Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Pre-Conference Course: Cross-Cultural User Experience Design - Aaron Marcus

1,231 views

Published on

User experiences/user interfaces for mobile, desktop, Web, and vehicle platforms reach across culturally diverse user communities, sometimes within a single country/language group, and certainly internationally. If user experiences/user interfaces are to be usable, useful, and appealing to such a wide range of users, developers/designers/analysts must account for cultural aspects in globalizing/localizing products and services. In this course, participants will learn about culture theories/models, and about practical principles and techniques that are immediately useful in terms of both analysis and design tasks. Through exercises (as time permits), they will put principles learned into practice.

Published in: Design
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Pre-Conference Course: Cross-Cultural User Experience Design - Aaron Marcus

  1. 1. Aaron Marcus and Associates 1196 Euclid Avenue Berkeley, CA 94708-1640, USA Email: Aaron.Marcus@AMandA.com MobTel: +1-510-599-3195, Fax: +1-510-527-1994 Web: www.AMandA.com Experience Design Intelligence User-Interface Development Information Visualization UXPA 2015 Tutorial Handout Notes Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design UXPA 2015 Loews Coronado Bay Resort Coronado, California, USA 22 June 2015, 09:00-17:00 Aaron Marcus, Principal Aaron Marcus and Associates (AM+A) 1196 Euclid Avenue Berkeley, CA 94708-1640, USA MobTel: +1-510-599-3195, Fax: +1-510-527-1994 Email: Aaron.Marcus@AMandA.com Web: http: //www.AMandA.com © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates. All Rights Reserved 1
  2. 2. A M + A AM+A Tutorial Handout Notes Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design UXPA 2015 Page 2 Aaron Marcus and Associates 22 June 2015 Contents Section Item Intro 1 Cover Page Intro 3 Table of Contents Intro 3 Instructor’s Biography Intro 5 Agenda Intro 7 Learning Objectives and Abstract Lecture Slides Lecture 0 Introduction to Content and Speaker Lecture 1 Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design: Introduction/Case Studies: Details TBD, per time, questions, and slide sets Appendix Publication Resources with Bibliographies Course Description The full-day workshop summarizes key concepts of user-centered design (UCD) for use experiences, then focuses on cross-cultural issues. User experiences (UX) and human-computer interfaces (HCI for desktop, Web, mobile, and vehicle platforms reach across culturally diverse user communities, even within a single country/language group, and certainly across the globe. If UXs/HCIs are to be usable, useful, and appealing to such a wide range of users, UX/HCI developers must account for cultural expectations and preferences in globalizing/localizing products and services. In this tutorial, participants will learn practical principles and techniques that are immediately useful in terms of both analysis and design tasks. Participants will have an opportunity discuss each section and topic as time permits. There will also be short quizzes and several exercises. 2
  3. 3. A M + A AM+A Tutorial Handout Notes Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design UXPA 2015 Page 3 Aaron Marcus and Associates 22 June 2015 This tutorial is being given in conjunction with the appearnce of Mr. Marcus’ latest book sMobile Persusaion Design and HCI/User- Experience Design: Fast Forward to the Past, Present, and Future, both being published in 2015 by Springer UK. The book contains the most complete case studies of each of the ten Machine projects ever published. Participants may be entitled to a special discount on purchase of the book. Agenda Time Topic 09:00 Session begins 09:00-09:30 Lecture 0: Introduction to Content, Speaker, and Participants 09:30-10:30 Lecture 1: Cross-Cultural UX Design 10:00-10:15 Exercise 1: Analyze Cross-Cultural Conversations 10:30-11:00 Break 11:00-11:15 Lecture 2: Mobile Phone Cross-Cultural UX Design 11:15-11:30 Lecture 3: Cultural Analysis of Corporate Cultures 11:30-11:45 Lecture 4: Culture Audit Before Translation 11:45-12:00 Discussion of all preceding lectures 12:00-13:00 Lunch 13:00-14:00 Lecture 5: Emerging Chinese UX Design Trends 14:00-15:00 Exercise 2: Analyze UI Components per One Culture 15:00-15:30 Break 15:30-16:45 Exercise 3: 16:45-17:00 Discussion of all preceeding lectures 17:00 Session ends Detailed Lecture Descriptions and Allocation of Time Lecture 0: Introduction to instructor and tutorial (15 minutes) 3
  4. 4. A M + A AM+A Tutorial Handout Notes Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design UXPA 2015 Page 4 Aaron Marcus and Associates 22 June 2015 This period will introduce the presenter and discuss how the techniques that will be discussed fit into the user-interface development process, including an introduction to globalization/localization issues. We’ll show several examples of questionable cross-cultural communication and discuss several cultural anthropological theories briefly. We’ll ask for participants’ own experiences in difficulties of communicating across cultural boundaries. Lecture 1: Cross-Cultural UX Design (about 60 minutes) Illustrated lectures will introduce each of five dimensions of culture: (power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term time orientation. For each dimension, we shall explain the characteristics and their potential impact of work, education, and family life, and show examples of Websites from different countries, but with the same subject matter that demonstrate indigenous cultural characteristics. We shall examine, also, several major businesses and consumer Websites for multi-national corporations from several countries (USA: McDonald’s, Coke; Korea: Samsung; Germany: Siemens) and discuss the apparent tradeoffs of “universal” vs. localized solution for user- interface components per culture dimensions. A culture model was used to analyze variations in user-interface components of corporate global Website designs for a dozen B2B and B2C companies, including Siemens, Peoplesoft, McDonalds, and Coca-Cola. In addition, we discuss a survey of 60 professional analysts of culture and user-interface design, which resulted in a composite set of 19 culture dimensions and the top five that emerged from the study to serve as a practical set for culture analysis of user interfaces. Lecture 2: Mobile Phone Trends and Cross-Cultural UX Design (15 minutes) Illustrated lecture will summarize selected trends in mobile phone products and cite culture differences in example products/services from the US, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the US Lecture 3: Corporate Culture Analysis (15 minutes) Illustrated lecture will discuss case study of analyzing corporate culture in multiple countries for an international high technology firm in order to determine best cities to study development of tools for increassing cooperation, communication, and collaboration. 4
  5. 5. A M + A AM+A Tutorial Handout Notes Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design UXPA 2015 Page 5 Aaron Marcus and Associates 22 June 2015 Lecture 4: Culture Audit Before Translation (15 minutes) Illustrated lecture will show how analysis of concepts, text, imagery, and symbolism of a user-interface before translation can identify problemmatic areas that should never be translated in the first place. Lecture 5: Emerging Chinese UX Design Trends (about 60 minutes) We investigate the emerging trends in Chinese Web and mobile products/services that distinguish them from Western examples and speculate on the emergence of a new approach to UX design based on Chinese culture. Exercise 1: Analyze Cross-Cultural Conversations (15 minutes) Groups ewill study one of approximately eight cross-cultural textual dialogues and attempt to understand the hidden cultural messages. Then, the participants will examine the explanation of what is happening between two people and report their findings and their misconceptions to the rest of the participants. Discussion will follow depending on the findings. Exercise 2: Analyze UI Components per One Culture (60 minutes) Each group in the tutorial/workshop will study one of the cultural dimensions and analyze how this dimension might affect fundamental UI components (metaphors, mental models, navigation, interaction, and appearance). They will report their findings and discuss them with the rest of the participants. Exercise 3: Analyze and Design Screens for one Culture (75 minutes) Each group in the tutorial will be assigned one target culture and design a home screen and one or two other screens that demonstrate awareness of the impact of culture on aspects of functions and data. The Website is intended to be a medical information Website provided by the government for its own citizens. Each team will report their intentions and results, then discuss them with the other participants. Where possible, comparisons will be made with actual Websites from different countries. Optional Parallel Exercise 3 (75 minutes) Each group will be assigned one target culture and design a home screen and one or two other screens that demonstrate awareness of the impact of culture on aspects of functions and data for a mobile device that enables users to find restaurants. Each team will report their intentions and results, then discuss them with the other participants. 5
