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Chibuzor Ngozi's slide.pptx

  1. 1. REPORT OF FOUR-MONTHS INDUSTRIAL TRIAINING AT O’GALA TABLE WATER COMPANY, NSUKKA STUDENT INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPEIRENCE SCHEME (SIWES): EMT 412 BY ODIKE CHIBUZOR NGOZI REG. NO. EMT/14/82120 DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND TOXICOLOGY FACULTY OF NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (CNREM) MICHAEL OKPARA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, UMUDIKE, AUGUST, 2021
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Water (H2O) is a chemical compound consisting of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom and existing in gaseous, liquid and solid states. H2O is important to our everyday life and key to our survival. H2O plays many important roles in the body including flushing waste from the body, regulating body temperatures, transportation of nutrients and is necessary for digestion. H2O is one the best of all around solvent.
  3. 3. Pure water (purified water) is water that has been mechanically filtered or processed to remove impurities and make it suitable for use.  Pure water (H2O) has a neutral pH of 7. pH is a measure of how acidic basic water is. The range goes from 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral. pHs of less than 7 indicate acidity, whereas a pH of greater than 7 indicates a base. pH is really a measure of the relative amount of free hydrogen and hydroxyl ions in the water. Water that has more free hydrogen ions is acidic, whereas water that has more free hydroxyl ions is basic. Since pH can be affected by chemicals in the water, pH is an important indicator of water that changes chemically.
  4. 4. Diagram of pH As this diagram shows, pH ranges from 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral. pHs less than 7 are acidic while pHs greater than 7 are alkaline (basic). Normal rainfall has a pH of about 5.6 slightly acidic due to carbon dioxide gas from the atmosphere. 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 0 Neutral ACID Ph BASE
  5. 5. IMPORTANT OF pH The pH of water determines the solubility amount that can be dissolved in the H2O, and biological availability (i.e. amount that can be utilized by aquatic life) of chemical constituents such as nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon) and heavy metals like lead, copper, cadmium etc. for example, in addition to affecting how much and what form of phosphorus is most abundant in the water, pH also determines where aquatic life can use it. In the case of heavy metals, the degree to which they are soluble determines their toxicity. Metals tend to be more toxic at lower pH because they are more soluble.
  6. 6. Pure Water (H2O) Sachet Equipment • Overhead Tanks 1000l x 4 • Treatment plant • Automatic packing machine with a UV light • Activated Carbon filter & micro filter • Chlorine • Packing materials like nylon, row.
  7. 7. • Using ultraviolet (UV) light for water purification is necessary because it is the most effective method for disinfecting bacteria from the water (H2O). Ultraviolet (UV) rays penetrate harmful pathogens in our home’s water and destroy illness. Ca using microorganisms by attacking their genetic core (DNA). This is extremely efficient in eliminating the ability to reproduce. Disinfecting our water with ultraviolet (UV) light is exceptionally simple, effective and environmentally safe or friendly. Ultraviolet systems destroy 99.99% of harmful microorganisms without adding chemicals or changing our water’s taste or odor ultraviolet water purification is usually used with other forms of filtration such as micron filters, activated carbon filters or carbon block filters and reverse osmosis systems.
  8. 8. Power supply -End cap Water inlet Sterilized H2O outlet Quartz sleeve Ultraviolet lamp This diagram shows how ultraviolent work.
  9. 9. Ultraviolet light is cleave (split) into several different ranges: (near the visible light range) UV-A, UV-B, UV-C, Vacuum UV (near the x-ray range). This ultraviolet-B (UV-B) range is what causes sunburn on humans. Ultraviolet water purifies uses the UV-C range because of its germicidal abilities. In this range the light will break molecular bonds in the DNA of viruses and bacteria, rendering them unable to reproduce and effectively killing them. It is important to avoid drinking any that is potentially contaminated from bacteria to protect ourselves from any water borne bacterial disease.
  10. 10. • Ultraviolet (UV) H2O purification Advantages • Chemical free – Ultraviolet purification does not use any chemicals like chlorine or leave any harmful by products. • Taste or odor free – ultraviolet does not add any chemical taste or odor to the H2O. • Extremely effective – one of the most effective was to kill disease causing microbes by destroying 99.99%. • Requires very little energy: uses about the same energy as it would to run a 60 Walt light bulb. • Low maintenance – set and forgets types of system, just change UV bulb annually.
  11. 11. • Limitation in Ultraviolet Water System • Ultraviolet purification itself is not enough to purify water down to drinking water purposes. This is because the ultraviolet radiation is only effective for treating bacteria and viruses. Ultraviolet (UV) light does not work to eliminate contaminants such as chlorine, heavy metals like copper, iron and volatile organic compound (VOC’s).
  12. 12. • Ozone generator water treatment • By ozonation: This can work by injected into water, and immediately starts oxidizing and eliminating contaminants, such as bacteria, viruses and metals. Ozone oxidizes organic material in the membranes of bacteria, viruses, and parasites. • Activated carbon H2O filter or carbon block filters. These carbon water filters are effective ways to remove most chemical contaminants like chlorine, lead, pesticides, petrochemicals and toxins. It work by passing the water through a permeable membrane that absorbs the pollutants. • Using chlorine as water disinfectant. These work when chlorine is added to water, it destroys the membrane of micro organism and kills them.
  13. 13. • The range of chlorine is 0.2 to 0.5 mg/l so, water requires 2.0mg/l of chlorine to destroys all organisms. • Adding 1.5mg/l water not disinfected • Adding 2.0mg/l all organisms destroyed but no chlorine left to deal with future contamination. • Adding 2.5mg/l all organisms destroyed and 0.5mg residual chlorine remaining.
  14. 14. Water treatment plant refers a plant that used to purify contaminated substances. These substances may be solid, liquid and semi-solid.
  15. 15. Advantages of H2Opurification 1. It improves water quality: Water purification system remove all types of contaminants and hazardous substances from water, which makes the water clean and safe to drink. 2. It removes lead from the water: Lead is deemed (considered) to be the major cause of nervous disorders in kids, while it makes adults suffer from severe health issues such as increased blood pressure, cardiovascular effects, and incidence of hypertension. 3. It prevents carcinogens from invading your body: contaminated H2O contain several hazardous minerals and metals that can precipitate into cancer in your body.
  16. 16. 1. It also removes chlorine from H2O: It is crucial to ensure that the water you are drinking is chlorine-free. 2. Clean water equals better skin: Water is crucial for our body as it helps in cleaning out harmful toxins from the body. Consumption of clean water makes sure that toxins are eliminated and pH is maintained in your skin and body. 3. It keeps the Doctor away: If you don’t like going to the clinic and seeing a doctor, it is a wise idea to invest in water system installation. Most of the health problems begin with contaminated water.
  17. 17. CONCLUSION There is no denying the fact that clean and germ-free water is essential to stay healthy and live a long life. To ensure clean water for you and your family, it is advisable to invest in water treatment solutions that are ideal for providing delicious crystal clear, and soft drinking water that you can use to drink, cook, bathe and manage and chores.
  18. 18. THANKS FOR LISTENING

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