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Ubaidullah Khan
Department of English language & Applied
Linguistics
Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad

1/30/2013

1


A linguistics professor was lecturing to her class
one day.
"In English," she said, “a double negative forms a
positive...







What is Literature?
An umbrella term giving information on
every business. (Moody: 1971).
Eg. Literature
agricu...
1. Literature

could be said to be a sort of disciplined
technique for arousing certain emotions. (Iris
Murdoch, The Liste...
2.

Great literature is simply language charged with
meaning to the utmost possible degree. (Ezra
Pound, How to Read, Part...
3. Literature is the question minus answer. (Roland
Barthes, New York Times, 1978)
Thus, it:
 helps

the students to gene...
Whatever your definition of literature is, the
point is that literature helps students to explore
the:
 language,
 cultu...
Because:
 it is very motivating,
 it

is authentic material,

 it

has general educational value,

 it

is found in ma...
 Why

 it

use literature in the language classroom?

is a stimulus for language acquisition,

 it

develops sts’ inter...


Traditional Method of teaching Literature



Literary terms and difficult words introduced



Analysis of literary te...


Rationale for literature:



Literary texts can be used in language teaching
because the language used in these texts ...


Why Literature in EFL Classroom?

1. Cultural enrichment and awareness.



Helps understand a culture & its ideologie...


Why Literature in EFL Classroom? 2

4.

Rhythmic resource. Poems assist the
learner in assimilating the rhythms of a
la...


Why Literature in EFL Classroom? 3

8. Linguistic model: Best demonstration of
language use and style by established wr...


Literature vs Conventional Discourse
Conventional discourse: use guess work to get to
information and skip lines/ passa...


Some Questions

1. What to teach when we use literary texts?
(select material appropriate to level of the class)

2. Wh...


What is Appropriate



Readability (length and cultural apropriacy)

Lexis: Easy (day to day) to difficult
(pompous or...


Using Short Story for Language Teaching



Teaching Grammar
Teaching pronunciation
Teaching Narration
Teaching Descrip...


Using Short Story for Language ;;;;;;;;contd.



Writing story (based on given words/
storyline)



Comments on last ...
1/30/2013

20
 Speaking

skills

 The

student are asked to read a story as a chain
activity. It will enhance fluency and improve
pron...
 Listening

Skills



Read the story out loud so students have the
opportunity to listen to a native speaker of English
...
Using Plays in EFL Class
 They

are short, compact and involving
 Can be used for promoting speaking and
reading skills
...
In selecting texts, three points should be considered:
 The type of course you are teaching,
 The type of students,
 Ce...
• Ideas, thoughts, subject matter

Content

Style

• Information, data, knowledge &
values

• Use of language and the mann...
Definition:
 Halliday defines a stylistician as someone
who can comprehend literary texts
through comprehension of their ...
Basically, this means that Halliday defines
stylistics as:
“The linguistic analysis of literary texts.”



In doing styli...


Those patterns of language can be at the
level of:



A. The arrangement of graphic and phonic
symbols



B. The lexi...


Two phases:



A. The analytic phase



B. The interpretive phase
The Analytic phase


The task of stylistician is
to select from the
thousands of linguistic
features in the literary
text...


To show why and how the text means what
it means (linguistically). (This is shared
between D.A. and stylistics)



To ...


Mode of the statement (indicative, imperative etc



Figures of speech (Alliteration, hyperbole,
Euphemism, personific...
Phono-Stylistics

Lexical Stylistics

(verse, rhyme, alliteration,
onomatopoeia, rhythm

(word formation, synonymy,
use of...
Conclusion:

Literature is effective for teaching language since it
___________________________________
provides an authen...
1/30/2013

35
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Teaching language through literature112

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Teaching language through literature112

