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MAPPING EXPERIENCES
@JimKalbach
AGENDA
2:00 Overview
2:30 Initiate
3:30 Investigate
3:45 Break
4:00 Illustrate
5:00 Align & Envision
5:30 End
“Value-centered design starts a story about an ideal
interaction between an individual and an organization
and the benefits each realizes from that interaction.”
Jess McMullin, “Searching For The Center of Design,“ Boxes and Arrows
Individuals
Organization
Value
Customer Journey Maps
Experience Maps
Service Blueprints
Mental Model Diagrams
Ecosystem models
…
ALIGNMENT DIAGRAMS
CUSTOMER JOURNEY MAP
Individual
CUSTOMER JOURNEY MAP
Individual
Organization
CUSTOMER JOURNEY MAP
Individual
Organization
Interactions
CUSTOMER JOURNEY MAP
EXPERIENCE MAP
Individual
Organization
Interactions
EXPERIENCE MAP
Individual
Organization
Interactions
MENTAL MODELS
Individual
Organization
Interactions
MENTAL MODELS
Paul Kahn, “Information Architecture for the Web: Applied IA“ http://www.slideshare.net/pauldavidkahn/04-appled-ia
SPATIAL MAP
STORY INTERACTION INDIVIDUALS ORGANIZATION
Experience Map Chronological Interactions
Goals, actions,
thoughts, feelings,
pain points
Physical, artifacts,
opportunities,
recommendations
Customer Journey
Map
Chronological Touchpoints
Actions, thoughts,
feelings, moments of
truth, pain points
Customer facing artifacts
and roles, opportunities
Service Blueprint Chronological Line of Interaction Stages, artefacts
Front-line services, back-
office systems, gaps
Mental Model Hierarchical Center Line
Tasks, intent,
feelings, philosophy
Support, features, gaps
Spatial Map Spatial Overlays
Content usage,
categories
Data systems,
departments, workflow
GENERAL PROCESS
Holism Experiences, not products
Multiplicity Multiple facets of activity
Interaction Touchpoints between people and a system
Visualization Provide a graphical overview
Self Evidence Little or no explanation
Relevance Address business problems
Validity Grounded in investigation and evidence
http://experiencinginformation.wordpress.com/2012/01/04/principles-of-alignment-diagrams
PRINCIPLES
“Visualizations don’t provide answers outright,
they foster conversations. Diagrams are
compelling artifacts that draw interest and
attention from others in the organization. They
are a means to engage others in discourse.”
FACILITATION
CO-CREATION
CREATE & TEST ARTIFACTS
GENERAL PROCESS
It‘s the journey and the destination
1. INITIATE
What is the difference between:
Customer Journey Map
Experience Map
Service Blueprint
?
BREATH v DEPTH / FOCUS
What is an experience
WHAT IS AN EXPERIENCE?
Holistic Personal Situational
Point of View
Focus
Scope
Structure
Frame the Effort
1. Point of View
2. Focus
3. Scope
4. Structure
5. Use
DEFINE THE MAPPING EFFORT
CUSTOMER VALUE CHAIN
Focus
Scope
by nForm (CA)
Structure
Network
Emirates Journey Mapping Case Study: http://www.kendeo.com/industry/airline/emirates-study
STRUCTURES
1. Point of view – whose experiences? Which experiences?
2. Scope – where do you begin and end?
3. Focus – which aspects are highlighted?
4. Structure – how will you arrange elements?
5. Use – what will you do with the diagram?
1. DEFINE THE EFFORT
Five things businesses care about:
2. ALIGN TO BUSINESS GOALS
• Increase revenue
• Decrease cost
• Increase new business
• Increase existing business
• Increase shareholder value
Jared Spool: “UX means business” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hEyUe4q_pOk
Growth=
Pirate Metrics
• Acquire
• Activate
• Retention
• Referral
• Revenue
Dave McClure: http://500hats.typepad.com/500blogs/2007/09/startup-metrics.html
2. ALIGN TO BUSINESS GOALS
The Providence Tourism Office (PTO) would like to improve the overall experience guests have when visiting the
city, particularly holiday travelers. They already have some ideas what to do, but need to see the big picture in
order to prioritize funding and to focus on areas that will have the most impact.
