Guided by: Sri Uday Pal(PGT)
School Name: Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya
Climate refers to the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area
for a long period of time.It can for a time period of thirty yaers.Scientists all over the
world observing the weather condiotions of a particular region for a period of thirty
years set the climate of that place.Climate is not a factor over a small place or ovr a
small period of time .It may vary between different countries or a over a large
region.Climate can change the nature of a region or a country.It is one of the big
factors one man to survive in certain place.It xcan also bbe a good factor bringing joy
and happiness in life.
There are six major controls of the climate of any place.They
are:latitude,altitude,pressure and wind system,distance from the sea,ocean currents
and relief features.Due to carvature of earth the amount of solar enbergy recieved
varies accoirding to laitude.As a result the air,temperature genarally decreases from
the equator towards the poles.As one goes from the surface of the earth to higher
altitudes,the atmosphere becomes lesss denses and temperature decreases.the hills
are therefore cooler during summers.The pressure and wind system of any area
depend on the latitude and altitude of the place.Thus it influences the temperature
and rainfall pattern.The sea exerts a moderating influence on climate:As the distance
from the sea increases,its moderating influence decreases and the people experience
extreme weather conditions.This condition is known as continentality.
CLIMATE OF INDIA
The tropic of cancer passes through the middle of the country from the rann of kuchchhin the
west of mizoram in the east.Almost half of the country lying south of the tropic of cancer
belongs to the tropical area.All the remaining area north of tropic lies in the sub-tropics.
Therefore india’s climate has charaterictics of tropical as well sub-tropical climates.india
has mountains to the north which has an average height of about 6000 meteres.India also has a
vast costal area where the maximnum elavation is about 30 meteres.The Himalayas prevent the
cold winds from central asia from entering the sub-continent.It is because of these mountains
that this subcontinent experiences comparativelely milder winters as compared to central
asia.India lie in the north easterly winds.this winds originate from the subtropical high pressure
belt of the northrn hemishere.they blow south and get deflected to right due to the coriolis
force and move on towards the equatorial low pressure area.Therefore they bring little or no
THE INDIAN MONSOON
The climate of india is strongly influenced by monsoon winds.The sailors who came to india in
historic time were one of the first to notice the phenomenon of monsoon.they benifited from
the reversal of the wind system as they came by sailing ships at the mercy of winds.The Arabs
who had also come to india as traders named the seTropical wet (humid) climate group
The regions belonging to this group experience persistent high temperatures which normally do
not go below 18°C even in the coolest month.
The west coastal lowlands, the Western Ghats, and southern parts of Assam have this climate
type. It is characterised by high temperatures throughout the year, even in the hills. The rainfall
here is seasonal, but heavy and is above 78 cm in a year. Most of the rain is received in the
period from May to November, and is adequate for the growth of vegetation during the entire
year. December to March are the dry months with very little rainfall. The heavy rain is
responsible for the tropical wet forests in these regions, which consists of a large number of
species of animals.Evergreen forests are the typical feature of the region.Most of the plateau of
DRY CLIMATE GROUP
This group consists of regions where the rate of evaporation of water is higher than the rate
of moisture received through precipitation.A long stretch of land situated to the south of Tropic
of Cancer and east of the western ghats and the Cardamom Hills experiences this climate. It
includes Karnataka, interior and western Tamil Nadu, western Andhra Pradesh and
central Maharashtra.This area receives minimal rainfall due to being situated in the rainshadow
area. This region is a famine prone zone with very unreliable rainfall which varies between 40 to
75 cm annually. Towards the north of Krishna River the summer monsoon is responsible for
most of the rainfall, while to the south of the river rainfall also occurs in the months of October
and November. The coldest month is December but even in this month the temperature
remains between 20°C and 24°C. The months of March to May are hot and dry with mean
monthly temperatures of around 32°C. The vegetation mostly comprises grasses with a few
scattered trees due to the rainfall. Hence this area is not very well suited for permanent
agriculture.Most of western Rajasthan falls under this climate type characterised by scanty
SUB-TROPICAL HUMID CLIMATE GROUP
Sub-tropical humid (wet) with dry winters
The foothills of the Himalayas, Punjab-Haryana plain adjacent to the
Himalayas, Rajasthan east of the Aravalli range, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and northern part
ofWest Bengal and Assam experience this climate. The rainfall is received mostly in
the summer and is about 65 cm in the west and increases to 250 cm annually to the
east and near the Himalayas. The winters are mainly dry due to the land derived
winter winds which blow down the lowlands of north India towards the Bay of Bengal.