  6. 6. A M + A AM+A Tutorial Handout Notes Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design UXPA 2015 Page 6 Aaron Marcus and Associates 22 June 2015 Learning Objectives and Abstract Participants in this tutorial will: § Learn how cultural dimensions relate to the design of user-interface components (metaphors, mental models, navigation, interaction, and appearance). § Learn new terms and concepts to understand culture and dimensions of culture (e.g., power distance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance, and time orientation) § Learn about additional culture dimensions, models, and dimensions (e.g., persuasion, trust, intelligence, cognition) that must be considered. § Learn practical trade-offs from studying several multi-national companies' Web efforts, best-of-breed set of culture dimensions derived from expert opinions, how mobile devices from Asia and the USA exhibit culture differences, examples of culture differences and similarities of Web 2.0 and social networking Websites, how cultural analysis can help localization of software before translation, and how cultural analysis can benefit multi-cultural, multi-discipline, multi-national development teams. Participants will become familiar with the theories of user-centered user- experience design, culture theory, and the merging of these developments in the current state of product/services, including deskstop and mobile applications. Issues discussed will include those from key technology, social, business, culture, and UI/UX design. Concepts covered to assist professionals to design more effectively are these: § User Analysis: Specification of user demographics and user- environment, user modeling, task analysis, and business objectives § Metaphors: Easy recognized and remembered, fundamental conceptsconveyed through words, signs, and images § Mental models: Appropriate organization of data, functions, tasks, roles,and people § Navigation of mental model: Efficient movement within the mental model via windows, menus, dialogue boxes, or control panels § Interaction: Effective input and output-feedback sequencing § Appearance: Quality visual, acoustic, and touch characteristics § Information Visualization: Tables, charts, maps, and diagrams § Basic visual design: Scale, proportion, rhythm, symmetry, and balance § Cross-cultural communication: fundamental theories and dimensions § User-centered design process Participants will learn practical, immediately useful principles/techniques. 6
  7. 7. A M + A AM+A Tutorial Handout Notes Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design UXPA 2015 Page 7 Aaron Marcus and Associates 22 June 2015 Instructor’s Biography Aaron Marcus, Principal, AM+A Mr. Marcus’ company, AM+A, won design awards for three of its ten Machine mobile persuasion projects, and they have all been published as case studies. Mr. Marcus has published 350 articles and 15 books since 1968; taught since 1968; and designed/consulted for 48 years. He has written chapters/case studies for seven Handbooks of UI design, information appliances, and culture; has presented lectures/organized panels about cross-cultural user-experience design, mobile persuasion design, culture, and science- fiction, and HCI since 1980. He is Editor-in- Chief Emeritus of User Experience, Editor of Information Design Journal, and an editorial board member of Visible Language and the International Journal of HCI. He is Visiting Professor at IIT’s Institute of Design, Chicago; Master, De Tao Academy, Shanghai; and International Advisor, Dragon Design Foundation, Beijing. Mr. Marcus received a BA in Physics from Princeton University (1965) and a BFA and MFA in Graphic Design from Yale University Art School (1968). He is an internationally recognized authority on the design of user interfaces, interactive multimedia, and printing/publishing documents. Mr. Marcus has given tutorials at SIGGRAPH and SIGCHI conferences, and at seminars for businesses and academic institutions around the world. He books include Human Factors and Typography for More Readable Programs (1990), The Cross-GUI Handbook (1990), Graphic Design for Electronic Documents and User Interfaces (1992), Mobile TV: Customizing Content and Context (2010), The Past 100 Years of the Future: UX in Sci-Fi Movies and Television (2012), Mobile Persuasion Design (2015), and Human-Computer Interaction/User-Experience Design: Fast Forward to the Past, Present, and Future (2015). Mr. Marcus was the world’s first professional graphic designer to be involved full-time in computer graphics (1967), to program a desktop publishing system (for the AT&T Picturephone, 1969-71), to design virtual realities (1971-73), and to establish an independent computer-based graphic design firm (1982). In 1992, he received the National Computer Graphics Association Industry Achievement Award for contributions to computer graphics. In 2008, the AIGA named him a Fellow; in 2009, CHI elected him to the CHI Academy. Mr. Marcus is Principal Designer/Analyst of Aaron Marcus and Associates, a user-interface and information-visualization development firm with more than 33 years of experience in helping people make smarter decisions faster at work, at home, at play, and on the way. AM+A has developed user-centered, task-oriented solutions for complex computer-based design and communication challenges for clients on all 7
  8. 8. A M + A AM+A Tutorial Handout Notes Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design UXPA 2015 Page 8 Aaron Marcus and Associates 22 June 2015 major platforms (mobile devices, client-server networks, the Web, information appliances, and vehicles), for most vertical markets, and for most user communities within companies and among their customers. AM+A has served corporate, government, education, and consumer- oriented clients to meet their needs for usable, useful, appealing products and services with proven improvements in readability, comprehension, and appeal. AM+A uses its well-established methodology to help them plan, research, analyze, design, implement, evaluate, train, and document metaphors, mental models, navigation, interaction and appearance. AM+A’s clients have included: Apple, BMW, Cisco, HP, Kaiser, Microsoft, Motorola, NCR, Nokia, Oracle, Sabre, Samsung, SAP, Siemens, US Federal Reserve Bank, Visa, Wells Fargo Bank, and Xerox, among others. Tutorial Slides Presentation slides appear on the following pages, which include publication resources and bibliographies. 8
  9. 9. Aaron Marcus and Associates !Lecture: !! Presentation !Introduction to Aaron Marcus and Associates ! !! ! !Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com Page! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 1!AM+A! AM+A: What We Do, How We Do It, How We Add Value!   Aaron Marcus, Principal!   Aaron Marcus and Associates (AM+A)!   1196 Euclid Avenue, Suite 1F, Berkeley, California 94708-1640, USA!   Tel: +1-510-599-3195, Fax: +1-510-527-1994, Email: Aaron.Marcus@AMandA.com !   Web: www.AMandA.com
 Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AMandAssociates!   LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/company/aaron-marcus-and-associates-inc-!   YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/AMandAssociates
 Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/amandaberkeley! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 3!AM+A! Our Company! n  34 Years of experience in user-interface and information-visualization design/analysis ! n  Multi-disciplinary, multi-cultural Associates! n  Experienced with most platforms, user groups, and vertical markets! n  Strong brand, Web/mobile/vehicle clients: Apple, AT+T, BMW, Daimler, eBay, Cisco, HP, Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia, SAP, Samsung, Siemens, Wells Fargo Bank, US Federal Reserve Bank! n  Principal and founder: Aaron Marcus! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 4!AM+A! Aaron Marcus, Founder, Principal, Principal Designer/Analyst! n  First graphic designer to use computers! n  Visionary, pioneer, professional, teacher, researcher, author/co-author of 16 books, 350 publications! n  Award winner: NY Art Directors Club, NY Type Directors Club, ID Magazine, NCGA Industry achievement award, ICOGRADA! n  AIGA Fellow, CHI Academy, BFMA Lifetime Contribution Award, UXPA Service Award, ACM! n  Past Co-Principal Investigator, DARPA research in program visualization! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 5!AM+A! Research: User-Experience Spaces
 = Opportunity Spaces! n  I-ware = Me-ware, 
 My-ware! n  You-ware = Love-ware! n  Fun-ware! n  Buy-ware = Sell-ware! n  Know-ware = Who-
 What-Why-Where- When-ware! n  Be-ware = Self-aware! Marcus, Aaron (2004). "Six Degrees of Separation," User Experience, June 2004, pp. 16 Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 6!AM+A! Books, Publications! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 7!AM+A! Books, Publications! 9
  10. 10. Aaron Marcus and Associates !Lecture: !! Presentation !Introduction to Aaron Marcus and Associates ! !! ! !Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com Page! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 8!AM+A! Clients, Projects!   Am Express !Nokia !!   AT&T !Oracle !!   BMW !Ricoh !!   Citigroup !Sabre!   DuPont !Samsung!   Kodak !SAP!   eBay !Siemens!   Epson !3M!   Fujitsu !US Fed Reserve Bank!   GE !Virgin America!   GM !Visa!   Honeywell !Xerox!   HP !!   IBM!   Intel!   J. Paul Getty Trust!   Kaiser!   Learning Company!   Livescribe!   Microsoft !!   Motorola ! ! !! *12 of 30 Dow Jones Industrial Average™ Firms Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 9!AM+A! AM+A Example Mobile Projects, 1/2 ! n  AM+A: Designed UIs for wrist-top devices; mobile YouTube using social network theory; mobile LoCoS, a universal sign language, 2002-2007.! n  AM+A: Evaluated and designed Green Machine, Health Machine, Money Machine, Story Machine, Innovation Machine, Travel Machine, and Driving Machine, mobile-app concepts combining info design and persuasion design, 2009-12. Won design awards for first three machines, published first five, including book to appear in 2013 ! n  AT+T: Designed corporate identity prototypes for PC-based phones, 1994! n  Cisco: Evaluated usability of Internet phones, 2000.! n  Equilibrio: UI usability and design for mobile personal trainer, 2006! n  Microsoft: Designed 4 prototype content channels for SmartWatch, 2005.! .! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 10!AM+A! AM+A: Example Mobile Projects, 2/2 ! n  Motorola: Designed look and feel for GPS device, 1989-92; designed portion of UI for Marconi PDA, 1994; designed video-related UIs, 2007! n  Nokia (Finland, UK): Usability review, Nokia 9000, 1996; designed ppt about UI design for 3rd-party developers, 2002; designed UIs, 2006.! n  Qwest: Designed gadget concepts to manage media, 2006.! n  Samsung (Korea and Israel): Trained developers, 1997, 2005; designed 100 UI concepts for future US smartphones, 2000.! n  San Jose Police: Detailed user evaluations for mobile in-vehicle telecom system; published case study, 2004. ! n  Siemens (Germany): Trained/consulted with mobile UI developers, 2004.! n  Ubitrotech (US and Korea): Designed UI for GPS device, 2008.! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 11!AM+A! Our Vision and Mission!  AM+A helps people 
 make smarter decisions faster: 
 anyone, any time, any place, 
 any technology, any market, 
 any subject matter!  AM+A shapes the way technology 
 affects everyday life 
 through effective and compelling 
 user-interface and information-visualization development! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 12!AM+A! Our Objectives! n ! Assist or help build centers of excellence 
 for user-interface development! n  Engage satisfied users via
 user-centered user-interface (UI) development 
 that cost-effectively optimizes UIs! n  Ensure usability, usefulness, and appeal 
 in the user experience! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 13!AM+A! UI Development Process! n  Planning: brainstorming! n  Research: technology, design issues, strategies! n  Analysis: user profiles, use scenarios, prototypes! n  Design: content, applications, branding, storyselling! n  Implementation: scripting, coding, final production! n  Evaluation: focus groups, user tests, heuristic evals.! n  Documentation: guidelines, patterns, specifications! n  Training: courseware, tutorials, mentoring! n  Maintenance: continuing client relations! 10
  11. 11. Aaron Marcus and Associates !Lecture: !! Presentation !Introduction to Aaron Marcus and Associates ! !! ! !Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com Page! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 14!AM+A! UI Components! n  Metaphors: Clear concepts via words, images, sounds, music! n  Mental Models: Easy assimilation 
 of data, functions, tasks, and roles of people 
 at work, play, or on the way! n  Navigation: Efficient movement in menus, windows! n  Interaction: Effective input/output, feedback! n  Appearance: Quality perceptual characteristics, 
 including visual, verbal, auditory, haptic, etc.! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 15!AM+A! Powerful User Experience 
 via User-Centered Development! n  Focus on usability! n  Attend to user experience and branding! n  Attend to technology! n  Consider culture/globalization issues! n  Look for opportunities related to visualization
 and sonification! n  Look for opportunities for innovation! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 16!AM+A! Our Projects: Designing/Evaluating UX, UI, and Information Visualization! n  Applications: mobile, associated Web portals, desktop, vehicle, appliances! n  Prototypes and demos ! n  Executive presentations! n  Icons, symbols, logos! n  Tables, forms, charts, maps, diagrams! n  Publications, documentation! n  Research, strategic design planning! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 17!AM+A! Nokia Projects! n  1996: Nokia Finland! n  Reviewed Nokia documentation for technical documentation group! n  Reviewed UI for Communicator 9000 before intro to USA! n  Tutorials in Helsinki and Oulu! n  2000: Nokia Finland! n  Reviewed Christian Lindholm’s lecture at HCI UK! n  2002: Nokia Finland! n  Designed Powerpoint presentation to explain UI philosophy to third-party developers worldwide! n  2005: Nokia UK! n  Designed future UI concepts for Nokia Design Center! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 18!AM+A! www.ThreeDegrees.com: Web-based
 Messaging, File-Sharing for Teens ! Targeted to 
 “Net Generation, Microsoft’s first user-centered 
 UI development, which led to a
 new division,
 now absorbed
 int Microsoft’s
 latest .net
 offerings! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 19!AM+A! Mobile Products: Motorola 
 Smart-Car User-Interface Design! 11
  12. 12. Aaron Marcus and Associates !Lecture: !! Presentation !Introduction to Aaron Marcus and Associates ! !! ! !Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com Page! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 20!AM+A! Prototype: Samsung Advanced 
 Mobile Device Concepts! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 21!AM+A! Samsung Wireless Information Device: Design Concepts! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 22!AM+A! Samsung Wireless Information Device: User Observation! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 23!AM+A! Prototype: Message Manager 
 For a Wrist-top Device! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 24!AM+A! Microsoft Smart Watch: 
 Prototype Channels! The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file. Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 25!AM+A! BMW: Human Factors of the Driver Experience! n  Design for safety! n  Avoid cognitive and sensory overload! n  Reduce complexity! n  Use graphical UI interface only when necessary! n  Allow customization of information! n  Use of physical controls! n  Follow driver-centered design process! 12
