Sustainable Futures: A Waste Management Perspective - India

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Waste management is an important part of any sustainable future. In this report we present our views on Sustainable Futures for India from a waste management perspective.
-- We research and present our findings on why waste management is becoming increasingly important for India.
-- Who are the stakeholders involved in waste management? What happens to our waste - lifecycle of our waste.
-- We explore global trends in waste management and present innovative uses of waste from around the world.
-- Finally, we come down to the biggest challenges that India faces in waste management.
-- We identify two key pressing issues and propose innovative solutions for the same.

Published in: Design, Business, News & Politics
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  • Hello Sir,
    I want to get the learning about waste management and also interested to setup a recycling processing center. pls guide me where from can i get the information. My email id is rakeshsingh07@gmail.com.
    Thanks & regards,
    Rakesh Singh
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  • @sohelkapasi Thank you for your detailed comment and pointing out the other important aspects in waste management in India. We agree that we did not touch upon policy and effectiveness of the present system. As an extension to this report, in the subsequent studies that we are doing we will take your feedback into account.

    The concept of playing a game for educating people on waste segregation is just one of the ideas on how the problem can be tackled. As you rightly said, it cannot be the only solution. We would look forward to see if this presentation can lead people to think of even better solutions. The 2 concepts that we presented are meant to be like seeds for further discussions.

    However, we would like to differ slightly to the point that bad waste management is a cultural issue. If you look at rural parts of India, waste is primarily organic. And usually, organic waste in India has been used in pits or landfills for composting. It is the introduction of plastic and non-biodegradable wastes that have been causing the bigger problem; people are not aware of what exactly needs to be done with that- burn it, put it in a pit or just dump it somewhere. So, the root cause is the lack of knowledge on such wastes and not a cultural issue. What do you think?

    Thank you once again for your comment and feedback. We really appreciate it and would like to know if you have nay other pointers for us.
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  • @RussWestfall Thank you Russ for liking our presentation. Very nice to know about Cartridge World and its initiatives, specially those in schools and offices.
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  • I agree with author that lack of awareness in India is the main cause, but this presentation missing one very important point for current waste situation in India is the Policy and Effectiveness of the existing system.

    You need easy and affordable system for community to use, currently people are throwing their waste in municipality tank, but how many municipality people working effectively and with cleanness manner.

    If we don't fix the root cause then we cannot expect to fix the bigger problem.

    Plus how many % of Indian population playing games so that we can educate them by gamification, many proposed innovation actually forgets the very large uneducated/less educated people and focus their solution via technologies which does not even touch these part of population, and in many situations they are the major cause/part of the problem.

    I believe that we have to start injecting these discipline into their primary onward study syllabus.

    In my opinion, it is cultural and disciplinary issue rather than awareness alone.
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  • Very clear informative presentation. Regarding slide#16, at least one company is successfully recycling ink cartridges - http://www.cartridgeworld.com/News.aspx?id=2147487694
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Sustainable Futures: A Waste Management Perspective - India