First, the PTO is planning to significantly overhaul its website. The site has grown organically over the past
decade, and there are many complaints about finding information. In particular, the federated reservations
system for hotels is incomplete, outdated and hard to use.
Second, the PTO wants to offer mobile services and apps for travelers. With so many options in the mobile arena,
they are not sure where the best place to start would be.
Finally, PTO believes partnering with key service providers would improve the travel experience of visitors. PTO
already has information kiosks in tourist areas, but they are looking to integrate more with partner services.
You work for a research agency specializing in experience mapping. The PTO has hired you to investigate and
identify the most salient ways to bring the most value to visitors. They are also looking for new opportunities
previously overlooked. The insight they hope to gain will help structure a multi-year program for improvement.
SCENARIO
Based on the scenario, address the 5 questions for getting started:
1. What is your POINT OF VIEW?
2. What is the SCOPE of the experience?
3. What will you FOCUS on?
4. How will STRUCTURE the diagram?
5. What will you USE the map for?
Time permitting, create a value chain diagram.
1. List all of the actors and entities involved
2. Create a concept diagram show the flow of value
EXERCISE 1: VALUE CHAIN (20 minutes)
CUSTOMER VALUE CHAIN
2. INVESTIGATE
INVESTIGATE
Gather existing sources
Qualitative & quantitative
1
Interview internally
Sketch experience
Identify knowledge gaps
Gather existing sources
Qualitative & quantitative
1 2
INVESTIGATE
DRAFT MAP WORKSHOP
Interview internally
Sketch experience
Identify knowledge gaps
Gather existing sources
Qualitative & quantitative
Interview externally
Contextual interviews
Surveys, quantitative data
1 2 3
INVESTIGATE
Who might you want to interview?
Internal interview participants External interview participants
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
EXERCISE 2: INTERVIEW PARTNERS (5 MINUTES)
What themes or topics might you include in a guide for interviews
internally at the HTO and externally with travellers?
Internal interview themes External interview themes
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
EXERCISE 3: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (5 MINUTES)
3. ILLUSTRATE
ANALYSE DATA
Text coding software,
e.g., MaxQDA
ANALYSE DATA
ANALYSE DATA – Short Way
ANALYSE DATA – Short Way
Guideline Example 1 Example 2
Start with insights
Research cluster 1: People indicated they sometimes
hesitate and reconsider during the customer acquisition
phase because of our premium pricing model
Research cluster 2: There is a clear pain point around
deploying the solution, primarily due to lack of
necessary technical knowledge.
Use natural language
People reconsider when making a purchase because
they may be nervous or anxious about the high cost
Users struggle to install the software for the first time
if they don’t have the required technical skills
Keep voice consistent
I reconsider when making a purchase because I’m
anxious and nervous about the high cost
I struggle to install the software for the first time
because I don’t have the necessary technical skills.
Omit pronouns and
articles
Reconsider when making purchase due to anxiousness
and nervousness over high cost
Struggle to install software for first time without the
necessary technical skills.