  13. 13. Aaron Marcus and Associates !Lecture: !! Presentation !Introduction to Aaron Marcus and Associates ! !! ! !Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com Page! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 26!AM+A! HP Labs: Executive Storyselling Presentations, Scenarios! The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file. The image part with relationship ID rId1 was not found in the file. Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 27!AM+A! Nokia: Marketing Presentation to Software Developers Worldwide! n  Presented UI philosophy to attract and cultivate community of loyal developers, operators, and journalists! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 28!AM+A! Anoto (LiveScribe’s Smartpen): Next Gen of Leapfrog’s Fly Pentop! n  Fly was successful Leapfrog toy ! n  Tool can speak, translate, play music, record, recognize writing marks, compute, communicate! Smartpen! Fly pen! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 29!AM+A! Training Products/Services! n  Cogito-Learning Media: designed and produced over 30 award-winning computer-based training products in three business lines! n  Oracle Worldwide Training: designed and produced CD-ROM training products, including one AM+A wrote/illustrated about UI design; designed first-ever UI guidelines for Web-based training! n  Tutorials: 1-15 days at conferences, universities, on-site at corporations worldwide, and via the Web! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 30!AM+A! Icon Designs, 1/3! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 31!AM+A! Icon Designs, 2/3! 13
  14. 14. Aaron Marcus and Associates !Lecture: !! Presentation !Introduction to Aaron Marcus and Associates ! !! ! !Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com Page! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 32!AM+A! Icon Designs, 3/3, Logo! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 33!AM+A! Prototype: Vehicle Dashboard Information-Visualization! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 34!AM+A! Mobile Persuasion Design: Changing
 Behavior Through Info + Persuasion! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 35!AM+A! Green Machine, 1/2! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 36!AM+A! Green Machine, 2/3! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 37!AM+A! Health Machine, 1/3! 14
  15. 15. Aaron Marcus and Associates !Lecture: !! Presentation !Introduction to Aaron Marcus and Associates ! !! ! !Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com Page! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 38!AM+A! Health Machine, 2/3! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 39!AM+A! Health Machine, 3/3! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 40!AM+A! Story Machine! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 41!AM+A! Our Process! Assimilation,! Needs
 Analysis Analysis,
 Information
 Design Visual
 Design Product,
 Service, User! Evaluation Building, 
 Integration,
 Validation! Metaphors
 
 Mental Models! 
 Navigation
 ! Interaction! ! Appearance! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 42!AM+A! Our Testing Process!   *Deliverables! Assimilation,! Needs
 Analysis Test Design Analysis,! Documenta-! tion! User Testing Business Objectives! Client Survey
 Product Review! User Profile! Test Plan*! Scenarios and Tasks! User Recruitment! User Scheduling! Product Preparation! Test Script*! Moderator Set-Up! Observer Set-Up! Video Set-Up! 6-8 Test Sessions*! Observation Summary! Compilation of Results! Final Report*! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 43!AM+A! Our Deliverables*! Assimilation,! Needs
 Analysis Analysis,
 Information
 Design Document
 Management Building, 
 Integration,
 Validation! Proposal
 Tasks/Schedule/Budget! Resource Allocation! Extranet/Team Center Set-up
 Communication Protocol
 Project Archive
 Project Plan
 Kick-Off Agenda, Meeting! Progress Reports*! Extranet Management! Client Communications! Milestone Meetings! Project
 Management Visual
 Design Business Objectives! Product Strategy! Market Analysis
 Target Audience
 Feature Definition
 Content Audit! Technical Requirements! Visual Requirements! Team Roles! Scope Validation! Findings and 
 Recommendations*! User Profiles! Task Scenarios! Feature Descriptons! Content Organization! Site/Application Map*! Screen Layout (Schematics)*
 Template Design*! Interaction Model*
 ! Feature Development*! Script Development*! Content Development*! Screen Design*! Icon/Logo/Widget Design*! Brand Extension*! Palette Development*! Information Visualization*! Style Guiides*! ! Audio Design*! Animation*! Graphic Production*! Demo Production*! Prototype Production*! Front-end Coding*! Quality Assurance! ! Cross-Platform Validation! Engineering Management! Development ! Guidelines*! Heuristic Evaluation*! Usability Research*! Focus Groups*! User Testing*! Customer-Experience Analysis*! User/Product! Evaluation 15
  16. 16. Aaron Marcus and Associates !Lecture: !! Presentation !Introduction to Aaron Marcus and Associates ! !! ! !Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com Page! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 44!AM+A! Design Process Artifacts! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 45!AM+A! User Research! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 46!AM+A! User Models, User Profiles! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 47!AM+A! Participatory Design! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 48!AM+A! InfoArchitecture Diagram: Framework! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 49!AM+A! InfoArchitecture Diagram: Scenarios ! 16
  17. 17. Aaron Marcus and Associates !Lecture: !! Presentation !Introduction to Aaron Marcus and Associates ! !! ! !Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com Page! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 50!AM+A! UI Design Sketches! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 51!AM+A! Visual Design: Examples! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 52!AM+A! Visual Design Examples! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 53!AM+A! Visual Design Examples! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 54!AM+A! Visual Design: Examples! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 55!AM+A! Our Services! n  User-interface and information-visualization design! n  Design-strategy consulting, competitive analysis! n  Usability research, context analysis, ethnography! n  Design guidelines development! n  Training: UCD, UI, mobile, culture, info visualization! n  Heuristic evaluations, focus groups, user testing! n  User experience/brand analysis! n  Improving corporate centers of excellence! 17
  18. 18. Aaron Marcus and Associates !Lecture: !! Presentation !Introduction to Aaron Marcus and Associates ! !! ! !Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com Page! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 56!AM+A! Our Value: Improving Usability, Usefulness, and Appeal! n  Increase
 - Appeal
 - Sales
 - Productivity
 - Return on investment (ROI) ! n  Decrease
 - User errors
 - Training costs
 - Late design-change costs
 - User support costs, e.g., for call centers! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 57!AM+A! Our Advantage! n  Emphasis on users! n  Rigorous, thorough approach! n  International, proven experience! n  Flexible, focused teams! n  Industry thought leader with 45 years of experience! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 59!AM+A! AM+A: What We Do, How We Do It, How We Add Value!   Aaron Marcus, Principal!   Aaron Marcus and Associates (AM+A)!   1196 Euclid Avenue, Suite 1F, Berkeley, California 94708-1640, USA!   Tel: +1-510-599-3195, Fax: +1-510-527-1994, Email: Aaron.Marcus@AMandA.com !   Web: www.AMandA.com
 Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AMandAssociates!   LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/company/aaron-marcus-and-associates-inc-!   YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/AMandAssociates
 Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/amandaberkeley! 18
  19. 19. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 1!AM+A! Cross-Cultural User-Experience 
 Design: What? So What? Now What?"   Aaron Marcus, Principal"   Aaron Marcus and Associates, (AM+A)!   
