Curriculum & components of curriculum (by umair ahraf)


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curriculum & Components of Curriculum (by umair ahraf)

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Curriculum & components of curriculum (by umair ahraf)

  1. 2. Old Concept of Curriculum <ul><li>A list of books provided to the student in the class room. </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to the class room and content. </li></ul>
  2. 3. Modern Concept of Curriculum <ul><li>Curriculum is interpreted to mean all the organized activities, courses and experiences which a student have under the direction of the school whether in the classroom or not. </li></ul><ul><li>By Stephen Romine (Building the high school curriculum) </li></ul>
  3. 4. Modern Concept of Curriculum (Cont..) <ul><li>Oliver (1965) :- </li></ul><ul><li> Oliver is of the opinion that curriculum is something felt rather than some thing to be seen. </li></ul><ul><li>Saylor & Alexander :- </li></ul><ul><li>The curriculum is the sum of the school efforts to influence learning whether in the class room, on the playground or out of school. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Modern Concept of Curriculum (Cont..) <ul><li>Tyler :- </li></ul><ul><li>“ All of the learning of students which are planned by and directed by the school to attain its educational objectives” </li></ul>
  5. 6. Two Conditions of Curriculum <ul><li>To implement / organize by an educational institution or school. </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve the educational objectives. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Role of Curriculum in National Development <ul><li>Curriculum role as observed in educational policy 1979 should aim at enabling the learners to acquire knowledge, develop concept, skills, attitudes and values. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge 33% (Cognitive domain) </li></ul><ul><li>Concept 33% (Effective domain) </li></ul><ul><li>Skills 33% (Psycho motor domain) </li></ul><ul><li>The role of curriculum further includes: </li></ul>
  7. 8. Role of Curriculum in National Development (Cont..) <ul><li>Curriculum and Developing Democratic Life: - </li></ul><ul><li>The four most demands of present society on our education is the development of a vital democracy. </li></ul><ul><li>The development of every individual according to his capacities. </li></ul><ul><li>The development of faith in democratic principals and process, </li></ul><ul><li>The development of enlighten and responsible citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>The encouragement of leadership at all levels. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Role of Curriculum in National Development (Cont..) <ul><li>Raising Standards of Living:- </li></ul><ul><li>The nation's economic growth would be able to ensure minimum standard of living of all the citizens through. </li></ul><ul><li>The improvement of productive efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>The full use of man power and natural recourses. </li></ul><ul><li>Stemming the fast growth of population </li></ul><ul><li>Helping in obtaining self-sufficiency in food and technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Opening up more channels of employment </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Curriculum & National Integration:- </li></ul><ul><li>Today the promotion of national integration has paramount importance to Pakistan, our citizens must therefore : - </li></ul><ul><li>Be imbued with love of motherland. </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate the richness of culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the respect of every faith. </li></ul>Role of Curriculum in National Development (Cont..)
  10. 11. <ul><li>Curriculum & Modernizing the Society : - </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan’s image should be tied up with advancement in science & Technology. </li></ul><ul><li>If we want to modernize the social order and keep pace (speed of progress) with the fast changing world. </li></ul><ul><li>This should have to be reflected in our curriculum. </li></ul>Role of Curriculum in National Development (Cont..)
  11. 12. Culture and Curriculum <ul><li>Culture is dominant on curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Two major parts of culture are:- </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul></ul>Values Transfer Transmit (as Such / with No Change) School follows Society Static Transform (With Some Change) School will Lead the Society Dynamic
  12. 13. Culture and Curriculum <ul><li>Cultural Lag :- </li></ul><ul><li>The curriculum is </li></ul><ul><li>always in every society a </li></ul><ul><li>reflection of what people </li></ul><ul><li>think, feel, believe and do. To understand the structure and function of the curriculum it is necessary to understand, What is Culture? </li></ul>Cultural Lag Technology. Development Values Development
  13. 14. The Meaning of Culture <ul><li>A culture is the fabric of ideas, ideals, believes, skills, method of thinking, customs and institution into which each member of society is born. </li></ul><ul><li>The culture is that part of environment that man himself made. A culture will vary from society to society and within the same society over a period of time. </li></ul>
  14. 15. The Elements of Culture <ul><li>Universals </li></ul><ul><li>Specialties </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives </li></ul>
  15. 16. The Elements of Culture (cont.) <ul><li>Universals : - </li></ul><ul><li>These are the elements that are </li></ul><ul><li>universally distributed among the population. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals through out the society eat the </li></ul><ul><li>same food, wear the same style of cloths, use the </li></ul><ul><li>same language etc. </li></ul><ul><li>All such things are generally accepted by the </li></ul><ul><li>member of the society are called universals. </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible that a universal element in one </li></ul><ul><li>society would not appear in another society. </li></ul>
  16. 17. The Elements of Culture (cont.) <ul><li>Specialties :- </li></ul><ul><li>Some elements of culture are </li></ul><ul><li>found among only a portion of population. In </li></ul><ul><li>every society there are something that only a part of people know about or can do. </li></ul><ul><li>All these are called Specialties. </li></ul><ul><li>All professions can be categorize as specialties. </li></ul>