Focus on the root
cause
Feel anxious and nervous when making purchase due to
high cost, and then reconsider
Struggle during installation due to lack of necessary
technical skills
Be concise
Feel anxious during purchase about cost, and then
reconsider
Struggle due to lack technical skills during installation
Use abbreviations
sparingly
“” Struggle due to lack of tech skills during installation
Rely on context of
map
anxious about cost
(In the cell for the column for “purchase” and row for
“feelings”)
Reconsider
(In the cell of a column for “purchase” and a row for
“actions”)
Struggle due to lack of tech skills
OR
Lack tech skills
(assuming a column for “installation” and a row for
“pain points”)
Consider different layouts
by nForm (CA)
www.businessmodelcreativity.net
Emirates Journey Mapping Case Study: http://www.kendeo.com/industry/airline/emirates-study
LAYOUT TYPES
STRIVE FOR CLARITY (negative example)
CONSISTENT REPRESENTATION
CONTENT
• Actions: Start each with a verb,
• Thoughts: Phrase as a question
• Feelings: Use adjectives
• Pain points: start each with a gerund
• Touchpoints: Use nouns
• Opportunities: Begin with verb of change, e.g.,
increase the ease of installation
VISUAL
• Fit to space
• Font selection
• Color coding
• Icons and shapes
CHRONOLOGY
REPEAT BEHAVIOR
VARIABLE ORDER
ONGOING
ALTERNATE FLOWS
EXERCISE 4: ILLUSTRATE (45 MINUTES)
In groups, create a draft diagram for the PTO scenario
Use the following phases
• Plan Trip
• Travel
• Arrive
• Stay
• Depart
• Return Home
• Visit Again
Include the following aspects
• Customer
• Actions
• Thoughts
• Feelings
• Pain points
• Channels / Touchpoints
• PTO
• Role + Activity
• Goals
4. ALIGN & ENVISION
“Diagrams are compelling
documents that invite
engagement by others.”
COLLABORATE
• Hold a workshop
• Invite diverse group
• Assess performance
• Engage in exercises
EMPATHIZE
ASSESS
OPPORTUNITIES
1. Gaps
2. Weaknesses
3. Efficiencies
4. Competitors
Author Involvement Levels
The Ask
circa 1886
Scientific American Supplement, No. 530, February 27, 1886
“A NEW PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS”
This apparatus consists of a box containing a camera, A, and a frame, C,
containing the desired number of plates, each held in a small frame of black
Bristol board. The camera contains a mirror, M, which pivots upon an axis and is
maneuvered by the extreme bottom, B. This mirror stops at an angle of 45°, and
sends the image coming from the objective to the horizontal plate, D, at the
upper part of the camera. The image thus reflected is righted upon this plate.
As the objective is of short focus, every object situated beyond a distance of three
yards from the apparatus is in focus. In exceptional cases, where the operator
might be nearer the object to be photographed, the focusing would be done by
means of the rack of the objective. The latter can also slide up and down, so that
the apparatus need not be inclined when buildings or high trees are being
photographed. The door, E, performs the role of a shade. When the apparatus
has been fixed upon its tripod and properly directed, all the operator has to do is
to close the door, P, and raise the mirror, M, by turning the button, B, and then
expose the plate. The sensitized plates are introduced into the apparatus through
the door, I, and are always brought automatically to the focus of the objective
through the pressure of the springs, R. The shutter of the frame, B, opens
through a hook, H, with in the pocket, N. After exposure, each plate is lifted by
means of the extractor, K, into the pocket, whence it is taken by hand and
introduced through a slit, S, behind the springs, R, and the other plates that the
frame contains. All these operations are performed in the interior of the pocket,
N, through the impermeable, triple fabric of which no light can enter.
An automatic marker shows the number of plates exposed. When the operations
are finished, the objective is put back in the interior of the camera, the doors, P
and E, are closed, and the pocket is rolled up. The apparatus is thus hermetically
closed, and, containing all the accessories, forms one of the most practical of
systems for the itinerant photographer.—La Nature.
[EASTMAN] recognized that his roll film could
lead to a revolution if he focused on the
experience he wanted to deliver, an
experience captured in his advertising slogan,
“You press the button, we do the rest.”
PHOTOGRAPHERS
THE ASK
Solutions that merely please, serve, meet
the needs/specs, or delight customers don’t
go far enough. They represent yesterday’s
marketing and design paradigms. They
misunderstand innovation’s real impact –
transforming customers.
ENTREPRENEURS
Who does Google ask us to become?