 1196 Euclid Avenue, Berkeley, California 94708-1640, USA!   MobTel: +1-510-499-3195, Fax: +1-510-527-1994, Email: Aaron.Marcus@AMandA.com !   Web: www.AMandA.com
 Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AMandAssociates!   LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/company/aaron-marcus-and-associates-inc-!   YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/AMandAssociates!   Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/amandaberkeley ! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 2!AM+A! Presentation 
 Summary" n  Introduction 
 and some definitions! n  Culture and user-
 experience (UX) 
 design: theory 
 and practice! n  Some challenges 
 ahead: evolution 
 and revolution !! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 3!AM+A! Microsoft Applications: What’s Different in USA, China, Japan?" Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 4!AM+A! Culture Quiz: Which button position signifies that the lights are On?" n  Culture affects what we notice, know, do, and feel!   See: Oshlyansky, Lidia; Thimbleby, Harold; Cairns, Paul (2004). “Breaking Affordance: Culture as Context.” NORDICHI 2004, Tampere, Finland , ACM Conf. Proceedings , Vol. 82, pp. 81-84. UK: Down = Off; USA Down = On. ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 5!AM+A! Culture Quiz: Would you Feel Lost?" n  In movie “Black Robe” (1991), 17th-century French priest feels lost in Canadian forest, kneels to pray before dying… until interrupted by his Native-American companions who pass him by, ask him what in the world he is doing?!! n  Would you notice the “street signs,” or even the “streets”?! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 6!AM+A! Barbie in China: Mattel must Account for Studiousness Kids in Toys" n  Mattel relaunches weak first Barbie brand ! ! [Burkitt, Laurie (2013). “Mattel Gives Barbie a Makeover for China: U.S. Toy Maker Launches Fresh Effort to Endear All-American Doll to Chinese Consumers.” Wall Street Journal, 07 November 2013.]! 19
  20. 20. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 7!AM+A! Graduation in Hong Kong: Teddy Bears for Graduates" n  No graduate caught without a cuddly at HKPU! ! [http://www.givegift.com.hk/graduation-flower-bear, 17 November 2013.]! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 8!AM+A! Delicacies in South Korea: 
 Wiggling Octopus on the Plate" n  Would you like your food moving?! ! [www.youtube.com/watch?v=8F1IB1Q08qM, 17 November 2013.]! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 9!AM+A! Favorite Colors of India: Holi Festival Throws Color on Throngs" n  Would you typically douse your friends with color?! ! [http://imagebing.portrait-photo.net/holi-celebration-ahmedabad-india/, 17 November 2013.]! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 10!AM+A! Brazilian Street Graffiti: São Paulo’s Batman’s Alley Extravaganza" n  Do your streets look like this?! ! [Photos by Aaron Marcus in Batmans Alley, São Paolo, Brazil, September 2013.]! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 11!AM+A! Introduction" n  Modern technology and commerce permit global distribution of products, services to increasingly diverse users! n  Traditional user-interface (UI) design and usability disciplines: Improve performance and productivity! n  User-experience (UX) design issues: Even more complex and challenging! n  Culture analysis offers a way to understand, even measure, differences and similarities of UX" Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 12!AM+A! Some Definitions: User Interface and Information-Visualization" n  User-interface components! n  Metaphors: Essential concepts in words, images, sounds, touch! n  Mental Models: Organization of data, functions, tasks, roles, 
 of people at work or play, static or mobile! n  Navigation: Movement through mental models via 
 windows, dialogue boxes, buttons, links, etc.! n  Interaction: Input/output techniques, feedback! n  Appearance: Visual, verbal, acoustic, tactile! n  Information visualization/sonification ! n  Representations of structures and processes! n  Abstract vs. representational! n  Classical: Tables, forms, charts, maps, diagrams! n  Innovations: Hyperbolic browser, Tree maps, Table lens! 20
  21. 21. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 13!AM+A! Some Definitions: 
 User-Experience (UX) Design" n  Enlarged scope of objectives for products/services! n  Usability: Efficient, effective, satisfying (ISO definition)! n  Usefulness: Fits the user’s needs/desires well! n  Appeal: Delight, fun, engagement, emotions, branding! n  Experience covers all stakeholder “touch-points”! n  Buyer, customer, user, learner, expert, advocate, staff, investor! n  Focus on content, brand, emotions! n  Example: Apple iPod success, from zero to hero in one year ! n  Evaluation techniques shift! n  Ethnographic analysis, shadowing, as well as focus groups, tests! n  Underlying emotional motivations of “non-rational” customers! n  Users involved within socio-cultural context! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 14!AM+A! User-Experience Spaces:
 Opportunity Spaces" n  I-ware = Me-ware, 
 My-ware! n  You-ware = Love-ware! n  Fun-ware! n  Buy-ware = Sell-ware! n  Know-ware = Who-
 What-Why-Where- When-ware! n  Be-ware = Self-aware! Marcus, Aaron (2004). "Six Degrees of Separation," User Experience, June 2004, pp. 16! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 15!AM+A! UX Development Process + Culture and Globalization Awareness" n  Plan: brainstorming information sonification! n  Research: technology, design issues, strategies! n  Analyze: user profiles, use scenarios, prototypes! n  Design: content, applications, brand, storyselling! n  Implement: scripting, coding, final production! n  Evaluate: focus groups, user tests, heuristic evals.! n  Document: guidelines, patterns, specifications! n  Train: courseware, tutorials, mentoring! n  Maintain: continuing client relations! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 16!AM+A! Culture as a Context and Technique" n  Culture interested in large-scale and small-scale group behaviors (rituals), leaders/followers, values, artifacts, signs! n  Many culture models exist as bases for analysis, design, evaluation! n  Culture analysis related to semiotics/semiologie, the science of signs: what do things “mean”! n  Culture affects every aspect of tool-, sign-making! n  Culture-centered design seems “inevitable”! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 17!AM+A! Culture-Centered Design" n  Designers aware of culture! n  “Meaning” derives both from the designer and what the user brings to the artifact! n  In era of instant, global media, cultures are always being affected and evolving! n  Remember: Chinese culture was not always “Confucian”! n  Remember: USA golf sport imported to Japan is more like a religion! n  Designers cannot escape being biased culturally! n  All designed artifacts are cultural objects! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 18!AM+A! The Web: an Example of Culture- Centered UX Design" n  Immediate global communication, interaction, and UX! n  Web = Cultural artifact! n  Localization issues far beyond translation! 21
  22. 22. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 19!AM+A! Should every Website look like this?" Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 20!AM+A! Which Website for Saudi Arabia 
 is Better?" “Saudi king tells newspapers to not run photos 
 of women.” 
