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  2. 2. Introduction• Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a clinic al syndrome (a group of various illnesses that together characterize a disease.)• It results from damage to the immune system caused by infection with HIV-1 (in green) budding the human from cultured lymphocyte. immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  3. 3. • In HIV- infected individuals, there is a gradual loss of immune cells (called CD4+ T-lymphocytes) and immune function.• The mechanisms by which HIV causes this immune deficiency are still not completely understood, although direct infection of HIV-1 attacking the CD4- CD4+ T-lymphocytes lymphocytes by HIV certainly plays a role.
  4. 4. World’s AIDS mapObservations-Most affected regions- USA, South Africa ,Eastern Africa, IndiaSeverely affected regions- China , Russia, Brazil, VietnamLess affected regions –Australia, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan
  5. 5. Symptoms• People with AIDS often have systemic symptoms of infection like fevers, sweats(particularly at night), swollen glands, chills, weakness, and weight loss.• The symptoms of AIDS are primarily the result of conditions that do not normally develop in individuals with healthy immune systems.• Most of these conditions are infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.
  6. 6. Other symptom’s People with AIDS also have  Click to edit Master text styles •  Second level an increased risk of  Third level developing various cancers  Fourth level such as Kaposi’s sarcoma-  Fifth level High-grade B cell lymphomas such as Burkitt’s lymphoma pictured left-
  7. 7. HIV tests (Diagnosis)HIV antibody test-• HIV antibody tests are the most appropriate test for routine diagnosis of HIV among adults. Antibody tests are inexpensive and very accurate • An HIV antibody test looks for these antibodies• When a person is infected with in blood, saliva or urine. If HIV, their body responds by antibodies are detected, it producing special proteins that means a person has been fight infection, called infected with HIV. antibodies.
  8. 8. PCR (Polymerase chainreaction ) Test-• A PCR test (Polymerase Chain Reaction test) can detect the genetic material of HIV rather than the antibodies to the virus, and so can identify HIV in the blood within two or three weeks of infection.• But, they are very expensive A Human Immunodeficiency and more complicated to Virus (HIV) virus. In the middle of the administer and interpret than virus is its viral genetic material. a standard antibody test.
  9. 9. Treatment• Drugs are not a cure, but they can stop people from becoming ill for many years.• The treatment consists of drugs that have to be taken every day for the rest of a person’s life. These drugs are often known as –• Some examples- • Antiretrovirals • Anti-HIV drugs or Anti-AIDS• Aptivus drugs• Norvir • HIV antiviral drugs• Atripla • ARVs
  10. 10. Combination Therapy• Taking two or more antiretroviral drugs at a time is called combination therapy.• If only one drug was taken, HIV would quickly become resistant to it.• Taking two or more antiretrovirals at the same time vastly reduces the rate at which Antiretrovirals kept resistance would develop, together in a box. making treatment more effective in the long term.
  11. 11. Prevention• Globally, the most common route of HIV transmission is through sexual contact.• The use of condoms is vital in helping to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.• Condoms also help to prevent infection by STDs, such as “ AIDS: Your Problem, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, and Control With Condoms”. hepatitis B. A road sign in Botswana.
  12. 12. Condom A condom awareness programme in Argentina.A condom prevents thetransmission of AIDSthrough the sexual contact
  13. 13. Such groups have helped raise public awareness about acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), which affects millions of people worldwide.These are some of the birthcontrol devices whichprevent the contact of theegg and the sperm.
  14. 14. Many cases of HIV transmission occurred through contaminated blood and transfusions which is prevented by screening and heat procedures.HIV-infected mothers should avoidbreast-feeding their infant ifreplacement feeding is acceptable,feasible, affordable, sustainable andsafe
  15. 15. “ If our tears do not lead us to act then we have lost the reason of our humanity which is compassion” The Dalai Lama
  16. 16. Awareness Campaigns• In 1990, HIV-infected individuals were included in the Americans with Disabilities Act so that it became illegal to discriminate against such individuals for jobs, housing, and other social benefits. The AIDS quilt travels on display to promote public awareness of AIDS• Sex education is now Each panel is individually designed started in some schools and is dedicated to the memory of to promote Sexual someone who has died of AIDS. awareness.
  17. 17. Famous celebrities engaged in AIDS Awareness “Magic” Johnson Princess Diana Bill Clinton“Imgoing to beat it and Im going to havefun.” - "Magic" Johnson - referring to his HIV-positive status.
  18. 18. AIDS in IndiaLess than 25% of HIV+ children in India have access to anti-retroviral treatment2.4 million people are living with HIV in India, therefore, having thesecond highest HIV prevalence worldwideIndia faces a different challenge with AIDS, largely in part to culturalfactors against discussion of sexual practices and the stigma anddiscrimination associated with testing positive for HIV and rejection fromfamiliesHIV/AIDS is driven by unsafe sex, sex workers and injecting drug usersDue to the large prevalence in India, there are more orphans than anyother country in the worldOrphans not only are they facing the emotional trauma of dealing withthe death of a parent but now have to worry about where their next mealwill come from, how they will get to school and who will raise theirsiblings.
  19. 19. “History will judge us by how we cared for our children, how we protected the weak and the powerless. Civilization is determined by our love” Albert Einstein