away: If you don’t like going to the clinic and seeing a
doctor, it is a wise idea to invest in water system installation. Most of the
health problems begin with contaminated water.
There is no denying the fact that clean and germ-free water is essential to
stay healthy and live a long life. To ensure clean water for you and your family,
it is advisable to invest in water treatment solutions that are ideal for providing
delicious crystal clear, and soft drinking water that you can use to drink, cook,
bathe and manage and chores.