 [San Francisco Chronicle, 17 May 2006, p.A2.]! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 21!AM+A! Arabia On.Line" ! ! ! ! ! ! Original Revised! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 14AM+A Arabia On.Line Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 22!AM+A! Yahoo.com vs. Maktoob.com" n  165m (04): Most in world 4m (05): Most in Arab World! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 23!AM+A! Examples of South Africa, India:
 Many Challenges, Opportunities" n  Many races, ethnic groups, languages! ! Beckwith and Fisher, Rituals of Africa, Abrams, New York, 2000 [BusinessWeek, 5 July 2004, p. 14] Greg Hom, Devi, Liquid Comics, Bangalore, 2006 Exhibit at LACMA, 1109-0210 Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 24!AM+A! International/Intercultural Issues, 1/3" n  Geographic, political, linguistic! –  Example: ISO CRT-color, icon, and UI standards! –  Example: Canadian bilingual requirements! –  Example: Currency, time, physical measurements! Apple iLife Website Country/Language Switcher! 22
  23. 23. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 25!AM+A! International/Intercultural Issues, 2/3" n  Religious, historical, aesthetic:! n  Calendars, “Le weekend” = Thu/Fri in some Islamic nations! n  Color/type/signs/terms! [Wall Street Journal, 21Jan04, p B7]! [Iraq issue = http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4540715]! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 26!AM+A! International/Cultural Issues: Color Sets, 3/3" n  Sacred Colors
 
 
 ! n  High- vs. Low-Chroma Colors! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 27!AM+A! Example: Flag’s Colors Refer to Cultures, Religions, Histories" Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 28!AM+A! Example: Aesthetic Differences of Dionysus/Apollo" n  Cultural preferences exist for color, layout, 
 textures, and patterns! n  Europe/USA/Chinese/Japanese/Indian architecture, painting, sculpture exhibit typical preferences! n  Traditional vs. popular styles: 
 Japan: Highest = B+W, asymmetric balance! n  Specific attitudes: Body parts, Harel, Prabhu research in China, Japan [IWIPS99 Proc.]! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 29!AM+A! Localization" n  Small-scale communities with preferred jargon, 
 signs, rituals:! –  Affinity group example: USA Saturn owners! –  Social group example: Japanese housewives! –  Web group example (geo-dispersed): MP3.com! –  Not lifestyle groups: Clausen, Faded Mosaic, 2000! –  Resources: LISA, Hoft, Sapient.com, etc.! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 30!AM+A! Business Challenges: How to Account for UX and Culture?" n  Determine optimum characteristics: Relies on market and user data ! n  Assist and appeal to target markets: Achieves short-term and long-term success! n  Avoid too many variations: Wastes time and money! 23
  24. 24. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 31!AM+A! Culture Theorists, Models, and Dimension" n  Benedict,Ruth, Patterns of Culture, 1939 ! n  Hall, Edward: Context and time ! n  Hofstede, Geert: 5 dimensions for 50+ countries! n  Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck: Value orientations! n  Schwartz, Shalom H.: 7 dimensions for 39 countries! n  Trompenaars Fons (including Parson’s Pattern Variables): Riding the Waves of Culture! n  Victor, David: Cultural features! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 32!AM+A! Geert Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions" n  Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, Geert Hofstede, McGraw-Hill, 1997; with
 Gert Jan Hofstede, revised, expanded, 2005! n  Hofstede examined IBM employees in 50 countries, 1978-83; analyzed statistical data! n  Culture: Patterns of thinking, feeling, acting programmed by a particular group, not “refinement of the mind,” civilization! n  Differences of cultural manifestations: rituals, symbols, heroes/heroines, values! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 33!AM+A! Hofstede’s 5 Dimensions of Culture" n  Power-distance! n  Collectivism vs. individualism! n  Femininity vs. masculinity! n  Uncertainty avoidance! n  Long- vs. short-term orientation! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 34!AM+A! Power Distance (PD)" n  Extent to which less powerful members expect, accept unequal power distribution! n  High PD countries! n  Centralized power in few hands; tall hierarchies! n  Ideal boss = benevolent autocrat, good father! n  Subordinates expected to be told what to do! n  Low PD countries! n  Subs and Supers consider each other equals! n  Changeable roles; decentralized, flat hierarchy! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 35!AM+A! Implications for Global UX Design: Examples for High Power Distance" n  Structured, guided access to information ! n  Emphasis on larger social/ moral order (e.g. nationalism/ religion brought into Web context)! n  Focus on expertise (authoritative content) and leaders (rather than customers/employees)! n  Integrated security, unhidden “restrictions”! n  Importance of certifications, awards, logos! n  Social role used to organize information (e.g. special managers’ sections)! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 36!AM+A! Examples of PD Index (PDI) in Web" !Contrasting University Websites: ! n  Malaysia (PDI rating of 104; highest in Hofstede’s index)! n  www.uum.edu.my (Universiti Utara Malaysia)! n  Netherlands (PDI = 38; 40/53)! n  www.tue.nl (Technische Universiteit Eindhoven)! 24
  25. 25. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 37!AM+A! Examples: University Home Pages" Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 38!AM+A! Examples: University Home Pages" Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 39!AM+A! Examples: Malaysia University Home Pages, 2011 and 2015" Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 40!AM+A! Examples: Malaysian University Home Pages, 2011, 2015" § Still shows men, leaders! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 41!AM+A! Examples: Dutch University Home Pages, 2011, 2015" § Still shows women, students, asymmetric design! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 42!AM+A! Individualism vs. Collectivism" n  Individualism: Ties between individuals loose: everyone expected to look after one’s self or his/ her immediate family (nuclear families)! n  Samsung ads: appealing to egotists" n  Collectivism: People from birth integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty (extended families)! 25
  26. 26. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 43!AM+A! Power Distance vs.
