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Chidiebere John Uma & Olukayode Oyelekan Aribisala
Tbilisi State Medical University
Zika virus disease is caused by a virus
transmitted primarily by Aedes
mosquitoes.
People with Zika virus disease can have
symptoms including mild fever, skin
rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint
pain, malaise or headache.
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus
that was first identified in Uganda in
1947 in monkeys through a network that
monitored yellow fever.
It was later identified in humans in 1952
in Uganda and the United Republic of
Tanzania.
Outbreaks of Zika virus disease have
been recorded in Africa, the Americas,
Asia and the Pacific.
From the 1960s to 1980s, human
infections were found across Africa and
Asia, typically accompanied by mild
illness.
The first large outbreak of disease
caused by Zika infection was reported
from the Island of Yap (Federated States
of Micronesia) in 2007.
In July 2015 Brazil reported an
association between Zika virus infection
and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Zika is spread to people primarily through
the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito
(Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus).
A pregnant woman can pass Zika to her fetus
during pregnancy or around the time of birth.
Also, a person with Zika can pass it to his or
her sex partners.
The incubation period (the time from exposure
to symptoms) of Zika virus disease is not clear,
but is likely to be a few days.
The symptoms are similar to other arbovirus
infections such as dengue, and include fever,
skin rashes, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint
pain, malaise, and headache.
These symptoms are usually mild and last for 2-7
days.
Zika infection during pregnancy can cause a
serious birth defect called microcephaly and other
severe fetal brain defects. Current research
suggests that Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS);
however, only a small proportion of people with
recent Zika virus infection get GBS.
Microcephaly is a condition where a
baby’s head is much smaller than
expected. During pregnancy, a baby’s
head grows because the baby’s brain
grow
Head circumference less than 32cm at
birth
The zika virus attacks and destroys brain stem cells during
development causing incomplete brains and missing parts
linked with the following problems
 Seizures
 Developmental delay, such as problems with speech or
other developmental milestones (like sitting, standing, and
walking)
 Intellectual disability (decreased ability to learn and function
in daily life)
 Problems with movement and balance
 Feeding problems, such as difficulty swallowing
 Hearing loss
 Vision problems
Severe microcephaly shown on MRI
In a study that was conducted on October
5, 2016, a consortium of doctors and
scientists from Colombia and Johns
Hopkins Hospital examined 68 patients
from six Colombian hospitals.
Of the 68 Guillain-Barré patients, 66 had
symptoms of Zika infection before they
came down with GBS.
They tested 42 of the patients for Zika virus
using sensitive molecular assays, and found
that 17 of them (40%) had detectable Zika
virus.
 They also found evidence of a possible link
between GBS and both Zika and dengue
virus: 32 out of 37 Guillain-Barré patients
who were tested had antibodies to both Zika
and dengue
RE & LE: paramacular supertemporal round
chorioretinal atrophy surrounded by a hyper
pigmented halo and hyper pigmented mottling
RE: enlarged cup-disc
ratio and macular
pigmentary mottling
LE: roundish macular chorioretinal
atrophic lesion with a hyper
pigmented halo and pigmentary
mottling, as well as an enlarged cup-
disc ration
RE & LE: supertemporal perimacular
chorioretinal scar with perilesional
pigmentary mottling
RE: granular, pigmentary mottling in the macular.
LE: Chorioretinal lobulated atrophic lesion and slight
pigmentary mottling
RE: optic disc hypoplasia, peripapillary
nasal atrophy and excavated nasal
round lesion with a hyper hyper
pigmented halo, with a colobomatous-
like aspect
LE: optic disc hypoplasia,
peripapillary nasal atrophy, and a
retinal nasal lesion with a similar
pattern
Zika virus usually remains in the blood
of an infected person for about a week
Infection with Zika virus may be
suspected based on symptoms and recent
history of travel (e.g. residence in or
travel to an area with active Zika virus
transmission).