Kodak = Camera > Photographers
eBay = Trading Platform > Entrepreneurs
Google = Search Engine > Expert Researchers
WIERDO
Supersize
UNHEALTHY
Kodak = Camera > Photographers
eBay = Trading Platform > Entrepreneurs
Google = Search Engine > Expert Researchers
but…
Segway = New Vehicle > Weirdo on Scooter
Super Size = Value for Money > Unhealthy person
THE ASK & DIAGRAMS
1. At each phase ask: Who do we want our
customers to become?
2. Use metaphors. These are often experts
3. Reframe solutions to transform users
VIP
Club
Member
House
guest
Royalty FriendFoodie
CitizenExplorer Documentary
Filmmaker
Activist Reporter
1. In groups, discuss who you want your customer to become.
2. Together, brainstorm ideas that will transform you customers.
If we want our customer to become <the ask>,
then they need these <solutions, services>
EXERCISE 5: ALIGN
ARTICULATE IDEAS
1. Written stories
2. Storyboards
3. Sketches
4.Prototypes
STORYBOARDS
PROTOTYPES
EVALUATION
ITERATE
WORK RAPIDLY
RAPID MAPPING
0
8
HOURS
0
8
HOURS
RAPID MAPPING
0
8
HOURS
RAPID MAPPING
“[Mapping] will add
context to your
project and highlight
opportunities you
may have otherwise
missed.”
DESIGN SPRINTS
IDEAS ARE OVERRATED
@JimKalbach
VALLEY OF DEATH
@JimKalbach
BUSINESS VALUE EXPERIMENTS
5x5 Framework
• 5 people
• 5 days
• 5 experiments
• $5k
• In 5 weeks
(i.e., small bets…)
@JimKalbach
EXAMPLE: SNAP SUPPORT
EXAMPLE: SNAP SUPPORT
SENSE AND RESPOND
Danke schön!
@JimKalbach
Jim.Kalbach@Gmail.com
www.experiencinginformation.com
FINAL WORD
MODELS
EVANGALISE
What are some benefits of alignment diagrams?
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
_________________________________________
EXERCISE 7: ADVANTAGES (5 MINS)
• Longevity of information
• Common big picture
• Continuity in vision
• Diagnosis of problems
• Indicate where to create value
• Opportunities for growth
BENEFITS
not product research
Objection Argument
I was in our target group. Just ask me. You’ve internalized processes and may not express them freely.
Also, different people have different ways of doing things. We want
to look beyond what we already know.
We regularly listen to customers Listening to customers is good, but it is not enough. We also need
alignment throughout the organization. Also remember the 90-9-1
rule: Only 1% of people will send such an email.
We already do market research. Market research and Diagramming are different. Marketing
understands what people will buy so we can sell more. This work
seeks to uncover fundamental needs and activities for innovation.
We don’t have time or budget Alignment diagrams needn’t be expensive or time consuming. For
the cost of a usability test or marketing survey, we can conduct an
alignment project.
A focus group would be easier By taking people out of their contexts, much of the situational and
environmental cues are missing. People also don’t remember
exactly how they work without the actual tool or artefact present.
Focus groups sometimes lead to group opinions.
KNOW THE OBJECTIONS
• Key elements of an elevator pitch
1. What problem are your solving?
2. What is the value proposition?
• Characteristics of elevator pitch
• Be succinct
• Easy to understand
• Greed inducing
• Irrefutable – leave no questions
CREATE A PITCH
You’d like to grow into a new markets to move beyond
maintaining your current offerings. You’ll have better
understand the needs and behaviour of this segment quickly.
Alignment Diagrams reflect a modern technique that more
and more companies are using to improve their customer
understanding, such as Intel and Microsoft.
By visually aligning various aspects of customer behaviour
with business processes, you’ll be better able to understand
how to create, deliver and capture value. It will also give you
insight in to creating innovative products and services that
outperform competitors and help business growth.
With relatively little investment, alignment diagramming
provides you with the strategic insight you need to keep up in
today’s fast changing marketplaces.
