Constructed Wetlands a Novel
initiative for Waste water
treatment to attain Sustainable
Umang K Shaha, Anant Mitraa, Renuka Dharwarkara, J.S.Sudarsanb*,R.Annaduraib*
aUnder Graduate student, SRM University, kattankulathur, Chennai 603203, India
b*Faculty of Civil Engineering, SRM University, kattankulathur, Chennai 603203, India
Umang K Shah, Anant Mitra
The major environmental pollution is caused by improper disposal wastewater, due to the
outflow of effluents from various areas of domestic and industrial sources.
This pollution also interferes with the growth of organisms living in the water bodies, thus
retarding the natural purification process caused by such organisms.
Hence treatment of this water becomes very necessary.
Some of the suitable wastewater treatment processes for domestic wastewater include
biological treatment processes, such as activated sludge, trickling filter, and rotating
biological contractor systems.
The treated wastewater from these types of wastewater treatment plants might require further
treatment with a tertiary treatment process, such as a constructed wetland (CW), to improve
the treated wastewater quality.
Constructed wetlands are man-made wetlands built to remove various types of
pollutants present in wastewater that flows through these systems. They are constructed
to recreate the structure and function of natural wetlands. They possess a rich microbial
community to effect the biochemical transformation of pollutants, they are biologically
productive and most important, and they are self-sustaining.
Lab Based Constructed Wetland Model
CWS on a pilot scale
In the 20 litre plastic container was used to provide a continuous flow of wastewater through the
The pilot scale constructed wetland unit was a PVC container of length, width and depth of 70 cm,
40 cm, and 30 cm, respectively. It placed with slope 1% between inlet and outlet zones. The gravel
with the size of 10-30 mm was put into the inlet and outlet zones in each cell in order to produce a
uniform distributed flow. Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR) was placed in the soil for bacterial
The filter media consist of a sand bed underlain by a permeable layer. The bed was filled to a
height of 7 cm with sand followed by a 7cm with gravel of diameter 10-30 mm.
Common Reed (Phragmites australis) and Common Cattail (Typha latifolia) are local wetland
species, was used in the study.
The outlet zone is filled with coarse gravel placed in the outlet of the constructed wetland to
enhance effluent collection
METHOD OF COLLECTION OF SAMPLE
Domestic sewage water was collected from the sewage treatment plant present in the campus
Dairy and leachate water is collected in accordance with APHA (American Public Health
The wastewater samples were analyzed in accordance to APHA 21st edition.
The samples were studied for various parameters and the reduction
percentages were noted down. The variation of the various parameters with
respect to time are plotted in the Graphs. The analysis was carried out for
the three types of wastewater and similar reduction percentages for the
various parameters were observed. The preliminary studies revealed that
water collected from outlet zone can be utilized for various purposes like
irrigating fields, all domestic purposes except for drinking.
Constructed wetlands with horizontal sub-
surface flow have successfully been used for
treatment of domestic wastewater. The
concentrations of parameters BOD, COD,
TSS, TDS, TOC, Turbidity, N and PO4 in the
influent of wastewater from sewage
treatment plant in SRM University were
studied with Normal constructed wetland
and integrated constructed wetland setup.
Constructed wetland was prepared on field
scale and successful results were obtained.
Field Scale Constructed Wetland Model
at SRM University.
Working field scale model of Constructed Wetland at SRM University
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