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Presentation By: Umer Khayam Dar BS (Part-III) Evening
<ul><li>The first problem is that the fossil fuels are depleting in a rapid rate and are harder to retrieve. The consequen...
<ul><li>The second problem is that the fossil fuels that are widely used today are harmful for the environment. The earth ...
<ul><li>Another problem lies in the development of small economies. Because the energy prices for  crude oil  are going th...
<ul><li>Solar Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Geothermal Energy </...
<ul><li>It is the energy derived from the Sun; broadly divided into; </li></ul><ul><li>Energy From Sun </li></ul><ul><li>T...
<ul><li>Thermal solar energy can be used to generate electricity and heat water. There are various technologies to achieve...
<ul><li>Photovoltaic cells, commonly known as solar cells, are used to capture the sun’s energy and convert it into direct...
<ul><li>As the term suggests, the stand-alone application is not connected to an energy grid. It involves a solar panel or...
<ul><li>Wind power  is the conversion of  wind  energy into a useful form of energy, such as using  wind turbines  to make...
<ul><li>The larger, global wind patterns, like the prevailing trade winds, are created by the differences in air temperatu...
<ul><li>Biomass energy  can be used for lighting, cooking, space heating, water heating, refrigeration and to fuel vehicle...
<ul><li>Bio energy is renewable and solar in origin. It is renewable as the materials it comes from can be replaced, or gr...
<ul><li>Geothermal energy is a powerful energy source, right under our feet. Just as people in cold countries sometimes sl...
<ul><li>Generally accepted estimates are of temperatures around 7,200 Fahrenheit (or 3,982 Celsius) at 2,500 miles deep (o...
<ul><li>How this energy comes to the surface? </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of magma up into volcanoes, which discharge it as lav...
<ul><li>Nuclear energy provides between 11% and 18% of world electricity needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently there are some...
<ul><li>Fissile atoms contain vast amounts of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear fission, the splitting of a heavy atom’s nu...
<ul><li>Hybrid cars  combine the two energy components of petrol and electricity to produce a hyper-low emission, cheap to...
<ul><li>Hybrid components </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially hybrid vehicles are made up of six interlinked parts </li></ul><ul...
 
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Alternate Energy Sources

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Sequence Stratigraphy Presentation
Umer Khayam
BS Geology Final Year
Department Of Geology
University Of Peshawar
Pakistan

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
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Alternate Energy Sources