EXAMLE PITCH
Men are moved by two
levers only:
fear and self interest
- Napoleon Bonaparte
On Techniques
• Mental Models, Indi Young
• ‘Locating Value with Alignment
Diagrams,’ James Kalbach & Paul Kahn
• Google:
– ‘customer journey mapping’
– ‘mental models’
– ‘service blueprint’
READ LITERATURE
On Business Relevance
• Game Changer, A.G Lafley & Ram
Charan
• Subject to Change, Peter Merholz et al.
• Business Model Generation, Alexander
Osterwalder
• Harvard Business Review articles
• Forrester Reports
• Find case studies
• Find out what competitors are doing
• Do a small study ‘under the wire’
• Demonstrate the value first hand
• Find champion in management
CONVINCE
1. Know the benefits
2. Know the objections
3. Prepare arguments
4. Read the literature
5. Pitch and convince
SUMMARY

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UX STRAT USA 2016 Workshop: Jim Kalbach, "Mapping Experiences"

  • 3. AGENDA 2:00 Overview 2:30 Initiate 3:30 Investigate 3:45 Break 4:00 Illustrate 5:00 Align & Envision 5:30 End
  • 4. “Value-centered design starts a story about an ideal interaction between an individual and an organization and the benefits each realizes from that interaction.” Jess McMullin, “Searching For The Center of Design,“ Boxes and Arrows
  • 6.
  • 7. Customer Journey Maps Experience Maps Service Blueprints Mental Model Diagrams Ecosystem models … ALIGNMENT DIAGRAMS
  • 14.
  • 18. Paul Kahn, “Information Architecture for the Web: Applied IA“ http://www.slideshare.net/pauldavidkahn/04-appled-ia SPATIAL MAP
  • 19. STORY INTERACTION INDIVIDUALS ORGANIZATION Experience Map Chronological Interactions Goals, actions, thoughts, feelings, pain points Physical, artifacts, opportunities, recommendations Customer Journey Map Chronological Touchpoints Actions, thoughts, feelings, moments of truth, pain points Customer facing artifacts and roles, opportunities Service Blueprint Chronological Line of Interaction Stages, artefacts Front-line services, back- office systems, gaps Mental Model Hierarchical Center Line Tasks, intent, feelings, philosophy Support, features, gaps Spatial Map Spatial Overlays Content usage, categories Data systems, departments, workflow
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 23. Holism Experiences, not products Multiplicity Multiple facets of activity Interaction Touchpoints between people and a system Visualization Provide a graphical overview Self Evidence Little or no explanation Relevance Address business problems Validity Grounded in investigation and evidence http://experiencinginformation.wordpress.com/2012/01/04/principles-of-alignment-diagrams PRINCIPLES
  • 24. “Visualizations don’t provide answers outright, they foster conversations. Diagrams are compelling artifacts that draw interest and attention from others in the organization. They are a means to engage others in discourse.”
  • 26.
  • 28. CREATE & TEST ARTIFACTS
  • 29. GENERAL PROCESS It‘s the journey and the destination
  • 31. What is the difference between: Customer Journey Map Experience Map Service Blueprint ?
  • 32.
  • 33.
  • 34.
  • 35. BREATH v DEPTH / FOCUS
  • 36. What is an experience WHAT IS AN EXPERIENCE? Holistic Personal Situational
  • 38. 1. Point of View 2. Focus 3. Scope 4. Structure 5. Use DEFINE THE MAPPING EFFORT
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 42. Focus
  • 43.
  • 44. Scope
  • 46.