The summers are hot and temperatures can reach 46°C in the lowlands. May and June
are the hottest months. Winter months are mostly dry with feeble winds. Frost occurs
for a few weeks in winter. The difference in rainfall between the east and the west
gives rise to a wide difference in the natural vegetation.
In the Himalayan mountains the temperature falls by 0.6°C for every 100 m rise in altitude and this gives rise
to a variety of climates from nearly tropical in the foothills to tundra type above the snow line. One can also
observe sharp contrast between temperatures of the sunny and shady slopes, high diurnal range of
temperature, inversion of temperature, and variability of rainfall based on altitude. They smell of tuna.
The northern side of the western Himalayas also known as the trans-Himalayan belt is arid, cold and
generally wind swept. The vegetation is sparse and stunted as rainfall is scanty and the winters are severely
cold. Most of the snowfall is in the form of snow during late winter and spring months. The area to the south
of the Himalayan range is protected from cold winds coming from interior of Asia during winter. The leeward
side of the mountains receive less rain while the well exposed slopes get heavy rainfall. The places situated
between 1070 and 2290 m altitudes receive the heaviest rainfall and the rainfall decreases rapidly above
2290m. The great Himalayan range witnesses heavy snowfall during winter months of December to February
at altitudes above 1500m. The diurnal range of temperature is also high.
The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Arunachal Pradesh,
and Sikkim experience this kind of weather.
FACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
FACT: Average global temperatures increassed by about 1 degree Celsius over the 20th century.
FACT: The United States contains only 5 percent of the world's population, but contributes 22
percent of the world's carbon emissions.
FACT: 15 percent of carbon emissions come from deforestation and land use change.
FACT: The Golden Toad (Bufo periglenes) is thought to be the first species to go extinct because
of climate change.
FACT: Personal cars and trucks in the United States emit 20 percent of the United States' carbon
FACT: Air conditioning and heating account for almost half of electricity use in the average
FACT: Climate change is linked to stronger hurricanes, more drought and increased coral
deaths from bleaching.
FACT: Climate change is linked to an increase in disease-carrying pests that lead to the increased
THE HOT WEATHER SEASON
Due to the apparent northward movement of the sun,the global heat belt shifts northward.As
such from march to may it is hot weather season in india.The influence of the shifting of the
heat belt can be seen clearly from temprature recordings taken during march-may at different
latitudes.In march the highest temperature is about 38 degree celcius recorded on the deccan
plateau.In april temperatures in gujarat and madhya pradesh are around 42 degree celcius.In
may temperature of 45 degree celcius is common in northwestern parts of the country.In
peninsular india tempetarures influence of the oceans.The summer months experience rising
temperature and falling air pressure in the northern part of the country.Towards the end of may
an elongated low-pressure area develops in the region extending from the thar desert in the
northwest in patna and chottanagpur plateau in the east and southeast.Circulatrion of air begins
to set in around this trough.
By early june the low-pressure condition over the northern plains intensifies.It attracts
the trade winds of the southern hemisphere.These south-east trade winds originate
over the warm subtropical areas of the southern oceans.They cross the equator and
blow in a south-westerly direction entering the indian peninsula as the south-west
monsoon.As these winds blow over warm oceans they bring abundant moisture to
the subcontinent.These winds are strong and blow at an average velocity of 30 km per
hour.With thew exception of the extreme north-west the monsoon winds cover the
country in about a month.The inflow of southwest monsoon into india brings about a
total change in weather.Early in the season the windward side of the western ghats
receive very heavy rainfall.
DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL
The science of climate change is complex, but everyone should know the basics.
The science of climate change is complex, but every one should know the basics: the
Earth is heating up because gases produced from vehicles, power plants,
deforestation, and other sources are building up in the atmosphere, acting like a thick
blanket over our planet.
Parts of western coast and northeastern india receive over about 400cm of rainfall
anually.However it is less than 60cm in western rajasthan and adjoining parts of
gujarat haryana and punjab.western ghats are mostly affected by floods.Areas of low
rainfall are drought-prone.
