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Gasifier Design
Design steps
• Selection of Gasifier
• Selection of Oxidizer
• Volume of Reactor
• Length & Diameter of Reactor
• Material selection
• Thickness of wall
• Head thickness
Gasification
• In addition to direct combustion to produce heat and power, coal can
be used as a feedstock for the production of liquid and gaseous fuels.
• Gasification is a process that converts organic or fossil fuel based
carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon
dioxide. This is achieved by reacting the material at high temperatures
(>700 °C), without combustion, with a controlled amount of oxygen
and/or steam. The resulting gas mixture is called syngas (from
synthesis gas or synthetic gas) or producer gas and is itself a fuel.
Difference Between
Combustion Gasification
Combustion is the total oxidation of carbon, hydrogen and
other elements, which releases thermal energy. Combustion
is generally less thermally efficient than gasification.
Combustion (Oxidation) Reactions
C + O2 Co2 Oxidation of Carbon
½ O2 + H2 H2O Oxidation of Hydrogen
N + O2 NO2 (NOx) Oxidation of Nitrogen
S + O2 SO2 (Sox) Oxidation of Sulfur
• Gasification is a much cleaner process than
combustion for converting carbonaceous materials to
energy. In gasification, the fuel is first converted to a
clean-burning fuel gas at high temperatures. This gas
can be used as a clean fuel or converted to chemicals
such as ammonia for industrial or agricultural use.
• The levels of SOx and NOx are much reduced by first
gasifying the fuels prior to combustion of the fuel gas
product.
C + 1/2 O2 CO Gasification with Oxygen
C + Co2 2CO Gasification with Carbondioxide
C + H2O CO + H2 Gasification with steam
C + 2H2 CH4 Gasification with Hydrogen
CO + H2O H2 + Co2 Water Gas shift reaction
S + H2 H2S sulfur form H2S- not (Sox)
Future Potential Of Coal Gasification
Coal gasification technology can be utilized in the following energy
systems of potential importance
1. Production of fuel for use in electric power generation units
2. Manufacturing synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG) for use as
pipeline gas supplies
3. Producing hydrogen for fuel cell applications
4. Production of synthesis gas for use as a chemical feedstock
5. Generation of fuel gas (low-Btu or medium-Btu gas) for industrial
purposes
Gasifiers Types
Based on the reactor configuration, as well as by the method of
contacting gaseous and solid streams, gasification processes
can also be categorized into the following four types:*
• Fixed Bed Gasifier
• Fluidized Bed Gasifier
• Entrained Flow Gasifier
• Molten Salt Bath Reactor
*Chapter 2 , gasification of coal , sunggyu lee
Characteristics of Different Categories of Gasification Process
Category Moving Bed Fluidized Bed Entrained Flow
Ash Condition Dry Ash Slagging Dry Agglomerating Slagging
Typical Process Lurgi BGL Winkler KRW, U-gas Shell,texaco
Feed Characteristics
Size 6-50 mm 6-50 mm 6-10 mm 6-10 mm >100µm
Accepability of
fines
Limited Better than dry Ash Good Better Unlimited
Accepability of
caking coal
No No Possibly Yes Yes
Pref. Coal Rank Any High Low Any Any
Operating Characteristics
Outlet Gas
Temperature
Low
(425-6500C)
Low
(425-6500C)
Moderate
(900-10500C)
Moderate
(900-10500C)
High
(1250-16000C)
Oxidant demand Low Low Moderate Moderate High
Steam demand High Low Moderate Moderate Low
Other
Characteristics
Hydrocarbons in
Gas
Hydrocarbons in
Gas
Lower carbon
conversion
Lower carbon
conversion
Pure gas, high
carbon conversion
Entrained flow gasifier
Selection criteria
Entrained coal gasification has several advantages over other
gasification processes, including
• High throughput for a given reactor volume
• Simple mechanical design
• Flexibility in coal type
• Capable of Handling caking and non.caking Coals
• Moisture content
• Ash content
• Final Available size
Reactions
C + ½ O2 CO
C + Co2 2CO
C + H2O CO + H2
C + 2H2 CH4
CO + H2O H2 + Co2
S + H2 H2S
CH4 + H2O CO + 3H2
H2 + 2C + N2 2HCN
HCN + H2O CO + NH3
CO + ½ O2 Co2
CO + S COS
Rate equation
−𝑟𝐴 = 𝐴𝑒(−
𝐸𝑎
𝑅𝑇
)
(𝐶𝐶𝑜𝐶𝐻2𝑂-𝐶𝐶𝑂2𝐶𝐻2)k
A= pre-exponential factor = 2.78 * 103 m3/Kmol.sec
Ea = Activation Energy = 12.6 KJ/mol
R=General Gas constant= 8.314 KJ/Kmol.sec
C = concentration = 0.01197 Kmol/m3
k= from graph (temp)= 2.3
-r = 0.0384 Kmol/m3 . sec
Residence time
𝜏
𝐶0
= 0
.97 𝑑𝑋𝐴
−𝑟𝐴
𝜏 = 9.48 sec
Volume of Reactor
𝜏
𝐶0
=
𝑉
𝐹𝐴0
𝜏 = 9.48 sec
𝐶0 =0.3762 kmol/ m3
𝐹𝐴0
= 198.61 kg/sec
V = 178.67 m3
• Volume = Area * length
𝑣 = 𝜋
𝑑2
4
∗ 𝐿
𝐿
𝐷
= 1.8 *
L= 5.018 m
D= 9.033 m
* Research paper, gasification kinetics by Elesevier
Material selection
• Materials requirements: strength, ductility, toughness, stiffness,
density, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, cost, availability,
fatigue properties, creep properties, weldability
• Austenitic stainless steels have high thermal expansion that lead to
thermal fatigue in thick sections.