  1. 1. Ubaidullah Khan Department of English language & Applied Linguistics Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad 1/30/2013 1
  2. 2.  A linguistics professor was lecturing to her class one day. "In English," she said, “a double negative forms a positive. In some languages, though, such as Russian, a double negative is still a negative. However, there is no language wherein a double positive can form a negative." A voice from the back of the room piped up, "Yeah, right." 1/30/2013 2
  3. 3.     What is Literature? An umbrella term giving information on every business. (Moody: 1971). Eg. Literature agriculture etc. for medicine, science, Literature is the use of language effectively in suitable conditions (Baird: 1969). 1/30/2013 3
  4. 4. 1. Literature could be said to be a sort of disciplined technique for arousing certain emotions. (Iris Murdoch, The Listener, 1978) Taken in that way, using literature in the classroom:  provides wonderful source material for eliciting strong emotional responses from our students is a fruitful way of involving the learner as a whole person provides excellent opportunities for the learners to express their personal opinions, reactions and feelings.
  5. 5. 2. Great literature is simply language charged with meaning to the utmost possible degree. (Ezra Pound, How to Read, Part II) Taken in that way, it:  helps the students unravel many meanings in a text with the guidance of the instructor.  helps the students explore multiple levels of meaning in a literary text
  6. 6. 3. Literature is the question minus answer. (Roland Barthes, New York Times, 1978) Thus, it:  helps the students to generate discussion, controversy and critical thinking in the classroom (rather than reaching any definitive interpretation of a literary text)
  7. 7. Whatever your definition of literature is, the point is that literature helps students to explore the:  language,  culture of the target language 1. 2. 3. by three main genres (types of writing): novels/short stories, poetry, plays/drama.
  8. 8. Because:  it is very motivating,  it is authentic material,  it has general educational value,  it is found in many syllabuses,  it helps sts to understand another culture,
  9. 9.  Why  it use literature in the language classroom? is a stimulus for language acquisition,  it develops sts’ interpretative abilities,  sts enjoy it,  it  it is highly valued and has a high status, expands sts’ language awareness,  it encourages sts to talk about their opinions and feelings.
  10. 10.  Traditional Method of teaching Literature  Literary terms and difficult words introduced  Analysis of literary text without actually understanding it Outcome is Memorising / rephrasing practice   Students only learn difficult words or patterns of texts  Language learning efficiency reduces and boredom increases. 1/30/2013 10
  11. 11.  Rationale for literature:  Literary texts can be used in language teaching because the language used in these texts is suitable for the contexts of the events.  Containing real examples of grammatical structures and vocabulary items, the literary texts raise learners’ awareness of the range of the target language and advance their competence in all language skills (Povey, 1967) 1/30/2013 11
  12. 12.  Why Literature in EFL Classroom? 1. Cultural enrichment and awareness.   Helps understand a culture & its ideologies Selection of works of best wisdom of that culture. 2. Mental training: trains mind and sensibility. 3. Memorability: Easy to remember linguistic usage (Maley & Moulding, 1985). 1/30/2013 12
  13. 13.  Why Literature in EFL Classroom? 2 4. Rhythmic resource. Poems assist the learner in assimilating the rhythms of a language. 5. Motivating material. May be based on interesting material and motivational themes. 6. Convenience. Literature is a handy (photocopiable) resource. 7. Open to interpretation/ Promotes interaction. 1/30/2013 13
  14. 14.  Why Literature in EFL Classroom? 3 8. Linguistic model: Best demonstration of language use and style by established writers 9.Extension of linguistic competence: Students’ linguistic competence increases 10.Authenticity: A source &undistorted language input of genuine Parkinson & Thomas (2000: 9-11) 1/30/2013 14
  15. 15.  Literature vs Conventional Discourse Conventional discourse: use guess work to get to information and skip lines/ passages and still interpret. Literature: look for evidence of the new reality, and adopt a procedure for interpretation to make sense of the discourse. Literature provides wider room for ‘inference’ which guarantees employment of more discoursal strategies. 1/30/2013 15
  16. 16.  Some Questions 1. What to teach when we use literary texts? (select material appropriate to level of the class) 2. What kind of text to work with? (select according to the need of students/course objectives) 3. What can literary text be used for? (to teach language, not only history or themes) 4. How to make students enjoy literature? (motivate by teaching literature of their interest) 1/30/2013 16