MONSOON AS AN UNIFYING BOND
You have already known the way of protecting the subcontyinent of extremely cold
regions of himalayas from central asia.This enables northern india to have unioforrmly
higher temperatures when compared to other areas on the same latitudes.Similarly
the peninsular pleatue under the influence of sea from three siudes has moderate
tempetatures.Despite such moderating influences there are great variations in
temperature conditions.Nevertheless the unifying influence of the monsson on the
indian bed is quite preciptable.the seasonal alteration of wind systems and are
associated weather conditions providea rhythimic cycle of seasons.
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE OF TRIPURA
Tripura is a landlocked state in North East India, where the seven contiguous states – Arunachal
Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya,Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura – are collectively known as
the Seven Sister States. Spread over 10,491.69 km2 (4,050.86 sq mi), Tripura is the third-smallest
among the 28 states in the country, behind Goa and Sikkim. It extends from 22°56'N to 24°32'N, and
91°09'E to 92°20'E. Its maximum extent measures about 184 km (114 mi) from north to south, and
113 km (70 mi) east to west. Tripura is bordered by the country of Bangladesh to the west, north and
south; and the Indian states of Assam to the north east; and Mizoram to the east.It is accessible
by national highwayspassing through the Karimganj district of Assam and Mamit district of Mizoram.
The physiography is characterised by hill ranges, valleys and plains. The state has five anticlinal ranges
of hills running north to south, from Boromura in the west, through Atharamura, Longtharai
and Shakhan, to the Jampui Hills in the east.The intervening synclines are the Agartala–Udaipur,
Khowai–Teliamura, Kamalpur–Ambasa, Kailasahar–Manu and Dharmanagar–Kanchanpur valleys. At an
altitude of 939 m (3,081 ft), Betling Shib in the Jampui range is the state's highest point.The small
isolated hillocks interspersed throughout the state are known as tillas, and the narrow fertile alluvial
valleys, mostly present in the west, are called lungas. A number of rivers originate in the hills of
Tripura and flow into Bangladesh.The Khowai, Dhalai,Manu, Juri and Longai flow towards the north;
the Gumti to the west; and theMuhuri and Feni to the south west.
CLIMATE OF AUSTRALIA
Australia sits far south of the equator and under a strong, migrating zone of high-pressure called
the subtropical ridge; this can lead to some interesting cloud cover. Using an advanced supercomputer
climate model called GEOS-5, NASA scientists recreated 19 days of changing cloud cover over
Australia. Watch the visualization to explore the movement of different systems that formed across
the continent. Look for rising cumulus clouds that appear to bubble up over land each day.
Australia is so large that its climate varies widely. The greater part of the continent is desert or semi-arid.
Only the south-east and south-west corners have atemperate climate and moderately fertile soil.
The northern part has a tropical climate, varied betweentropical rainforests, grasslands, and part
Australia's climate is governed by the hot, sinking air of the subtropical high pressure belt. This moves
north and south with the seasons, so that the rainfall pattern over Australia is highly seasonal.
Australia's rainfall is the lowest of the seven continents (besides Antarctica . But it is variable, with
frequent droughts lasting several seasons—thought to be caused in part by the El Niño-Southern
The rainfall patterns across Australia are highly seasonal. It rains about 11% more in winter than in summer,
and compared with the Earth's other continental landmasses Australia is very dry. More than 80% of the
continent has an annual rainfall of less than 600 mm (24 in); only Antarctica receives less rainfall than
Australia.A place inland near Lake Eyre in South Australia would only receive 81 mm (3 in) of rain
annually. Another place, Troudaninna Bore (coordinates : 29° 11' 44" S, 138° 59' 28" E, altitude : 46
m) in South Australia, from 1893 to 1936, received, in average, 104.9 mm (4.13 inches) of
precipitation. From one extreme to another, parts of the far North Queensland coast annually average over
4,000 mm (157 in), with the Australian annual record being 12,461 mm (491 in), set at the summit of Mount
Bellenden Ker in 2000. There are four main factors that contribute to the dryness of the Australian landmass:
Cold ocean currents off the west coast
Low elevation of landforms
Dominance of high-pressure systems
Shape of the landmass
The average annual rainfall in the Australian desert is low, ranging from 81 to 250 mm (3 to 10 in) per
year. Thunderstorms are relatively common in the region, with an average of 15 - 20 thunderstorms per
SNOW IN AUSTRALIA
Snow a relatively rare occurrence in non-alpine regions of Australia) blankets the town of Robertson
causing the closure of various transport facilities including the Cockatoo Run (16 August 1996).