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 51. Emirates Journey Mapping Case Study: http://www.kendeo.com/industry/airline/emirates-study
  • 53. 1. Point of view – whose experiences? Which experiences? 2. Scope – where do you begin and end? 3. Focus – which aspects are highlighted? 4. Structure – how will you arrange elements? 5. Use – what will you do with the diagram? 1. DEFINE THE EFFORT
  • 54. Five things businesses care about: 2. ALIGN TO BUSINESS GOALS • Increase revenue • Decrease cost • Increase new business • Increase existing business • Increase shareholder value Jared Spool: “UX means business” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hEyUe4q_pOk Growth=
  • 55. Pirate Metrics • Acquire • Activate • Retention • Referral • Revenue Dave McClure: http://500hats.typepad.com/500blogs/2007/09/startup-metrics.html 2. ALIGN TO BUSINESS GOALS
  • 56. The Providence Tourism Office (PTO) would like to improve the overall experience guests have when visiting the city, particularly holiday travelers. They already have some ideas what to do, but need to see the big picture in order to prioritize funding and to focus on areas that will have the most impact. First, the PTO is planning to significantly overhaul its website. The site has grown organically over the past decade, and there are many complaints about finding information. In particular, the federated reservations system for hotels is incomplete, outdated and hard to use. Second, the PTO wants to offer mobile services and apps for travelers. With so many options in the mobile arena, they are not sure where the best place to start would be. Finally, PTO believes partnering with key service providers would improve the travel experience of visitors. PTO already has information kiosks in tourist areas, but they are looking to integrate more with partner services. You work for a research agency specializing in experience mapping. The PTO has hired you to investigate and identify the most salient ways to bring the most value to visitors. They are also looking for new opportunities previously overlooked. The insight they hope to gain will help structure a multi-year program for improvement. SCENARIO
  • 57. Based on the scenario, address the 5 questions for getting started: 1. What is your POINT OF VIEW? 2. What is the SCOPE of the experience? 3. What will you FOCUS on? 4. How will STRUCTURE the diagram? 5. What will you USE the map for? Time permitting, create a value chain diagram. 1. List all of the actors and entities involved 2. Create a concept diagram show the flow of value EXERCISE 1: VALUE CHAIN (20 minutes)
  • 61. Interview internally Sketch experience Identify knowledge gaps Gather existing sources Qualitative & quantitative 1 2 INVESTIGATE
  • 62.
  • 63.
  • 64.
  • 65.
  • 67. Interview internally Sketch experience Identify knowledge gaps Gather existing sources Qualitative & quantitative Interview externally Contextual interviews Surveys, quantitative data 1 2 3 INVESTIGATE
  • 68. Who might you want to interview? Internal interview participants External interview participants _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ EXERCISE 2: INTERVIEW PARTNERS (5 MINUTES)
  • 69. What themes or topics might you include in a guide for interviews internally at the HTO and externally with travellers? Internal interview themes External interview themes _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ EXERCISE 3: INTERVIEW QUESTIONS (5 MINUTES)
  • 72. Text coding software, e.g., MaxQDA ANALYSE DATA
  • 73. ANALYSE DATA – Short Way
  • 74. ANALYSE DATA – Short Way
  • 75. Guideline Example 1 Example 2 Start with insights Research cluster 1: People indicated they sometimes hesitate and reconsider during the customer acquisition phase because of our premium pricing model Research cluster 2: There is a clear pain point around deploying the solution, primarily due to lack of necessary technical knowledge. Use natural language People reconsider when making a purchase because they may be nervous or anxious about the high cost Users struggle to install the software for the first time if they don’t have the required technical skills Keep voice consistent I reconsider when making a purchase because I’m anxious and nervous about the high cost I struggle to install the software for the first time because I don’t have the necessary technical skills. Omit pronouns and articles Reconsider when making purchase due to anxiousness and nervousness over high cost Struggle to install software for first time without the necessary technical skills. Focus on the root cause Feel anxious and nervous when making purchase due to high cost, and then reconsider Struggle during installation due to lack of necessary technical skills Be concise Feel anxious during purchase about cost, and then reconsider Struggle due to lack technical skills during installation Use abbreviations sparingly “” Struggle due to lack of tech skills during installation Rely on context of map anxious about cost (In the cell for the column for “purchase” and row for “feelings”) Reconsider (In the cell of a column for “purchase” and a row for “actions”) Struggle due to lack of tech skills OR Lack tech skills (assuming a column for “installation” and a row for “pain points”)
  • 77.