  1. 1. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Sustainable Futures: A Waste Management Perspective - India Prepared by: Ankush Samant & Prashant Vutha ICE, India.
  2. 2. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Table of Contents • Introduction to waste management in India – Why waste management? – Classification of waste – (Re)Uses of waste – Stakeholders involved in waste management • Global scenario • Global trends • Waste management challenges in India and proposed solutions
  3. 3. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Introduction – Why Waste Management? • Urban India generates 188,500 tonnes per day (TPD) of waste at an average rate of 0.5 kg of waste per person per day. • The increasing waste generation has a link to the increasing GDP. As per capita income increases the spending power increases that results in increased waste generation. • Urban India produces 68 million tons of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) per year, which is a 50% increase in waste generation since 2001. • At this rate, urban India will generate 160.5 million tons per year by 2041! 7/22/2013 3
  4. 4. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Classification of Waste • Organics – 51% • Inert Waste (Dust and related waste materials) – 31% • Recyclables (paper, plastic, metal, glass) – 17.5% 7/22/2013 4 Organics Inert Waste Recyclables
  5. 5. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Waste As Per City Type 7/22/2013 5 37% 24% 8% 5% 4% 5% 6% 5% 6% Percentage Share of Waste Metro Class A Class B Class C Class D Class E Class F Class G Class H Source of Data: http://www.seas.columbia.edu/earth/wtert/sofos/Sustainable%20Solid%20Waste %20Management%20in%20India_Final.pdf
  6. 6. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Urban Waste: (Re)Uses Current techniques to use waste: • Recycling – Reuse of materials that are not biodegradable. E.g., plastic. • Aerobic Composting – A way to treat kitchen and garden waste that otherwise would have been dumped at landfills. • Small Scale Biomethanation – Conversion of organic material into biogas through biological processes. Residue can be used as agricultural manure. Biogas has numerous uses. • Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) – Fuel produced using waste as raw material, using mostly combustibles (plastics) and biodegradable materials. • Waste to Energy (WTE) – Conversion of waste into electricity or heat for commercial purposes. 7/22/2013 6
  7. 7. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Stakeholders Involved 1. Study of waste in urban households 2. Policies & guidelines 3. Seek funding to set up waste treatment plants 4. Technical guidance & feasibility study 5. Proposal submission for plant set-up 6.Implementing waste management programs POLICY MAKERS URBAN & LOCAL BODIES COMMON USERS
  8. 8. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Lifecycle Of Waste Collection through NGOs - 70-90% waste 90% of the collected waste is dumped at landfills 10-20% of the collected waste in landfills is openly burnt Such open burning of waste releases 22,000 tons of pollutants every year…this is only in Mumbai! Waste segregation at source still a major problem
  9. 9. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Global Scenario & Trends Global Waste Management Trends
  10. 10. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Global Scenario India has alliances for knowledge transfer with Sweden & Denmark
  11. 11. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Bottle Bank Arcade, Sweden Many people throw away their plastic bottles and cans. Very few people recycle their glass bottles. One reason is that we don‘t get appropriate value in return for our cans and plastic bottles. An idea was proposed in the Fun Theory competition, an initiative of German automaker Volkswagen. A machine was developed to gamify the activity of collection of waste bottles, so that people are not just rewarded with a good conscience but also get a smile in return. Bottle bank arcade glass recycling is an innovation in which a glass bottle collection bin was refitted to resemble an arcade machine.
  12. 12. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Plastic Gold, Cameroon Constance Gubong Tangu was tired of seeing plastic waste clog the streets and streams of Bamenda, the capital of Cameroon‘s Northwest region. So in 2010, Tangu, a teacher and craftswoman, became an environmental entrepreneur. She decided to transform the city‘s waste into jewelry. She and four friends started the New Era Foundation in 2010. The organization oversees several environmental projects in Bamenda and trains women to produce jewelry from recycled paper and plastic.
  13. 13. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Waste Creates Music, Paraguay Social worker Favio Chávez was looking to provide local children in Caterura, Paraguay an activity to keep them occupied and away from garbage heaps. He came up with an interesting project along with a garbage picker named Nicolás Gómez. The project was to create musical instruments using waste as the raw material. The large landfill provides the waste materials that are used to make musical instruments such as violins, drum sets and cellos. These instruments are then sold to generate revenues. Now a group of filmmakers, producers, and photographers are trying to tell the story of the orchestra through a documentary titled Landfill Harmonic.
  14. 14. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Waste Cloth As a Resource, India Goonj – mobilizing urban waste cloth and repositioning the same for rural India One of the preliminary causes of death in India is lack of proper clothing. Also million(s) of rural women are forced to use unhygienic means due to non- affordability of quality sanitary pads. Goonj uses vast quantities of underutilized or waste cloth from urban homes as a resource to cater to the clothing and other basic needs of the rural and poor community.