  17. 18. The Elements of Culture (cont.) <ul><li>Alternatives : - </li></ul><ul><li>There are certain that belong </li></ul><ul><li>neither the universal nor specialties. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives may enter in a culture by way </li></ul><ul><li>of invention within the society or from an </li></ul><ul><li>other culture. </li></ul><ul><li>As new ways of doing things emerge & come </li></ul><ul><li>to be accepted, they are absorbed by the </li></ul><ul><li>universals or specialties. </li></ul><ul><li>For example a new way of teaching, a new </li></ul><ul><li>way of cooking food, use of computer etc. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Cultural Change and Curriculum <ul><li>When alternative elements appear in </li></ul><ul><li>culture, they disturb the culture pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>When the number of alternatives is low </li></ul><ul><li>as compared with universals, the culture will </li></ul><ul><li>have a high degree of stability. </li></ul><ul><li>As alternatives increase, social change </li></ul><ul><li>also increase. </li></ul><ul><li>The curriculum development will be in </li></ul><ul><li>such a way that cultural elements both new </li></ul><ul><li>and old are mutually adjusted. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Characteristics of Curriculum <ul><li>Totality of Activities </li></ul><ul><li>A mean to an end </li></ul><ul><li>Mirror of curricular and co-curricular activities / trends </li></ul><ul><li>Development of balanced personality </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul><ul><li>Achievements of goals </li></ul>
  20. 21. Characteristics of Curriculum (cont.) <ul><li>1. Totality of Activities : - </li></ul><ul><li> It refers to the totality of </li></ul><ul><li>subject matter, activities and experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A mean to an end : - </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum is not an end </li></ul><ul><li>itself but a means to an end. It is created to </li></ul><ul><li>acquire the aim of education </li></ul><ul><li>3. Mirror of curricular and co-curricular activities / trends : - </li></ul>
  21. 22. Characteristics of Curriculum (cont.) <ul><li>4. Development of balanced personality : - </li></ul><ul><li>The activities in curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Concerning physical, intellectual, emotional, </li></ul><ul><li>social, economics, aesthetic & cultural </li></ul><ul><li>development play their role for developing </li></ul><ul><li>balance personality. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Dynamic : - </li></ul><ul><li>A good curriculum is dynamic. It has to be </li></ul><ul><li>kept dynamic in order to keep with the needs, interest, </li></ul><ul><li>abilities, attitudes and life of pupils. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Achievements of goals : - </li></ul>
  22. 23. Components of Curriculum <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>Objectives Evaluation Content Method Feed Back
  23. 24. School of Thought of Philosophy <ul><li>Progressivism </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Eclecticism (Collection of good concepts of different philosophies) </li></ul>
  24. 25. Effect of Philosophy on Curriculum Development <ul><li>There may be a gap between four components of curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>For curriculum development first of all we see the philosophy/ ideology of that society for which we want to develop the curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>Now we find out what is the view point of different philosophies about the components of curriculum. </li></ul>
  25. 26. 1. Objectives <ul><li>Progressivism : - </li></ul><ul><li>They do not believe in Pre-determination of objectives, So there would not be a pre-determined set of objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>They believe that change is reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Accept change so did not set objectives first. </li></ul>
  26. 27. 1. Objectives (Cont.) <ul><li>Traditionalism : - </li></ul><ul><li>They emphasis to have a permanent set of objectives. Because they believe that values are Cosmic and permanent. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives are based on values. So they also remained unchanged. </li></ul><ul><li>They believe that permanence is reality. </li></ul>
  27. 28. 1. Objectives (Cont.) <ul><li>Islamic Philosophy : - </li></ul><ul><li>According to Islam, basic values are permanent. So will be the educational objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>In traditionalism, sources of values are traditions of their forefathers, While is Islam, pleasure of ALLAH is the source of Value. </li></ul>
  28. 29. 2. Content <ul><li>Content depends on the concept of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Progressivism : - </li></ul><ul><li>They accept sense perception as only reliable source of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>So, content consist of science and technology. </li></ul>
  29. 30. 2. Content (Cont.) <ul><li>Traditionalism : - </li></ul><ul><li>They consider authoritative knowledge, only to be reliable. So, the knowledge shall consist of knowledge bearing the stamp of the approval of their forefathers. </li></ul>
  30. 31. 2. Content (Cont.) <ul><li>Islamic Philosophy : - </li></ul><ul><li>According to Islam only the prophetic knowledge is absolutely reliable. So content will essentially consist of the knowledge, contained in the Quran and Sunnah. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge gained through other sources will also be tested on this criteria (Quran & Sunnah) and may conditionally made a part of curriculum. </li></ul>
  31. 32. 3. Method <ul><li>Mostly, it deals with psychology but overall teaching style is determined on the base of philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li>Progressivism : - </li></ul><ul><li>It gives rise to Academic Freedom Style (AFS) in teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionalism : - </li></ul><ul><li>It leads to development of indoctrination approach in teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>(Imposition of Ideas) </li></ul>
  32. 33. 3. Method (Cont.) <ul><li>Islamic Philosophy : - </li></ul><ul><li>Islam encourage eclectic approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the style may be applied according to teaching learning situation. </li></ul><ul><li>AFS + Indoctrination </li></ul><ul><li>AFS (Academic Freedom Style) </li></ul>
  33. 34. 4. Evaluation <ul><li>Its details are determined according to psychological principals. However philosophy also influence the testing techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Progressivism : - </li></ul><ul><li>They are more inclined to practical or observational technique. </li></ul>
  34. 35. 4. Evaluation (Cont.) <ul><li>Traditionalism : - </li></ul><ul><li>They are more inclined to written test. </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Philosophy : - </li></ul><ul><li>Believes on both styles. Both styles may be applied according to Islamic philosophy. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Role of Curriculum <ul><li>Conservative Role </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Role </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Role </li></ul>
  36. 37. Functions of Conservative Role <ul><li>Adjective Function </li></ul><ul><li>Adoptive Function </li></ul><ul><li>Integrative Function </li></ul>
  37. 38. Function of Critical Role <ul><li>Distinctive Function </li></ul>
  38. 39. Functions of Creative Role <ul><li>Selective Function </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive Function </li></ul>