  • 78.
  • 79.
  • 80.
  • 82.
  • 83.
  • 84.
  • 86.
  • 87.
  • 88. Emirates Journey Mapping Case Study: http://www.kendeo.com/industry/airline/emirates-study
  • 90. STRIVE FOR CLARITY (negative example)
  • 91. CONSISTENT REPRESENTATION CONTENT • Actions: Start each with a verb, • Thoughts: Phrase as a question • Feelings: Use adjectives • Pain points: start each with a gerund • Touchpoints: Use nouns • Opportunities: Begin with verb of change, e.g., increase the ease of installation VISUAL • Fit to space • Font selection • Color coding • Icons and shapes
  • 93. EXERCISE 4: ILLUSTRATE (45 MINUTES) In groups, create a draft diagram for the PTO scenario Use the following phases • Plan Trip • Travel • Arrive • Stay • Depart • Return Home • Visit Again Include the following aspects • Customer • Actions • Thoughts • Feelings • Pain points • Channels / Touchpoints • PTO • Role + Activity • Goals
  • 94. 4. ALIGN & ENVISION
  • 95.
  • 96. “Diagrams are compelling documents that invite engagement by others.”
  • 97.
  • 98. COLLABORATE • Hold a workshop • Invite diverse group • Assess performance • Engage in exercises
  • 100. ASSESS
  • 101. OPPORTUNITIES 1. Gaps 2. Weaknesses 3. Efficiencies 4. Competitors
  • 103.
  • 105. circa 1886 Scientific American Supplement, No. 530, February 27, 1886 “A NEW PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS” This apparatus consists of a box containing a camera, A, and a frame, C, containing the desired number of plates, each held in a small frame of black Bristol board. The camera contains a mirror, M, which pivots upon an axis and is maneuvered by the extreme bottom, B. This mirror stops at an angle of 45°, and sends the image coming from the objective to the horizontal plate, D, at the upper part of the camera. The image thus reflected is righted upon this plate. As the objective is of short focus, every object situated beyond a distance of three yards from the apparatus is in focus. In exceptional cases, where the operator might be nearer the object to be photographed, the focusing would be done by means of the rack of the objective. The latter can also slide up and down, so that the apparatus need not be inclined when buildings or high trees are being photographed. The door, E, performs the role of a shade. When the apparatus has been fixed upon its tripod and properly directed, all the operator has to do is to close the door, P, and raise the mirror, M, by turning the button, B, and then expose the plate. The sensitized plates are introduced into the apparatus through the door, I, and are always brought automatically to the focus of the objective through the pressure of the springs, R. The shutter of the frame, B, opens through a hook, H, with in the pocket, N. After exposure, each plate is lifted by means of the extractor, K, into the pocket, whence it is taken by hand and introduced through a slit, S, behind the springs, R, and the other plates that the frame contains. All these operations are performed in the interior of the pocket, N, through the impermeable, triple fabric of which no light can enter. An automatic marker shows the number of plates exposed. When the operations are finished, the objective is put back in the interior of the camera, the doors, P and E, are closed, and the pocket is rolled up. The apparatus is thus hermetically closed, and, containing all the accessories, forms one of the most practical of systems for the itinerant photographer.—La Nature.
  • 106.
  • 107. [EASTMAN] recognized that his roll film could lead to a revolution if he focused on the experience he wanted to deliver, an experience captured in his advertising slogan, “You press the button, we do the rest.”
  • 109. THE ASK Solutions that merely please, serve, meet the needs/specs, or delight customers don’t go far enough. They represent yesterday’s marketing and design paradigms. They misunderstand innovation’s real impact – transforming customers.
  • 110.
  • 112. Who does Google ask us to become?
  • 113. Kodak = Camera > Photographers eBay = Trading Platform > Entrepreneurs Google = Search Engine > Expert Researchers
  • 114.