  15. 15. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Vertical Garden From Soda Bottles, Brazil This vertical garden was created as part of the TV show Lar Doce Lar (Home Sweet Home), in which producer Luciano Huck and the designers at Rosenbaum collaborated to transform the homes of several dozen poor Brazilian families. The beautiful vertical garden is made out of hundreds of recycled soda bottles. The bottles are suspended on the wall of a walkway outside the home and contain edible plants like lettuce and herbs so the family can grow their own organic vegetables. The response to the Rodriguez family's wall garden was so overwhelming that Rosenbaum eventually released the garden design plans so people could build their own. The design plan - http://www.rosenbaum.com.br/blog/r osenbaum-responde-ldl-48-horta- vertical/
  16. 16. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Landscaping With Printer Cartridges, Australia It is very difficult to recycle Printer cartridges. They are often complex bits of equipment with lots of small components made from different types of plastic and metal. So, even after extracting reusuable materials recyclers are left with a mix of plastics that is effectively unusable. An Australian company ‗Close the Loop‘ came up with eWood. It looks like hardwood, feels like hardwood and can be worked and shaped like hardwood, but it's actually made from the leftover bits of plastic from printer cartridges that is melted down and extruded into bars. It is safe to use in gardens, as Close the Loop uses a method that gets rid of the brominated flame retardants present in plastics. Hence, the plastic is 100 percent recycled.
  17. 17. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Biodiversity From Waste, Singapore The island nation of Singapore faces some unique challenges in waste management. Space is at a premium on this densely populated island, and with the country's last remaining landfill approaching capacity in 1999, the government needed an alternative solution. The government implemented a recycling program that took care of around 54 per cent of waste, and an incineration program for most of the remaining waste. This resulted in ash as the leftover. This was when an innovative idea of the world‘s first offshore landfill was conceived. Pulau Semakau a new island is built with sealed cells filled with incinerated rubbish. Semakau landfill receives about 1400 tonnes of incineration ash and 600 tonnes of non-incinerable waste everyday. But Pulau Semakau is far more than a dump. A careful waste management program has been in place that has made this island a bio- diversity hotspot- home to flourishing mangroves, rich coral reefs and a wealth of bird and marine life. It has even become a tourist attraction in its own right.
  18. 18. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Redistribution Of Medicine, USA While 1 out of 3 adults in the United States does not have the means or access to prescription medicines, a staggering $5 billion of usable medicine ends up being destroyed in incinerators! Supporting Initiatives to Redistribute Unused Medicine (SIRUM) is a social enterprise started by Stanford University students to decrease the amount of medicine and medical supplies that go to waste by redistributing unused, non-expired drugs to free and low cost medical clinics. SIRUM‘s online platform connects health facilities, manufacturers and wholesalers to people with needs in safety-net clinics. SIRUM also coordinates the logistics including itemized drug manifests, tracking and shipping.
  19. 19. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Reverse Logistics of Food, USA In a survey by the NRDC in USA, it was discovered that 30% of the fruit produce never makes it out of the farm because they are not ―visually correct for large retail entities.‖ Grocery stores throw out 43 billion pounds of food each year. About $15 billion worth of produce is unused or in excess of the demand. FoodStar (USA), offers a solution in the same way that a discount clothing retailer sources factory overruns. FoodStar teamed up with the California grocery chain Andronico‘s- customers were able to buy these fruits at hugely discounted prices. Instead of becoming cattle feed or garbage, these apples actually reached people.
  20. 20. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Waste : Form of Art, USA Founded by photographer and sculptor Dwayne Bass, TWOvital strives to create awareness of environmental issues and promote sustainability through its art. TWOvital has created additional sustainable sculptures as part of green building projects throughout the Southeast and in Washington DC. These sculptures have been crafted from a number of different materials including metal, wood, foam insulation, PVC piping, and recycled rubber—all taken from construction sites and buildings that were being demolished or renovated.
  21. 21. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Furniture Using Waste As Raw Material, US RUBBLOX is a furniture line created by Dwayne Bass, founder of TWOvital. It is manufactured from recycled rubber (such as car tires) in the state of Georgia. They take rubber that is no longer suitable for use and have all the fibers, steel belts, and impurities removed in order to work with the finest and cleanest shredded rubber. The rubber is then dyed using organically mined dyes which are non-toxic for children, pets and the environment. They then shape and mould the recycled rubber into cubes, cylinders and many other shapes to meet all design needs.