In Australia, snow falls frequently on the highlands near the east coast, in the states of Victoria, New
South Wales and Tasmania and in the Australian Capital Territory. There is a regular snow season in
several areas which have seasonal ski tourismindustries. Snow also falls with some regularity as far
north as Stanthorpe, Queensland and in isolated parts of South Australia andWestern Australia, but
outside of these areas, snow is an extremely rare occurrence.
Snow at sea level is occasionally recorded on mainland Australia, but is more frequent in Tasmania
where snowfalls at sea level can occur during the winter months. Snow has been recorded across
most of Tasmania, though it is rare on the northern coast at sea level. Snow is rare in the
southernmost capitals like Melbourne and Hobart, falling less than once every five years, and in the
other capitals it is unknown (however snow has fallen in the hill suburbs of Perth and Adelaide.
However, there are extensive, well-developed ski fields in the Great Dividing Range, a few hours' drive
from Melbourne and Sydney Light snow generally falls every winter in Canberra however, and other
cities that may receive regular seasonal snowfalls include Orange, Lithgow and Katoomba in New
AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY
Because of its elevation (650 m (2,130 ft)) and distance from the coast, the Australian
Capital Territory experiences acontinental climate, unlike many other Australian cities
whose climates are moderated by the sea. Canberra is notorious for hot, dry summers,
and cold winters with occasional fog and frequent frosts. Many of the higher
mountains in the territory’s south-west are snow-covered for at least part of the
winter. Thunderstorms can occur between October and March, and annual rainfall is
623 mm (25 in), with rainfall highest in spring and summer and lowest in winter
The highest maximum temperature recorded in the ACT was 42.8 °C (109.0 °F)
at Acton on 11 January 1939. The lowest minimum temperature was −14.6 °C (5.7 °F)
at Gudgenby on 11 July 1971.
NEW SOUTH WALES
Over half of New South Wales has an arid or semi-arid climate. However, the eastern portion
has a temperate climate, ranging from humid subtropical to the Central Coast and most of
Sydney, and oceanic to the south coast. The Snowy Mountains region in the south-east falls in
the alpine climate highland climate zone, with cool to cold weather all year around and
snowfalls in the winter. Further inland, the climate gets semi-arid and a desert climate towards
the western part of the state.
The weather in the south of the state is generally hot in summer and cool in the winter as the
seasons are well-defined in the south. The hottest New South Wales Climate region is the north-west
part of the state, seasons are not well-defined in the north, where summers are hot and
can be wet and winters are cooler and drier. The coldest region is the Snowy Mountains where
the snow and frost continues for quite long durations during the winter months.
The Northern Territory has two distinctive climate zones. The northern end, including Darwin,
has with high humidity and two seasons, the wet (November to April) and dry season (May to
October). During the dry season nearly every day is warm and sunny, and afternoon humidity
averages around 30%. There is very little rainfall between May and September. In the coolest
months of June and July, the daily minimum temperature may dip as low as 14 °C (57 °F), but
very rarely lower, and frost has never been recorded.
The wet season is associated with tropical cyclones and monsoon rains. The majority of rainfall
occurs between December and March (the Southern Hemisphere summer, when thunderstorms
are common and afternoon relative humidity averages over 70% during the wettest months. On
average more than 1,570 mm (62 in) of rain falls in the north. Thunderstorms can produce
The majority of the state has the arid and semi-arid climates. The southern coastal parts of the
state have a Mediterranean climate with mild wet winters and hot dry summers. The highest
rainfall occurs along the southern coasts and the Mount Lofty Ranges (with an average annual
rainfall of 1,200 millimetres (47 in) in the vicinity of Mount Lofty; the lowest rainfall occurs in
the Lake Eyre basin where the average annual totals are less than 150 millimetres (6 in) and
possibly even 100 millimetres (4 in). Most of the rain in the southern districts of the State fall
during the winter months when the sub-tropical high-pressure belt is displaced to the north
over the Australian continent.
South Australia's mean temperature range is 29 °C (84 °F) in January and 15 °C (59 °F) in July.
Daily temperatures in parts of the state in January and February can be up to 48 °C (118 °F). The
highest maximum temperature was recorded as 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) at Oodnadatta on 2 January
1960, which is the highest official temperature recorded in Australia. The lowest minimum
temperature was −8.0 °C (17.6 °F) at Yongala on 20 July 1976.