 Individualism-Collectivism" Individual! ! ! ! ! Individual-! ism Index! ! ! ! ! ! Collective! Low Power Distance Index High! • France! • Italy! • South Africa! • Japan!• Brazil! •Mexico! •Singapore!• Korea! • Costa Rica! • Israel! • Finland!• Germany! • USA! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 44!AM+A! Examples of Individualism vs. Collectivism" n  Work: " n  Individual: Personal time, freedom, challenge, external motivation, material rewards! n  Collective: Training, physical conditions, use of skills, internal motivation! n  Family: Honesty/truth vs. harmony! n  Individual: Honesty/truth, talking, guilt, self-respect! n  Collective: Harmony, not talking, shame, losing face! n  Education" n  Individual: Private schools ! n  Collective: Public schools! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 45!AM+A! Key Differences: Individualism vs. Collectivism " n  Individualism! n  Individual social/economic interests dominate! n  Right to privacy; private opinions expected! n  Strong political power of voters; greater press freedom! n  Ideology of freedom, self-motivation" n  Collectivism! n  Collective soc/econ interests dominate! n  State dominates economy, press, ! n  Consensus = ultimate goal! n  Ideology of equality, harmony! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 46!AM+A! Implications for Global UX Design" n  Individualism! n  Focus on maximizing personal achievement ! n  Materialism and consumerism demonstrate individual success! n  Controversial speech and extreme claims encourage "truth"! n  Images of youth/activity, rather than age/wisdom/"being")! n  Collectivism! n  Individual roles downplayed (e.g., just product); group focus! n  Preference for socially supportive and constrained claims! n  Controversy discouraged: tends to divide people! n  Respect for tradition (historical focus)! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 47!AM+A! Examples of Individualism/ Collectivism on the Web" !National Parks:! n  Individualism: United States (IDV = 91; highest rating)! n  www.nps.gov/glba/evc.htm (Glacier Bay National Park)! n  Collectivism: Costa Rica (IDV = 15; 46/53)! n  www.tourism-costarica.com/ (National Parks of Costa Rica)! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 48!AM+A! Examples: Website Home Pages" 26
  27. 27. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 49!AM+A! Examples: Website Home Pages" Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 50!AM+A! Examples: Website Home Pages" Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 51!AM+A! Gender: Femininity vs. Masculinity" n  Traditional Gender Roles (not physical differences)! n  Men: Assertive, competitive, tough! n  Women: Home/children, people-oriented, tender" n  Hofstede’s Culture Definition:! n  Masculine: roles distinct; feminine: roles overlap! [Time, 12 Apr 04, p23;! The Hindu, 28 Mar 04, p1]! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 52!AM+A! Masculinity Index Values 
 for Selected Countries" n  95 Japan! n  79 Austria! n  62 USA (South Africa 63)! n  53 Arab countries (inc SA)! n  47 Israel! n  43 France! n  39 South Korea! n  05 Sweden! [Time, 26 November 2007, pp. 8-9]! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 53!AM+A! Power Distance vs. Masculinity" Low Power Distance Index High! Masculine! ! ! ! ! Masculinity! Index! ! ! ! ! ! Feminine! • Japan! • Italy! •South Korea! •Singapore! •Norway! •Sweden! • Finland! • South Africa! •Austria! •USA! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 54!AM+A! Traditional Work Goals" n  Masculine (achievement)! n  Earnings! n  Recognition! n  Advancement! n  Challenge! n  Feminine (relations)! n  Manager: Good working relation with direct supervisors! n  Cooperation: Work with people who cooperate well! n  Living area: Live in desirable location for one’s self and family! n  Employment security: Physically safe and be able to work for as long one wishes! 27
  28. 28. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 55!AM+A! Implications for Global UX Design" n  Masculine! n  Traditional gender/ family/ age distinctions emphasized; work tasks/ roles given preference ! n  Mastery most important; Websites designed for exploration, control! n  Games/competitions held grab attention! n  Artwork may be utilitarian/ instrumental! n  Feminine! n  Gender/work roles blurred ! n  Mutual exchange and support more important than master! n  Website task-oriented and provide quick results for limited task ! n  More emotional/aesthetic appeal! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 56!AM+A! Examples of Masculinity/ Femininity on the Web" !Gender-oriented sites:! n  Masculinity: Japan = 95 (highest MAS)! n  woman.excite.co.jp - women’s site! n  www.isize.com/top - site for young adults! n  USA = 52 (15/53)! n  www.chickclick.com! n  Femininity: Sweden = 5 (lowest of 53 nations)! n  se.excite.com! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 57!AM+A! Excite/Japan for Males, Females" Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 58!AM+A! Excite/Japan for Males, Females" Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 59!AM+A! USA and Sweden" é  USA: Chickclick.com for chicks! ì  Sweden/Excite: no gendered sites! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 60!AM+A! Uncertainty Avoidance" n  Feeling threatened by uncertain/unknown! n  Fear/risk vs. anxiety: Known vs. unknown! n  Countries vary in formality, punctuality, certainty requirements! n  Extreme uncertainty creates intolerable anxiety; law, religion seek to reduce it! n  Intolerance of ambiguity! 28
  29. 29. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 61!AM+A! High vs. Low Uncertainty Avoidance" n  High! n  People seem busy, emotional, aggressive, active! n  What is different is dangerous, dangerous and dirty related! n  Students expect teachers to be experts with all the answers! n  Shun ambiguous situations; prepared to engage in risky behavior to reduce ambiguities, like starting a fight, instead of waiting! n  Low! n  Quiet, easy-going, indolent, controlled, lazy! n  What is different is curious (or ridiculous)! n  Students respect plain language, teacher who may not know all! n  Definitions of clean/dirty; safe/dangerous differ widely by country! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 62!AM+A! Implications for Global UX Design:
 High UA" n  High! n  Keep it simple! n  Reveal results/ implications of actions! n  Make attempt to prevent looping/ becoming "lost in cyberspace"! n  Use constraints/task animations/models to reduce "user error"! n  Carefully encode meaning through multiple redundant cues! n  Low! n  Complexity and risk more valued: less protection from failure! n  Less controlled navigation: Links may open windows, change site! n  Help system focuses on information; task orientation secondary! n  Coding of color/ shape/ texture cues used to maximize information; need not be so redundant! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 63!AM+A! Examples of Uncertainty Avoidance on the Web" !Airline Companies:! ! n  Belgium = 94 (5+6/53)! n  www.sabena.com! n  UK = 35 (47/53)! n  www.britishairways.com! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 64!AM+A! Examples: Airline Home Pages" Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 65!AM+A! Examples: Airline Home Pages" Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 66!AM+A! What Happens Over Time? Airline Home Pages Change…But…" Sabena British Airways! 29
  30. 30. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 67!AM+A! Comparison of UA for 2003 Airline Websites " n  Inside travel booking pane! n  Sabena, Belgium: 19! n  British Airways, United Kingdom: 16! n  Outside the travel booking pane! n  Sabena, Belgium: 23! n  British Airways, United Kingdom: 43! n  Culture differences survive 
 design improvements!! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 68!AM+A! Long- vs. Short-Term Time 
 Orientation: Confucian Dynamism" n  Stable society requires unequal relations! n  Family is prototype of all social organizations! n  Virtuous behavior to others = not treating others as one would not like to be treated! n  Virtue re one's task in life = trying to acquire skills and education, working hard, being frugal, being patient, persevering" n  Practice oriented, not belief (truth) oriented! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 69!AM+A! Long-term orientation (LTO) 
 Ranking for Some of 23 Countries" n  01 !China ! n  04 !Japan! n  17 !USA! n  22 !Nigeria! n  23 !Pakistan! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 70!AM+A! Implications for Global UX Design: Long-Term Orientation" n  Practice more important than theory! n  Accomplishing the task sufficient; expertise not required! n  Personal network provides resources for achievement (cf. Chinese Guanxi principle)! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 71!AM+A! Examples of Long/Short-Term Time Orientation on the Web" !Siemens:! n  Germany = 31 (14/23)! n  www.siemens.com/de! n  China = 118 (highest LTO)! n  www.siemens.com.cn! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 72!AM+A! Examples: Germany and China"   Siemens Germany Siemens China! 30