Living in an infected area
Unprotected sex with a person who has
lived in a infected area
Diagnosis of Zika is based on a person’s
recent travel history, symptoms, and test
results.
The medical practitioner shall also ask
about your sexual partner’s history to
rule out a sexual route of transmission
CDC recommends Zika virus testing for
people who may have been exposed to
Zika through sex and who have Zika
symptoms.
A pregnant woman with possible
exposure to Zika virus from sex should
be tested.
A diagnosis of Zika virus infection can
only be confirmed through laboratory
tests on blood or other body fluids, such
as urine, vaginal fluids, saliva or semen.
People sick with Zika virus should get
plenty of rest, drink enough fluids, and
treat pain and fever with common
medicines.
If symptoms worsen, they should seek
medical care and advice.
There is currently no vaccine available
Do not take aspirin and other non-
steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
(NSAIDS) until dengue can be ruled out
to reduce the risk of bleeding.
Mosquito bites
This can be done by wearing clothes (preferably
light-coloured) that cover as much of the body as
possible;
using physical barriers such as window screens or
closing doors and windows;
sleeping under mosquito nets;
and using insect repellent containing DEET, IR3535
or icaridin according to the product label
instructions.
Sexual transmission
Counselling
Safe sex
Georgia is going to fight the Zika Virus with
a fish called gambusia, the Ministry of
Environment Protection and Natural
Resources informs. The ministry together
with Fishermen’s Club of Georgia, have
carried out a joint operation in the lakes and
other small bodies of water in Tbilisi as well
as its environs.
The gambusia eat the larvae of the
Aedes aegypti mosquito which is the one
most responsible for the spread of the
Zika Virus and it already eliminated the
malaria mosquitoes in western Georgia’s
Kolkheti plain.
 http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1605564#t=article
 http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/
 https://www.cdc.gov/zika/about/questions.html
 http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/zika-virus-symptoms-prevention
 http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/zika-virus/Pages/Introduction.aspx
 https://medlineplus.gov/zikavirus.html
 http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/305163.php
 http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/zika-virus-faqs-ultrasound-
detection/
 http://www.georgianjournal.ge/society/32657-gambusia-fish-released-into-
tbilisi-turtle-lake-to-fight-zika-virus-mosquitoes.html
Zika virus

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Zika virus

  • 1. Chidiebere John Uma & Olukayode Oyelekan Aribisala Tbilisi State Medical University
  • 2. Zika virus disease is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. People with Zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise or headache.
  • 3. Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys through a network that monitored yellow fever. It was later identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania.
  • 4.
  • 5. Outbreaks of Zika virus disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. From the 1960s to 1980s, human infections were found across Africa and Asia, typically accompanied by mild illness.
  • 6.
  • 7. The first large outbreak of disease caused by Zika infection was reported from the Island of Yap (Federated States of Micronesia) in 2007. In July 2015 Brazil reported an association between Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
  • 8.
  • 9. Zika is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus). A pregnant woman can pass Zika to her fetus during pregnancy or around the time of birth. Also, a person with Zika can pass it to his or her sex partners.
  • 10.
  • 11. The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) of Zika virus disease is not clear, but is likely to be a few days. The symptoms are similar to other arbovirus infections such as dengue, and include fever, skin rashes, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise, and headache.
  • 12. These symptoms are usually mild and last for 2-7 days. Zika infection during pregnancy can cause a serious birth defect called microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. Current research suggests that Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS); however, only a small proportion of people with recent Zika virus infection get GBS.
  • 13.
  • 14. Microcephaly is a condition where a baby’s head is much smaller than expected. During pregnancy, a baby’s head grows because the baby’s brain grow Head circumference less than 32cm at birth
  • 15.
  • 16. The zika virus attacks and destroys brain stem cells during development causing incomplete brains and missing parts linked with the following problems  Seizures  Developmental delay, such as problems with speech or other developmental milestones (like sitting, standing, and walking)  Intellectual disability (decreased ability to learn and function in daily life)  Problems with movement and balance  Feeding problems, such as difficulty swallowing  Hearing loss  Vision problems
  • 17.
