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Gastrorentive drug delivery systems


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Published in: Health & Medicine

Gastrorentive drug delivery systems

  2. 2. CONTENTS  Introduction  Appropriate Candidate Drugs For GRDDS  Advantages  Limitations  Approaches  Conclusion  References 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • Oral Drug Delivery is widely used in pharmaceutical field to treat the diseases. • Some drugs are absorbed at specific site only these require release at that specific site. • Gastro Retentive Drug Delivery(GRDDS) is one of the site specific drug delivery for the delivery of the drugs at stomach. • Retaining the Dosage Form in stomach and drug is being released at controlled manner at specific site 3
  4. 4. APPROPRIATE CANDIDATE DRUGS FOR GRDDS • Drugs - acting locally in the stomach. E.g. Antacids and drugs for H. Pylori viz., Misoprostol. • Drugs - primarily absorbed in the stomach. E.g. Amoxicillin • Drugs - poorly soluble at alkaline pH. E.g. Furosamide, Diazepam, Verapamil, etc. • Drugs - with a narrow absorption window. E.g. Cyclosporine, , Levodopa, Methotrexate etc. • Drugs - absorbed rapidly from the GI tract. E.g. Metronidazole, tetracycline. • Drugs that degrade in the colon. E.g. Ranitidine, Metformin. • Drugs that disturb normal colonic microbes E.g. antibiotics against Helicobacter pylori. 4
  5. 5. ADVANTAGES  Enhanced bioavailability  Sustained drug delivery/reduced frequency of Dosing  Targeted therapy for local ailments in the upper GIT  Reduced fluctuations of drug concentration  Improved selectivity in receptor activation  Reduced counter-activity of the body  Extended effective concentration.  Minimized adverse activity at the colon. 5
  6. 6. LIMITATIONS  The drug substances that are unstable in the acidic environment of the stomach are not suitable candidates to be incorporated in the systems.  These systems require a high level of fluid in the stomach for drug delivery to float and work efficiently.  Not suitable for drugs that have solubility or stability problem in GIT.  Drugs which are irritant to gastric mucosa are also not suitable  These systems do not offer significant advantages over the conventional dosage forms for drugs, which are absorbed throughout GIT. 6
  7. 7. APPROACHES FOR PROLONGING THE GASTRIC RESIDENCE TIME High-density systems. (HDS) • Floating systems. (FS) • Swelling and expanding S S A S • F S HDS systems. (SS) • Mucoadhesive & Bioadhesive systems. (AS) 7
  9. 9. HIGH DENSITY SYSTEM • Gastric contents have a density close to water (1.004 g cm−3). When the patient take high-density pellets, they sink to the bottom of the stomach where they become entrapped in the folds of the antrum and withstand the peristaltic waves of the stomach wall. • A density close to 2.5 g cm−3 seems necessary for significant prolongation of gastric residence time. • Barium sulphate, zinc oxide, iron powder, and titanium dioxide are examples for excipients used. 9
  10. 10. FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY These have a bulk density lower than the gastric content. They remain buoyant in the stomach for a prolonged period of time, with the potential for continuous release of drug. They Include:  Hydrodynamically balanced systems (HBS)  Gas-generating systems  Volatile liquid/ vacuum containing systems  Raft-forming systems  Low-density systems 10
  11. 11. GAS GENERATING SYSTEMS • Carbonates or bicarbonates, which react with gastric acid or any other acid (e.g., citric or tartaric) present in the formulation to produce CO 2 , are usually incorporated in the dosage form, thus reducing the density of the system and making it float on the media. 11
  12. 12. MATRIX TABLETS Single layer matrix tablet is prepared by incorporating bicarbonates in matrix forming hydrocolloid gelling agent like HPMC, Chitosin, Alginate or other polymers and drug. Bilayer tablet can also be prepared by gas generating matrix in one layer and second layer with drug for its SR effect. Triple layer tablet also prepared having first swellable floating layer with bicarbonates, second sustained release layer of drug and third rapid dissolving layer of bismuth salt. 12