• Therefore on the basis of Properties Alumina alloys material is
selected (900-1200𝑜C)
Shell Thickness
• t =
𝑃𝐿
𝑆𝐸−0.2𝑃
+ 𝐶𝐸
P = 7500 Kpa
L = 2.509 m
S = 665000 Kpa
C = 0.0005 m/year(0.01/20 year)
Shell thickness = 1.507”
Head thickness
• For hemispherical head
t =
𝑃𝐷
4𝑆𝐸
+ 𝐶𝐸
E= 1 joint efficiency factor
D = 5.018 m
t = 0.95”
Refractory Material
• Refractory materials are used to line the interior of slagging gasifiers,
where a carbon-based feedstock (such as coal, petroleum, coke, and/or
biomass) is converted at high temperatures in an oxygen-short atmosphere
into hydrogen and carbon monoxide, or syngas. The refractory lining is
necessary to protect the shell of the gasification chamber from the harsh
environment necessary for the gasification process which includes elevated
temperature and pressures, reactive gases, thermal shock, and corrosive
slags resulting from mineral impurities in the carbon feedstocks that liquefy
during the gasification process.
• AUREX 95P, is a phosphate-modified high-chrome oxide material that
increased material service life up to a stunning 50% in field trials when
compared with conventional liner materials,
Specification Sheet Of Gasifier
Operating Data Numerical Values Units
No required 1
Capacity 715000 Kg/ hr
Temperature 1500 K
Pressure 75 Bar
Diameter 5.018 m
Height 9.033 m
Volume 178.67 m3
Residence time 9.48 Sec
Cross-sectional Area 19.77 m2
Material of construction Alumina alloys
Shell thickness 1.507 Inches
Head type Hemispherical
Head thickness 0.95 inches

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Gasifier Design.pptx

  • 2. Design steps • Selection of Gasifier • Selection of Oxidizer • Volume of Reactor • Length & Diameter of Reactor • Material selection • Thickness of wall • Head thickness
  • 3. Gasification • In addition to direct combustion to produce heat and power, coal can be used as a feedstock for the production of liquid and gaseous fuels. • Gasification is a process that converts organic or fossil fuel based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This is achieved by reacting the material at high temperatures (>700 °C), without combustion, with a controlled amount of oxygen and/or steam. The resulting gas mixture is called syngas (from synthesis gas or synthetic gas) or producer gas and is itself a fuel.
  • 4. Difference Between Combustion Gasification Combustion is the total oxidation of carbon, hydrogen and other elements, which releases thermal energy. Combustion is generally less thermally efficient than gasification. Combustion (Oxidation) Reactions C + O2 Co2 Oxidation of Carbon ½ O2 + H2 H2O Oxidation of Hydrogen N + O2 NO2 (NOx) Oxidation of Nitrogen S + O2 SO2 (Sox) Oxidation of Sulfur • Gasification is a much cleaner process than combustion for converting carbonaceous materials to energy. In gasification, the fuel is first converted to a clean-burning fuel gas at high temperatures. This gas can be used as a clean fuel or converted to chemicals such as ammonia for industrial or agricultural use. • The levels of SOx and NOx are much reduced by first gasifying the fuels prior to combustion of the fuel gas product. C + 1/2 O2 CO Gasification with Oxygen C + Co2 2CO Gasification with Carbondioxide C + H2O CO + H2 Gasification with steam C + 2H2 CH4 Gasification with Hydrogen CO + H2O H2 + Co2 Water Gas shift reaction S + H2 H2S sulfur form H2S- not (Sox)
  • 5. Future Potential Of Coal Gasification Coal gasification technology can be utilized in the following energy systems of potential importance 1. Production of fuel for use in electric power generation units 2. Manufacturing synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG) for use as pipeline gas supplies 3. Producing hydrogen for fuel cell applications 4. Production of synthesis gas for use as a chemical feedstock 5. Generation of fuel gas (low-Btu or medium-Btu gas) for industrial purposes