  • 19.
  • 20. In a study that was conducted on October 5, 2016, a consortium of doctors and scientists from Colombia and Johns Hopkins Hospital examined 68 patients from six Colombian hospitals. Of the 68 Guillain-Barré patients, 66 had symptoms of Zika infection before they came down with GBS.
  • 21.
  • 22. They tested 42 of the patients for Zika virus using sensitive molecular assays, and found that 17 of them (40%) had detectable Zika virus.  They also found evidence of a possible link between GBS and both Zika and dengue virus: 32 out of 37 Guillain-Barré patients who were tested had antibodies to both Zika and dengue
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29. RE & LE: paramacular supertemporal round chorioretinal atrophy surrounded by a hyper pigmented halo and hyper pigmented mottling
  • 30. RE: enlarged cup-disc ratio and macular pigmentary mottling LE: roundish macular chorioretinal atrophic lesion with a hyper pigmented halo and pigmentary mottling, as well as an enlarged cup- disc ration
  • 31. RE & LE: supertemporal perimacular chorioretinal scar with perilesional pigmentary mottling
  • 32. RE: granular, pigmentary mottling in the macular. LE: Chorioretinal lobulated atrophic lesion and slight pigmentary mottling
  • 33. RE: optic disc hypoplasia, peripapillary nasal atrophy and excavated nasal round lesion with a hyper hyper pigmented halo, with a colobomatous- like aspect LE: optic disc hypoplasia, peripapillary nasal atrophy, and a retinal nasal lesion with a similar pattern
  • 34. Zika virus usually remains in the blood of an infected person for about a week Infection with Zika virus may be suspected based on symptoms and recent history of travel (e.g. residence in or travel to an area with active Zika virus transmission).
  • 35. Living in an infected area Unprotected sex with a person who has lived in a infected area
  • 36. Diagnosis of Zika is based on a person’s recent travel history, symptoms, and test results. The medical practitioner shall also ask about your sexual partner’s history to rule out a sexual route of transmission
  • 37. CDC recommends Zika virus testing for people who may have been exposed to Zika through sex and who have Zika symptoms. A pregnant woman with possible exposure to Zika virus from sex should be tested.
  • 38. A diagnosis of Zika virus infection can only be confirmed through laboratory tests on blood or other body fluids, such as urine, vaginal fluids, saliva or semen.
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41. People sick with Zika virus should get plenty of rest, drink enough fluids, and treat pain and fever with common medicines. If symptoms worsen, they should seek medical care and advice.
  • 42. There is currently no vaccine available Do not take aspirin and other non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) until dengue can be ruled out to reduce the risk of bleeding.
  • 43. Mosquito bites This can be done by wearing clothes (preferably light-coloured) that cover as much of the body as possible; using physical barriers such as window screens or closing doors and windows; sleeping under mosquito nets; and using insect repellent containing DEET, IR3535 or icaridin according to the product label instructions.
  • 45. Georgia is going to fight the Zika Virus with a fish called gambusia, the Ministry of Environment Protection and Natural Resources informs. The ministry together with Fishermen’s Club of Georgia, have carried out a joint operation in the lakes and other small bodies of water in Tbilisi as well as its environs.
  • 46.
  • 47. The gambusia eat the larvae of the Aedes aegypti mosquito which is the one most responsible for the spread of the Zika Virus and it already eliminated the malaria mosquitoes in western Georgia’s Kolkheti plain.
  • 48.  http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1605564#t=article  http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/  https://www.cdc.gov/zika/about/questions.html  http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/zika-virus-symptoms-prevention  http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/zika-virus/Pages/Introduction.aspx  https://medlineplus.gov/zikavirus.html  http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/305163.php  http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/zika-virus-faqs-ultrasound- detection/  http://www.georgianjournal.ge/society/32657-gambusia-fish-released-into- tbilisi-turtle-lake-to-fight-zika-virus-mosquitoes.html