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  1. 1. Heat and Mass Transfer: Fundamentals & Applications Third Edition Yunus A. Cengel Chapter 3 STEADY HEAT CONDUCTION
  2. 2. STEADY HEAT CONDUCTION IN PLANE WALLS Heat transfer through the wall of a house can be modeled as steady and one-dimensional. The temperature of the wall in this case depends on one direction only (say the x-direction) and can be expressed as T(x). for steady operation In steady operation, the rate of heat transfer through the wall is constant. Fourier’s law of heat conduction 2
  3. 3. The rate of heat conduction through a plane wall is proportional to the average thermal conductivity, the wall area, and the temperature difference, but is inversely proportional to the wall thickness. Once the rate of heat conduction is available, the temperature T(x) at any location x can be determined byUnder steady conditions, the replacing T2 by T, and L by x.temperature distribution in a planewall is a straight line: dT/dx = const. 3
  4. 4. Thermal Resistance ConceptConduction resistance of thewall: Thermal resistance of thewall against heat conduction.Thermal resistance of a medium Analogy between thermal and electricaldepends on the geometry and the resistance concepts.thermal properties of the medium. rate of heat transfer  electric current thermal resistance  electrical resistance Electrical resistance temperature difference  voltage difference 4
  5. 5. Newton’s law of coolingConvection resistance of thesurface: Thermal resistance of thesurface against heat convection. Schematic for convection resistance at a surface.When the convection heat transfer coefficient is very large (h → ),the convection resistance becomes zero and Ts  T.That is, the surface offers no resistance to convection, and thus itdoes not slow down the heat transfer process.This situation is approached in practice at surfaces where boilingand condensation occur. 5
  6. 6. Radiation resistance of the surface: Thermal resistance of the surface against radiation.Radiation heat transfer coefficientCombined heat transfercoefficient Schematic for convection and radiation 6 resistances at a surface.
  7. 7. Thermal Resistance NetworkThe thermal resistance network for heat transfer through a plane wall subjected toconvection on both sides, and the electrical analogy. 7
  8. 8. Temperature drop U overall heat transfer coefficientOnce Q is evaluated, thesurface temperature T1 canbe determined from The temperature drop across a layer is proportional to its thermal resistance. 8
  9. 9. Multilayer Plane WallsThe thermal resistancenetwork for heat transferthrough a two-layer planewall subjected toconvection on both sides. 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. THERMAL CONTACT RESISTANCETemperature distribution and heat flow lines along two solid plates 11pressed against each other for the case of perfect and imperfect contact.
  12. 12. • When two such surfaces are pressed against each other, the peaks form good material contact but the valleys form voids filled with air.• These numerous air gaps of varying sizes act as insulation because of the low thermal conductivity of air.• Thus, an interface offers some resistance to heat transfer, and this resistance per unit interface area is called the thermal contact resistance, Rc. 12
  13. 13. The value of thermal contact resistance hc thermal contact depends on: conductance • surface roughness, • material properties, • temperature and pressure at the interface • type of fluid trapped at the interface.Thermal contact resistance is significant and can even dominate theheat transfer for good heat conductors such as metals, but can bedisregarded for poor heat conductors such as insulations. 13
  14. 14. The thermal contact resistance can be minimized by applying• a thermal grease such as silicon oil• a better conducting gas such as helium or hydrogen• a soft metallic foil such as tin, silver, Effect of metallic coatings on thermal contact conductance 14 copper, nickel, or aluminum
  15. 15. The thermal contact conductance is highest (and thus the contactresistance is lowest) for soft metals with smooth surfaces at high pressure. 15
  16. 16. GENERALIZED THERMAL RESISTANCE NETWORKS Thermal resistance network for two parallel layers. 16
  17. 17. Two assumptions in solving complex multidimensional heat transfer problems by treating them as one- dimensional using the thermal resistance network are(1) any plane wall normal to the x-axis is isothermal (i.e., to assume the temperature to vary in the x-direction only)(2) any plane parallel to the x-axis is adiabatic (i.e., to assume heat transfer Thermal resistance network for to occur in the x-direction only) combined series-parallelDo they give the same result? 17 arrangement.
  18. 18. HEAT CONDUCTION IN CYLINDERS AND SPHERES Heat transfer through the pipe can be modeled as steady and one-dimensional. The temperature of the pipe depends on one direction only (the radial r-direction) and can be expressed as T = T(r). The temperature is independent of the azimuthal angle or the axial distance. This situation is approximated in practice in long cylindricalHeat is lost from a hot-water pipe to pipes and sphericalthe air outside in the radial direction, containers.and thus heat transfer from a longpipe is one-dimensional. 18
  19. 19. A long cylindrical pipe (or sphericalshell) with specified inner and outersurface temperatures T1 and T2. Conduction resistance of the cylinder layer 19
  20. 20. A spherical shell with specified inner and outer surface temperatures T1 and T2.Conduction resistance of the spherical layer 20
  21. 21. for a cylindrical layer for a spherical layerThe thermal resistancenetwork for a cylindrical (orspherical) shell subjectedto convection from both theinner and the outer sides. 21
  22. 22. Multilayered Cylinders and Spheres The thermal resistance network for heat transfer through a three-layered composite cylinder subjected to convection on both sides. 22
  23. 23. Once heat transfer rate Q has beencalculated, the interface temperatureT2 can be determined from any of the following two relations: 23
  24. 24. CRITICAL RADIUS OF INSULATIONAdding more insulation to a wall orto the attic always decreases heattransfer since the heat transfer areais constant, and adding insulationalways increases the thermalresistance of the wall withoutincreasing the convectionresistance.In a a cylindrical pipe or a sphericalshell, the additional insulationincreases the conductionresistance of the insulation layerbut decreases the convection An insulated cylindrical pipe exposed toresistance of the surface because convection from the outer surface andof the increase in the outer surface the thermal resistance networkarea for convection. associated with it.The heat transfer from the pipemay increase or decrease,depending on which effectdominates. 24
  25. 25. The critical radius of insulationfor a cylindrical body:The critical radius of insulationfor a spherical shell: The largest value of the critical radius we are likely to encounter is We can insulate hot-water or steam pipes freely without The variation of heat transfer worrying about the possibility of rate with the outer radius of the increasing the heat transfer by insulation r2 when r1 < rcr. insulating the pipes. 25