  17. 17.  What is Appropriate  Readability (length and cultural apropriacy) Lexis: Easy (day to day) to difficult (pompous or robust)  Grammar: Different levels of syntactic complexity  Style: Do not start of with Francis Bacon if it is elementary level  1/30/2013 17
  18. 18.  Using Short Story for Language Teaching  Teaching Grammar Teaching pronunciation Teaching Narration Teaching Description Teaching Punctuation Comprehension questions Vocabulary quizzes (multiple options) Guessing contextual meanings Prediction (what next) Making sentences reflecting multiple meanings of a word          1/30/2013 18
  19. 19.  Using Short Story for Language ;;;;;;;;contd.  Writing story (based on given words/ storyline)  Comments on last line of the story  Create a new story based on ending of story  Creative writing as home task (response to the story they have read) 1/30/2013 19
  20. 20. 1/30/2013 20
  21. 21.  Speaking skills  The student are asked to read a story as a chain activity. It will enhance fluency and improve pronunciation. (primary)  The students recall and read the story as a chain activity using the given connectors and discourse markers such as “however”, “then”, “consequently”, “regarding”, “as far as”. (Intermediate)  The students play different roles based on characters in the story (Advanced) 1/30/2013 21
  22. 22.  Listening Skills  Read the story out loud so students have the opportunity to listen to a native speaker of English (if at all possible); or  Play the story if a recording is available.  Who is the main character of the story? Where/when does the story take place? What is the problem (conflict) in the story? How is the conflict resolved?    1/30/2013 22
  23. 23. Using Plays in EFL Class  They are short, compact and involving  Can be used for promoting speaking and reading skills  Students may be asked to enact and feel a sense of participation  They may be asked to write a short play on an imaginative / experienced situation 1/30/2013 23
  24. 24. In selecting texts, three points should be considered:  The type of course you are teaching,  The type of students,  Certain factors connected with the text (cultural acceptability etc). Criteria for selecting texts:  The students’ cultural background,  The students’ linguistic proficiency,  The students’ literary background / literary compotence.
  25. 25. • Ideas, thoughts, subject matter Content Style • Information, data, knowledge & values • Use of language and the manner of use of language • (manner of each individual varies) 1/30/2013 25
  26. 26. Definition:  Halliday defines a stylistician as someone who can comprehend literary texts through comprehension of their language structures.  Someone who can comprehend literary texts through a comprehension of their language structures.
  27. 27. Basically, this means that Halliday defines stylistics as: “The linguistic analysis of literary texts.”  In doing stylistics: - a literary text is looked at as made of language - a literary text is seen to consist of patterns and properties which are part of language
  28. 28.  Those patterns of language can be at the level of:  A. The arrangement of graphic and phonic symbols  B. The lexico-grammatical patterns  C. The semantic and pragmatic patterns
  29. 29.  Two phases:  A. The analytic phase  B. The interpretive phase
  30. 30. The Analytic phase  The task of stylistician is to select from the thousands of linguistic features in the literary text those which are worthy of studying in a particular literary text. The Interpretive phase The stylistician: 1. brings together various features to show how they form a coherent, integrated patterns 2. makes judgments about the significance of such patterns in relation to the context of the work as a whole. 
  31. 31.  To show why and how the text means what it means (linguistically). (This is shared between D.A. and stylistics)  To show why the literary text is valued as it is. In other words, it is interested in showing how the text is unique in itself. (Only stylistics)
  32. 32.  Mode of the statement (indicative, imperative etc  Figures of speech (Alliteration, hyperbole, Euphemism, personification, onomatopoeia)  Punctuation  Kind of vocabulary used  Sentence Analysis (SVO etc) 1/30/2013 32
  33. 33. Phono-Stylistics Lexical Stylistics (verse, rhyme, alliteration, onomatopoeia, rhythm (word formation, synonymy, use of foreign words, pun etc Syntactical Stylistics Sentence Structure, interrelationship of phrases & clauses Psycho-stylistics Distinguishing style through analysis of author’s psyche Socio-Stylistics Studies varieties of language in a single text/ registers 1/30/2013 33
  34. 34. Conclusion: Literature is effective for teaching language since it ___________________________________ provides an authentic model of real life language use. It not only teaches language, it also encourages one’s cultural and personal growth by means of moral and spiritual advancement. Literature is not an end, it is a means to develop creative ability which helps students relate themselves to their socio-psychological context. 1/30/2013 34
  35. 35. 1/30/2013 35

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