  • 115. WIERDO
  • 117. Kodak = Camera > Photographers eBay = Trading Platform > Entrepreneurs Google = Search Engine > Expert Researchers but… Segway = New Vehicle > Weirdo on Scooter Super Size = Value for Money > Unhealthy person
  • 118. THE ASK & DIAGRAMS 1. At each phase ask: Who do we want our customers to become? 2. Use metaphors. These are often experts 3. Reframe solutions to transform users
  • 121. 1. In groups, discuss who you want your customer to become. 2. Together, brainstorm ideas that will transform you customers. If we want our customer to become <the ask>, then they need these <solutions, services> EXERCISE 5: ALIGN
  • 122.
  • 123. ARTICULATE IDEAS 1. Written stories 2. Storyboards 3. Sketches 4.Prototypes
  • 132. “[Mapping] will add context to your project and highlight opportunities you may have otherwise missed.” DESIGN SPRINTS
  • 135. BUSINESS VALUE EXPERIMENTS 5x5 Framework • 5 people • 5 days • 5 experiments • $5k • In 5 weeks (i.e., small bets…) @JimKalbach
  • 136.
  • 142. MODELS
  • 144. What are some benefits of alignment diagrams? _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ EXERCISE 7: ADVANTAGES (5 MINS)
  • 145. • Longevity of information • Common big picture • Continuity in vision • Diagnosis of problems • Indicate where to create value • Opportunities for growth BENEFITS not product research
  • 146. Objection Argument I was in our target group. Just ask me. You’ve internalized processes and may not express them freely. Also, different people have different ways of doing things. We want to look beyond what we already know. We regularly listen to customers Listening to customers is good, but it is not enough. We also need alignment throughout the organization. Also remember the 90-9-1 rule: Only 1% of people will send such an email. We already do market research. Market research and Diagramming are different. Marketing understands what people will buy so we can sell more. This work seeks to uncover fundamental needs and activities for innovation. We don’t have time or budget Alignment diagrams needn’t be expensive or time consuming. For the cost of a usability test or marketing survey, we can conduct an alignment project. A focus group would be easier By taking people out of their contexts, much of the situational and environmental cues are missing. People also don’t remember exactly how they work without the actual tool or artefact present. Focus groups sometimes lead to group opinions. KNOW THE OBJECTIONS
  • 147. • Key elements of an elevator pitch 1. What problem are your solving? 2. What is the value proposition? • Characteristics of elevator pitch • Be succinct • Easy to understand • Greed inducing • Irrefutable – leave no questions CREATE A PITCH
  • 148. You’d like to grow into a new markets to move beyond maintaining your current offerings. You’ll have better understand the needs and behaviour of this segment quickly. Alignment Diagrams reflect a modern technique that more and more companies are using to improve their customer understanding, such as Intel and Microsoft. By visually aligning various aspects of customer behaviour with business processes, you’ll be better able to understand how to create, deliver and capture value. It will also give you insight in to creating innovative products and services that outperform competitors and help business growth. With relatively little investment, alignment diagramming provides you with the strategic insight you need to keep up in today’s fast changing marketplaces. EXAMLE PITCH
  • 149. Men are moved by two levers only: fear and self interest - Napoleon Bonaparte
  • 150. On Techniques • Mental Models, Indi Young • ‘Locating Value with Alignment Diagrams,’ James Kalbach & Paul Kahn • Google: – ‘customer journey mapping’ – ‘mental models’ – ‘service blueprint’ READ LITERATURE On Business Relevance • Game Changer, A.G Lafley & Ram Charan • Subject to Change, Peter Merholz et al. • Business Model Generation, Alexander Osterwalder • Harvard Business Review articles • Forrester Reports
  • 151. • Find case studies • Find out what competitors are doing • Do a small study ‘under the wire’ • Demonstrate the value first hand • Find champion in management CONVINCE
  • 152. 1. Know the benefits 2. Know the objections 3. Prepare arguments 4. Read the literature 5. Pitch and convince SUMMARY