  22. 22. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Upcycling, South Africa Upcycling - creative green designs that incorporate the old with the new. The imaginative work of Cape Town designer, Katie Thompson, is something special. Her work blends the romantic and nostalgic with the practical and current for a fresh and whimsical vibe. Her initiative Recreate offers innovative home décor designs using old and discarded items. One such product uses vintage suitcases to make comfortable yet whimsical chairs and settees.
  23. 23. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved India: Challenges and Solutions Waste Management Challenges in India and Proposed Solutions
  24. 24. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved 7/22/2013 24 Potential Loss in India Snapshot of the potential loss of resources in India: • 6.7 million TPY (tons per year) of recyclable material, which could have been used as secondary raw materials in manufacturing industries, due to the absence of source separation. • 9.6 million tons of compost, which could have been used as a fertilizer supplement, due to the absence of source separation and enough composting facilities. • 58 million barrels of oil energy equivalent in residues of composting operations, which could have been used to generate electricity and displace fossil fuels in RDF (fuel generation) co-combustion plants or WTE (Waste to Energy) power plants, due to the absence of WTE facilities.
  25. 25. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved The Pressing Issues • Issue 1: While technology and knowledge transfer arrangements with the West are already in place for treatment of waste, e.g., different colored bins to segregate waste at source, ―the basic issue in India is lack of awareness and education about the importance of waste segregation at source.‖ • Issue 2: Currently the transportation of waste from collection points to the transfer stations is done through informal channels like NGOs and ragpickers. The mixed waste is taken to the transfer stations where it is segregated manually. The waste is carried in an open truck thus also risking the spread of harmful bacteria.
  26. 26. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Issue 1 – Segregation of Waste at Source Although a simple way is to create color-coded bins to encourage collection of segregated waste at source, the bigger question is will people actually pay attention to detail and make the effort of throwing the right waste in the right bin? Problems: 1. Mixed waste collection 2. Fowl smell and spread of germs 3. Lack of motivation among people to find a garbage bin and dispose waste 4. Collection and segregation of waste becomes a time consuming and costly affair 5. Desired results are not achieved since many waste treatment techniques require segregated waste as input
  27. 27. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Proposed Solution: Game to Spread Awareness An Angry Birds theme-based mobile application game can be developed to gamify the entire exercise to educate people about segregation of waste at source. Through the game we can try to habituate people to put the right waste in the right section. By making the game addictive and fun, we can attempt to achieve an ecosystem where people dispose of waste in a segregated manner with a smile on their face! Points for right basket Minus points for wrong basket If you go wrong too many times YOU STINK !!!
  28. 28. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Issue 2: Collection & Transportation Collection either by cycles or small trucks Transfer Station – Manual Segregation DisposalProblems 1. Mixed waste collection 2. Time lost in manual segregation 3. Risk of fowl smell and bacteria spreading due to unhygienic transportations 4. Collection by informal sector thus no set protocols followed 5. Time consuming & costly activity (Rs. 1500/ton)
  29. 29. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Proposed Solution: Jugaad Waste Cart The innovative waste cart will be an effort to ―formalize‖ the efforts of the otherwise informal sector involved in waste collection. This will ensure that the segregated waste is collected in a more hygienic manner and can be quickly transported for treatment. The bikes and cycles used can be old and unused ones which are collected through a “donate your bike/cycle” campaign. Innovative waste cart that is hygienic, eco- friendly (made from recycled material). The cart can be either fitted to a bike or a cycle depending on the transportation need for the area covered.
  30. 30. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved Address: No. 184, Mission Street, Puducherry - 605001 India. Tel : +91 413 4210583/4/5 +91 413 4210583 / 4 / 5 ice.humanfactors.com/ facebook.com/uxtrendspotting @UXTrendspotting Contact ice@humanfactors.com for any further queries and feedback. 7/22/2013 30 Thank You!
  31. 31. @2013, ICE, All rights reserved References • http://www.seas.columbia.edu/earth/wtert/sofos/Sustainable%20Solid%20Waste%20M anagement%20in%20India_Final.pdf • http://eco-wise.blogspot.in/2010/07/waste-reduction-starts-at-home.html • http://www.nswai.com/waste.php • http://www.thefuntheory.com/bottle-bank-arcade-machine • http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/12/27/paraguay-orchestra-music-from-garbage- instruments-recycled-trash_n_2370798.html • http://www.attero.in/show_content.php?id=1&scat=4 • http://goonj.org/?page_id=5 • https://sirum.org/about/what_we_do • http://twovital.com/reclaimed-furniture/ • http://rubblox.com/gallery/ • http://www.upcyclethat.com/recreate/2820/ • www.energetica-india.net/ • http://www.abc.net.au/environment/articles/2010/06/21/2932709.htm • http://www.globalpressinstitute.org/africa/cameroon/entrepreneurial-women- cameroon-transform-plastic-waste-wealth#ixzz2ZJDvFYAD • http://www.thisiscolossal.com/ • http://www.waste-management-world.com/articles/2009/03/semakau-landfill.html

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