  • 6. Gasifiers Types Based on the reactor configuration, as well as by the method of contacting gaseous and solid streams, gasification processes can also be categorized into the following four types:* • Fixed Bed Gasifier • Fluidized Bed Gasifier • Entrained Flow Gasifier • Molten Salt Bath Reactor *Chapter 2 , gasification of coal , sunggyu lee
  • 7. Characteristics of Different Categories of Gasification Process Category Moving Bed Fluidized Bed Entrained Flow Ash Condition Dry Ash Slagging Dry Agglomerating Slagging Typical Process Lurgi BGL Winkler KRW, U-gas Shell,texaco Feed Characteristics Size 6-50 mm 6-50 mm 6-10 mm 6-10 mm >100µm Accepability of fines Limited Better than dry Ash Good Better Unlimited Accepability of caking coal No No Possibly Yes Yes Pref. Coal Rank Any High Low Any Any Operating Characteristics Outlet Gas Temperature Low (425-6500C) Low (425-6500C) Moderate (900-10500C) Moderate (900-10500C) High (1250-16000C) Oxidant demand Low Low Moderate Moderate High Steam demand High Low Moderate Moderate Low Other Characteristics Hydrocarbons in Gas Hydrocarbons in Gas Lower carbon conversion Lower carbon conversion Pure gas, high carbon conversion
  • 9. Selection criteria Entrained coal gasification has several advantages over other gasification processes, including • High throughput for a given reactor volume • Simple mechanical design • Flexibility in coal type • Capable of Handling caking and non.caking Coals • Moisture content • Ash content • Final Available size
  • 10. Reactions C + ½ O2 CO C + Co2 2CO C + H2O CO + H2 C + 2H2 CH4 CO + H2O H2 + Co2 S + H2 H2S CH4 + H2O CO + 3H2 H2 + 2C + N2 2HCN HCN + H2O CO + NH3 CO + ½ O2 Co2 CO + S COS
  • 11. Rate equation −𝑟𝐴 = 𝐴𝑒(− 𝐸𝑎 𝑅𝑇 ) (𝐶𝐶𝑜𝐶𝐻2𝑂-𝐶𝐶𝑂2𝐶𝐻2)k A= pre-exponential factor = 2.78 * 103 m3/Kmol.sec Ea = Activation Energy = 12.6 KJ/mol R=General Gas constant= 8.314 KJ/Kmol.sec C = concentration = 0.01197 Kmol/m3 k= from graph (temp)= 2.3 -r = 0.0384 Kmol/m3 . sec
  • 12. Residence time 𝜏 𝐶0 = 0 .97 𝑑𝑋𝐴 −𝑟𝐴 𝜏 = 9.48 sec
  • 13. Volume of Reactor 𝜏 𝐶0 = 𝑉 𝐹𝐴0 𝜏 = 9.48 sec 𝐶0 =0.3762 kmol/ m3 𝐹𝐴0 = 198.61 kg/sec V = 178.67 m3
  • 14. • Volume = Area * length 𝑣 = 𝜋 𝑑2 4 ∗ 𝐿 𝐿 𝐷 = 1.8 * L= 5.018 m D= 9.033 m * Research paper, gasification kinetics by Elesevier
  • 15. Material selection • Materials requirements: strength, ductility, toughness, stiffness, density, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, cost, availability, fatigue properties, creep properties, weldability • Austenitic stainless steels have high thermal expansion that lead to thermal fatigue in thick sections. • Therefore on the basis of Properties Alumina alloys material is selected (900-1200𝑜C)
  • 16. Shell Thickness • t = 𝑃𝐿 𝑆𝐸−0.2𝑃 + 𝐶𝐸 P = 7500 Kpa L = 2.509 m S = 665000 Kpa C = 0.0005 m/year(0.01/20 year) Shell thickness = 1.507”
  • 17. Head thickness • For hemispherical head t = 𝑃𝐷 4𝑆𝐸 + 𝐶𝐸 E= 1 joint efficiency factor D = 5.018 m t = 0.95”
  • 18. Refractory Material • Refractory materials are used to line the interior of slagging gasifiers, where a carbon-based feedstock (such as coal, petroleum, coke, and/or biomass) is converted at high temperatures in an oxygen-short atmosphere into hydrogen and carbon monoxide, or syngas. The refractory lining is necessary to protect the shell of the gasification chamber from the harsh environment necessary for the gasification process which includes elevated temperature and pressures, reactive gases, thermal shock, and corrosive slags resulting from mineral impurities in the carbon feedstocks that liquefy during the gasification process. • AUREX 95P, is a phosphate-modified high-chrome oxide material that increased material service life up to a stunning 50% in field trials when compared with conventional liner materials,
  • 19. Specification Sheet Of Gasifier Operating Data Numerical Values Units No required 1 Capacity 715000 Kg/ hr Temperature 1500 K Pressure 75 Bar Diameter 5.018 m Height 9.033 m Volume 178.67 m3 Residence time 9.48 Sec Cross-sectional Area 19.77 m2 Material of construction Alumina alloys Shell thickness 1.507 Inches Head type Hemispherical Head thickness 0.95 inches