  13. 13. INFLATABLE GASTROINTESTINAL DELIVERY • System is incorporated with an inflatable chamber which contains liquid ether - gasifies at body temperature to cause the chamber to inflate in stomach. • Inflatable chamber is loaded with a drug reservoir which can be a drug, impregnated polymeric then encapsulated in a gelatin capsule. 13
  14. 14. INTRAGASTRIC OSMOTICALLY CONTROLLED DDS  Comprised of both an osmotic pressure controlled drug delivery device and an inflatable floating support in a biodegradable capsule.  In stomach, the capsule quickly disintegrates and release the intragastric osmotically controlled drug delivery device.  Inflatable support forms a deformable hollow polymeric bag containing liquid that gasifies at body temperature to inflate the bag. Consists of 2 compartments: • Drug reservoir • Osmotically active compartment. 14
  15. 15. INTRA-GASTRIC FLOATING GASTROINTESTINAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS System can be float by flotation chamber, which may be vacuum or filled with air or a harmless gas Drug reservoir is encapsulated inside a microporous compartment 15
  16. 16. HYDRODYNAMICALLY BALANCED SYSYTEMS  Prepared by incorporating a high level (20-75%w/w) gel-forming hydrocolloids. e.g.:- Hydoxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, HPMC & Sod. CMC into the formulation and then compressing these granules into a tablets or capsules.  It maintains the bulk density less than 1. 16
  17. 17. RAFT FORMING SYSTEM This system is used for delivery of antacids and drug delivery for treatment of gastrointestinal infections and disorders. The mechanism involved in this system includes the formation of a viscous cohesive gel in contact with gastric fluids, forming a continuous layer called raft. 17
  18. 18. HOLLOW MICROSPHERES Polymers used commonly: Polycarbonates, Cellulose acetate, Calcium alginate, Eudragit S, agar and methoxylated pectin etc. 18
  19. 19. ALGINATE BEADS • Prepared by dropping sodium alginate solution into aqueous solution of calcium chloride, causing the precipitation of calcium alginate • Freeze dry in liquid nitrogen at -40 o c for 24h. • Beads-spherical and 2.5 mm in diameter. SUPERPOROUS HYDROGELS Swellable agents have pore size ranging between 10nm to 10µm. Superporous hydrogels will swell more than the swelling ratio 100, This is achieved by coformulation of a hydrophilic particulate material, and AcDi-Sol (crosscarmellose). 19
  20. 20. EXPANDABLE SYSTEMS 1.UNFOLDED SYSTEMS 2.SWELLABLE SYSTEMS  The swelling is usually results from osmotic absorption of water.  The device gradually decreases in volume and rigidity as a result depletion of drug and expanding agent and/or bioerosion of polymer layer, enabling its elimination. 20
  21. 21. MUCOADHESIVE SYSTEMS • The basis of mucoadhesion is that a dosage form can stick to the mucosal surface by different mechanisms. • Examples for Materials commonly used for bioadhesion are poly (acrylic acid) (Carbopol®, polycarbophil), chitosin, Gantrez® (Polymethyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride copolymers), cholestyramine, tragacanth, sodium alginate 21
  22. 22. MAGNETIC SYSTEM Based upon the principle that dosage form contains a small internal magnet, and a magnet placed on the abdomen over the position of stomach can enhance the GRT. 22
  23. 23. Marketed Products of GRDDS Brand name Delivery system Drug (dose) Company name Valrelease® Floating capsule Diazepam (15mg) Hoffmann-LaRoche, USA Madopar® HBS (Prolopa® HBS) Floating, CR capsule Benserazide (25mg) and Ldopa (100mg) Roche Products, USA Liquid Gaviscon® Effervescent Floating liquid alginate preparations Al hydroxide (95 mg), Mg Carbonate (358 mg) GlaxoSmithkline, India Topalkan® Floating liquid alginate Preparation Al – Mg antacid Pierre Fabre Drug, France Conviron® Colloidal gel forming FDDS Ferrous sulphate Ranbaxy, India Cytotech® Bilayer floating capsule Misoprostol (100μg/200μg) Pharmacia, USA Cifran OD® Gas-generating floating form Ciprofloxacin (1gm) Ranbaxy, India 23
  24. 24. CONCLUSION • Gastro retentive drug delivery systems have emerged as a current approach of controlled delivery of drugs that exhibit an absorption window . • All these drug delivery systems have their own advantages and drawbacks. • To design a successful GRDDS, it is necessary to take into consideration the physicochemical properties of the drug, physiological events in the GIT, formulation strategies, and correct combination of drug and excipients. 24
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