Tendency Anomaly Sulfur OxygenOxygen groups Oxygen Covalent hydrogen Sulfide bond in oxygen compound Sulfide Tendency in the covalent Sulfur oxyde compound Sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide Sulfur-oxide salt Sulfur halide
The Preference of Oxygen Groups Table 1. Data Of Some Oxygen Group Characteristicelements Electron Melting Boiling point configuration point (oC) (oC)8O [2He] 2s2 2p4 -219 -18316S [10Ne] 3s2 3p4 119 44534Se [18Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p4 221 68552Te [36Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p4 452 98784Po [54Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 254 962
• Double bond stability and katenasis character Double bond on oxygen much greater than its single bond, single bond O-O is very weak relevance with formation katenasi. In carbon groups (faction 14), katenasi’s ability is decrease with its increasing atomic number, but in groups 16, Sulfur can form the longest chain (S8). In fact, single bond O-O is weakest than single bond of oxygen atom with other atoms, O - X. Thus, oxygen atom prefers to form bonding with another atoms than with itself.• Its absents orbital d. Oxygen forms just one with fluorins compound which is OF2, but sulfur can form some compound with fluorin include SF6. To reach until six its covalent bonds, sulfur atom have to involve orbital d. Thus, not be found flourins oxygen compound that analog with SF6 because there is no orbital d in oxygen atom.
Dioxygen Trioxygen ( O2 ) ( O3 ) - Dark blue gas- colorless gases - Boiling point - 112 oC- Has boiling point – 183 oC - diamagnetic- its color is blue in the - Toxic gasliquid phase. - ozon produced by- paramagnetic SUTET, photocopy engine- reactive gas. and laser print.-The solubility is lower than - As oxidator that strongercarbondioxyde than O2.
The bonding in oxygen covalent compound oxygen Single Double Triple coordinate Bond Bond Bondbond angles between the two singlecovalent bonds maybe smaller Another way is oxygen atoms canthan the regular tetrahedral form an equivalent three singleangle (109o) it is influenced by covalent bond.a number of free electrons. Example of hydronium ion H3O+example:Bond angle H-O-H are 104,5o
Tendency in oxygen compound Electropositive Electropositive Metal oxides with Nonmetal metal oxides metal oxides more than one oxides strong weak kind of oxideHave - Always boundcharacteristics Are oxides with low covalentlyionic and basic. amphoteric. It oxidation levels - Nonmetals with lowExamples : means can are alkaline. oxidation level are- BaO react with acid Oxides with high neutral- CuO (not and base. oxidation levels - Nonmetals with highsoluble in water example : ZnO are acidic oxidation level arebut soluble in acidicdilute acid)
Hydrogen Peroxide• Pure hydrogen peroxide is almost colorless liquid.• Very viscous because of hydrogen bonding.• Corrosive.• Not stable.• Easily to disporpotionation according to reaction : 2 H2O2 (l) 2 H2O (l) + O2 (g)• Forming a dihedral with angle 111o and bond angle of H-O- O is 94,5o.
Sulfur• Forming an ionic compound with the active metal.• Forming a covalent compound.• Single covalent bond length 104 pm.• Electronegativity 2,6• Allotropes of Sulfur is S8 (cyclorooctasulfur), S6 (cyclorohexasulfur), and S12 (cyclododecasulfur).
S6 S12 is the most stable allotrope of sulfur that can be synthesized by mixing sodium thiosulfate solution Na2S2O3 with hydrochloric acid : 6Na2S2O3(aq) +12HCl(aq) → S6(s) + 6SO2(g) + 12NaCl(aq) + 6H2O(l)
Hydrogen Sulfide Characteristic : colorless gases its smell is bad like stinky egg toxic gas produced by anaerob bactery trough decomposition reaction. in laboratory gas H2S produced by reaction : FeS(s) + 2HCl(aq) FeCl2(aq) + H2S(g) can identified with Pb2S prodused brown black PbS
Sulfide• group 1, 2, aluminium are dissolve in water.• S2-(aq) + H2O (l) HS- (aq) + OH – (aq)• Continued hydrolisis produce H2S gas that smells stinky :• HS - (aq) + H2O(l) H2S (s) + OH- (aq)• function of sulfide : in battery, cosmetics, etc.
Sulfur oxides Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide Equilateral triangle stuctureNonlinier StuctureEasier dissolve in water Strong acidic and dissolve in water form sulfuric acid with reaction: SO3 (g) + H2O H2 SO4
Sulfuric Acid• Thick liquid like oil• Pure sulfuric acid has conductivity properties• Sulfuric acid can be react in 5 ways are:1. As acid2. Drying agent to water3. Oxidation agent4. Sulfonation agent5. As base
1. As acid Dilute sulfuric acid usually as acid2. Drying agent to water Has ability to destroy water component from formula structure of a compound3. Oxidation agent Hot concentrate sulfuric acid is good oxidation agent4. Sulfonation agent Concentrate sulfuric acid has ability replaced 1 atom hydrogen in organic compound with sulfonic acid5. As base Sulfuric acid can be base if added to stronger protone donor
Producing Sulfuric Acid• Producing methode according to contact process even lead chamber always using sulfur dioxide that can be prepared from sulfur melted combustion in dry air:• S (s) + O2 SO2(g)• Mixture sulfur dioxide with dry air flow into catalisator V2O5 at 400-500o C.
Sulfur-oxide SaltSulfate is produced withthree step : Hydrogen1. Between natrium sulfate is an Sulfite can be Thiosulfate hydroxyde with acidic, that can formed by dilute sulfuric acid can be formed be formed by flowing sulfur2. Reaction between by boiling reaction dioxyde gas electropositive sulfur in between into natrium metal and dilute sulfate natrium hydroxyde sulforic acid aqueous3. Reaction between hydroxyde with aqueous carbonate salt and sulfuric acid dilute sulfuric acid Peroksodisulfate ion has one dioxo bridge. Its acid is white solid, two important salt as oxidator agent are potassium and amonium peroksodisulfate, with peroksodisulfate ion is reductated become sulfate ion.
Sulfur Halide• The important compound of sulfur-halogen are sulfur-fluorin, and sulfur-chlorine.• Sulfur-fluorin form SF6 (colorless gas, unsmell, not reactive, low toxic, stable) and SF4 (reactive gas, is decomposed by wet air become sulfur-dioxyde and hydrogen fluoride).• Sulfur-chlorin only form with low oxidation level. Sulfur melted that flowed with dichlorin gas producing disulfur dichloride, S2Cl2. disulfur dichoride much used in rubber vulcanization process.