  1. 1. Presentation By: Umer Khayam Dar BS (Part-III) Evening
  2. 2. <ul><li>The first problem is that the fossil fuels are depleting in a rapid rate and are harder to retrieve. The consequence is that we can be facing an energy crisis in the future. The energy prices will sky rocket and not be available for many individuals or countries. To avoid this doom scenario we need to find alternatives and used them to their full potential. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The second problem is that the fossil fuels that are widely used today are harmful for the environment. The earth is warming up and climates are changing. There are parts in the world where there be more rain and sunshine and others parts will be come dryer then they already are. Another negative effect is that the ozone layer is getting thinner which also leads to a warming up of the earth. These two effects compliment each other and make it even more crucial to make another step in a different direction. This step will lead us to the use of renewable energy. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Another problem lies in the development of small economies. Because the energy prices for  crude oil  are going through the roof, these countries suffer even more. Many of these countries need crude oil for their electricity and means of transportation. These high oil prices have their effect on almost everything. The monthly electricity costs for households increase among others like transport cost and prices for basic products. Hence, these high oil prices make it harder for these small countries to grow there economies. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Solar Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Geothermal Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid Cars </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>It is the energy derived from the Sun; broadly divided into; </li></ul><ul><li>Energy From Sun </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Electric Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Stand Alone </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Thermal solar energy can be used to generate electricity and heat water. There are various technologies to achieve that, including solar hot water generators on domestic roof tops.  </li></ul><ul><li>A rather spectacular commercial application of solar heating is the  solar tower.  A solar tower is a large solar chimney through which heated air rises and so drives the wind turbines that generate electricity. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Photovoltaic cells, commonly known as solar cells, are used to capture the sun’s energy and convert it into direct current electricity. This can be used in this form or be converted into alternating current, which is like the electricity that is available from the grid. Of course its purposes are as many as they are for electricity,  for lighting , or to run your computer. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>As the term suggests, the stand-alone application is not connected to an energy grid. It involves a solar panel or panels, directly connected to the appliance requiring energy. It is used in solar water heating everywhere and is particularly useful in remote areas where there is no power grid. Excess solar energy can be stored in batteries for use at night or other low-sunshine times. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Wind power  is the conversion of  wind  energy into a useful form of energy, such as using  wind turbines  to make electricity,  wind mills  for mechanical power,  wind pumps  for pumping water or drainage, or sails to propel ships. </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale  wind farms  are connected to the  electric power transmission  network; smaller facilities are used to provide electricity to isolated locations. Utility companies increasingly  buy back surplus electricity  produced by small domestic turbines. Wind energy as a power source is attractive as an alternative to  fossil fuels , because it is plentiful,  renewable , widely distributed, clean, and produces no  greenhouse gas emissions . </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The larger, global wind patterns, like the prevailing trade winds, are created by the differences in air temperature between tropical and polar regions. </li></ul><ul><li>So, factors that influence wind patterns are </li></ul><ul><li>Change of seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Day and night </li></ul><ul><li>Land and water reflectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Humidity </li></ul><ul><li>Friction of wind over different terrain, and </li></ul><ul><li>The Coriolis effect </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Coriolis effect&quot;,you ask? </li></ul><ul><li>Well, the Coriolis effect is that where cyclones spin counterclockwise in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere. These movements are caused by the rotation of the Earth. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Biomass energy  can be used for lighting, cooking, space heating, water heating, refrigeration and to fuel vehicles. </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass energy is not usually on people’s minds as are  alternate energy sources  such as wind, solar or hydropower energy when thinking about renewable sources of energy.Notwithstanding, it represents very common and available forms of energy indeed. It is rapidly becoming a more popular idea as oil prices rocket ever upwards. And it can mitigate global warming. In Europe its current use accounts for 0.95% of energy production. For 2010 that is forecast to be around 8%. In the USA now it accounts for over 3%. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Bio energy is renewable and solar in origin. It is renewable as the materials it comes from can be replaced, or grown, in a short period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>And burning biofuels is not necessarily a contributor to global warming in the way that fossil fuels are. </li></ul><ul><li>Biofuels do not add to the net amount of CO2 already present in the atmosphere. This is because carbon in the biofuel is locked up only for the short period of time in plants or animals and can be considered as recycled as newly growing crops and animals once again take up the atmospheric CO2 used in burning. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Geothermal energy is a powerful energy source, right under our feet. Just as people in cold countries sometimes slept on top of their stoves at night, we live on top of a giant heater: the Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Geo&quot;, a Greek word, means &quot;Earth.&quot; &quot;Thermal&quot;, from &quot;therme&quot;, means &quot;heat.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The deeper into the Earth, towards its centre, the hotter it gets. </li></ul><ul><li>Why are these insides of the Earth so hot? This heat comes from the Earth's heart, it's hot solid, iron core. Around the solid core is the molten core, which is magma. It's surrounding mantle is made of magma and rock. Capping all this is the Earth's crust. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Generally accepted estimates are of temperatures around 7,200 Fahrenheit (or 3,982 Celsius) at 2,500 miles deep (or 4,032 km). More recent estimates say that at the boundary between the Earth's core and its mantle, heat measures around 6,665 degrees Fahrenheit (3,677 Celsius). That's at a depth of around 1,860 miles (3,000 km). </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>How this energy comes to the surface? </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of magma up into volcanoes, which discharge it as lava </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of underground water, or steam, naturally heated deep in the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of water, or steam, injected and retrieved by human effort </li></ul><ul><li>Modern human use of geothermal energy derives two types of power </li></ul><ul><li>Using hot water directly </li></ul><ul><li>Converting heat into electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Geothermal energy is accessible in many places. In the USA alone, recoverable geothermal energy is thought to represent 130,000 times its current annual energy consumption! </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Nuclear energy provides between 11% and 18% of world electricity needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently there are some 442 nuclear reactors in the world with at least another 12 under construction in Asian countries, Brazil and Finland. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy demands are growing fast everywhere and we cannot afford to continue to meet them with finite and polluting fossil fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>During the last decade in the previous century world energy use grew by 20% and has been at around 3% per year and growing. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Fissile atoms contain vast amounts of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear fission, the splitting of a heavy atom’s nucleus, releases great amounts of energy. For example the energy it releases is 10 million times greater than is released by the burning of an atom of fossil fuel. Besides it would take many hectares of land covered with solar collectors, wind farms or hydro-electric dams to equal this power. </li></ul><ul><li>No  greenhouse gases are released by nuclear power plants. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Hybrid cars  combine the two energy components of petrol and electricity to produce a hyper-low emission, cheap to run, quiet motor vehicle that recharges itself as you drive. Good for planet earth, and for your wallet. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages Of Hybrid Cars </li></ul><ul><li>Very low greenhouse emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Low fuel cost </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces national foreign oil dependency </li></ul><ul><li>Good resale value </li></ul><ul><li>Overcomes limited drive range of electric carIncentives </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Hybrid components </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially hybrid vehicles are made up of six interlinked parts </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel tank.  The fuel tank stores the energy sources, petrol, for its gasoline engine. </li></ul><ul><li>Gasoline engine.  It’s a much smaller gasoline engine compared to a conventional engine as discussed already. Unlike the electric motor, which can charge batteries  and  draw from them, it’s a one way street of fuel from tank to engine. </li></ul><ul><li>Electric motor.  It has the dual functions of a motor and generator. It can act as a brake and transfer this braking energy to the batteries and draw electricity from the batteries when needed, such as during acceleration. </li></ul><ul><li>Generator.  It produces electrical energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Batteries.  These are the &quot;fuel tank&quot; for the electric motor. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission.  Like in conventional cars, the transmission transmits energy produced by the engine to the car’s wheels. </li></ul>

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