  31. 31. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 73!AM+A! Summary: China vs. Germany" n  Germany! n  Design that is appropriate just for now (will be outdated in a certain amount of time)! n  Concentration on just showing task or product! n  Function, mastery, organization-oriented! n  China (Long-term time orientation):! n  Soft focus! n  Warm, fuzzy images" n  Timeless, classic design! n  Emphasis on people images" Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 74!AM+A! Cautions with Hofstede’s Culture Model" n  Old data, pre-post-modern (no emphasis on media, sociology of culture, politics of culture)! n  Corporate subjects only! n  Assumes one culture per country! n  Assumes fixed, unchanging relationships! n  Gender roles, definitions debatable! n  Seems too general, stereotypical! n  Nevertheless: use widespread! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 75!AM+A! How to Work with Cultural Models: Examples from China and Germany " n  Honold, Pia! n  “Learning How to Use a Cellular Phone: Comparison Between German and Chinese Users,” Jour. STC, Vol. 46, No. 2, May 1999, pp. 196-205. (now Pia Quaet-Faslem)! n  Lee, Ook ! n  “The Role of Cultural Protocol in Media Choice in a Confucian Virtual Workplace,” IEEE Trans.Prof. Comm., 43:2, Jun 00, pp. 196-200.! n  Choong and Salvendy! n  Internat. J. of HCI, 1999. Studied Chinese/USA mental models of house: thematic vs. functional/categories; better performance/memory with own model. See: Carroll, J. M., “Using Design Rational to Manage Culture-Bound Metaphors for Internat. UIs,“ IWIPS 99, Proc., p 125-132.! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 76!AM+A! AM+A Used Hofstede to Study Web Design and Culture" n  12 corporate, global Websites! n  Long case study in Visible Language: 38:1, 2004, 64pp.! n  Short report: Proceedings of IWIPS 2003, 10 pp.! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 77!AM+A! Websites Analyzed" n  Used Hofstede, but could have used other models! n  “Mature” company Websites with parallel content in multiple countries ! n  Consumer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B) sites! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 78!AM+A! Cross-Cultural Matrix: UI 
 Components vs. Culture Dimensions" User-! Interface
 Component: 
 Appearance! Hofstede Culture Dimension:
 Power Distance (PD)! Low PD" High PD" Appearance! Images of people, groups;
 daily activities; popular music, symbols, typefaces, layouts, colors; informal speech ! Images of leaders; national/corporate/govt themes, slogans, insignia, logos, symbols, typefaces, layouts, colors; official anthems, formal speech! 31
  32. 32. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 79!AM+A! Example: Power Distance vs. Metaphors" n  Siemens Website: Personal images vs. official buildings! n  Netherlands (PD 38) Malaysia (PD 104) ! Metaphor for “Home”: the face / eyes of a person ! Metaphor for “Home”: an official building! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 80!AM+A! Example: Power Distance vs. Navigation" n  Sapient Website: amount of options provided ! n  Germany (PD 35) India (PD 77) ! Open access, multiple options! Restricted access and choices, prescribed routes ! How do I apply for a position at Sapient?Send your complete application with CV, picture and job reference to our hiring team in Düsseldorf or Munich. Furthermore you have the possibility to apply via email. Fill out the online form or send your own digital application to: Karriere@sapient.com. It does no matter, how you apply, we try hard for a quick handling and you will hear from us soon. ! How do I apply for a position at Sapient?Register now to set up your profile and apply for jobs right away, or search jobs now. ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 81!AM+A! Example: Femininity/Masculinity vs. Appearance " n  Mercedes Benz Website: Use of “soft” design ! n  Sweden (MAS 5) ! Germany (MAS 66) ! Softer edges and shapes! Clear structure, no cuteness! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 82!AM+A! Patterns Power Distance" n  Patterns found! n  All countries with no picture on the front page have low PD value.! n  The eight countries with the highest PD value show a picture of a male person. ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 83!AM+A! Patterns: 
 Collectivism vs. Individualism" n  Patterns found! n  The “individualism” of the pictures at the PeopleSoft Website increases with the amount of IDV value! n  The arrangement of the pictures of the low IDV countries is very symmetrical.! n  Among the 15 lowest rated countries regarding IDV, there are no people shown on the Siemens localized Website imagery, but one can find images of people in those countries that have a higher ID.! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 84!AM+A! AM+A Studied Other Models: Best- of-Breed Culture Dimensions" n  Surveyed: 11 Authors in 9 Sources" n  Adler, Nancy J.! n  Condon, John C.! n  Hall, Edward T.! n  Hofstede, Geert! n  Kluckhohn, F. R.! n  Parsons, Talcott! n  Strodtbeck, Fred! n  Trompenaars, Fons! n  Victor, David A.! n  Wright, Quincy! n  Yousef, Fathi S.! n  Published survey! n  Baumgartner, Masters thesis, http://mavas.at/val" n  Marcus, Baumgartner, APCHI 2004 Proceedings, Summary! 32
  33. 33. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 85!AM+A! 29 Dimensions in 9 Sources" n  Achievement vs. ascription! n  Activity orientation! n  Affective vs. neutral! n  Authority conception! n  Context! n  Degree of power! n  Economic progress! n  Experience of technology! n  Face-saving! n  Gender roles! n  Human nature orientation! n  Individualism vs.collectivism! n  Instrumental vs. expressive! n  Internal vs. external control! n  International trade, community! n  Long vs. short time orientation! n  Meaning of life! n  Non-verbal communication! n  Political decentralization! n  Power distance! n  Property! n  Resources! n  Space! n  Specific vs. diffuse! n  Technological development! n  Time orientation! n  Time perception! n  Uncertainty avoidance! n  Universalism vs.particularism! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 86!AM+A! Best-of-Breed Dimensions Based on Surveying 57 experts" n  Context! n  Technological development! n  Uncertainty avoidance !! n  Time perception !! n  Authority conception! n  All others ranked, for use when time, money, circumstances permit further analysis "" Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 87!AM+A! UI Usability + Culture: 
 Is “Usability” Itself Culture-Biased?" n  “Usability” may not have same attributes worldwide! n  “Non-Universal Usability? A Survey of How Usability Is Understood by Chinese and Danish Users,” Frandsen-Thorlacius, et al., CHI 09 Proc, pp. 41-58. (limited study, noting possible objections)! n  Impact on Usability Practice (per paper)! n  May affect usability testing and user-centered design! n  Findings on perceived usability not transferable across all cultures! n  For international usability work assume universalism cautiously! n  Authors skeptical about using/comparing results from standardized satisfaction questionnaires across different cultural backgrounds! n  Tests must account for potential differences in perception of usability! n  Give priority to different aspects of usability to develop systems to be perceived as usable by users with different cultural backgrounds! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 88!AM+A! Usability 
 and 
 Culture: 
 China 
 vs. 
 Denmark"   [“Non-Universal Usability? A Survey of How Usability Is Understood by Chinese and Danish Users,” Frandsen-Thorlacius, et al., CHI 09 Proceedings, pp. 41-58]!   ! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 89!AM+A! Proving Culture Differences" n  Using Eye-Tracking of Website Designs! n  Dong, Ying, “A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study on Users’ Perception of the Webpage: With the Focus on Cognitive Style of Chinese, Korean, and American” Masters Thesis, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 2007! n  Studies track differences between US (analytic) viewers who stop at “monuments” before “diving” and Asian viewers who “survey” the page before diving! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 90!AM+A! China, Korea, and US Differences
 of Web-Page Viewing
 " [Dong, Ying, “A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study on Users’ Perception of the Webpage: With the Focus on Cognitive Style of Chinese, 
 Korean, and American” Masters Thesis, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 2007.]! 33
  34. 34. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 91!AM+A! Where do We Go from Here in Thinking about Cultural UX?" n  Alternate models: Redo studies using them! n  Rethink development steps, e.g., evaluation! n  Rethink UI components, e.g., metaphors! n  New approaches proposed for China, India! n  Rethink platforms, e.g., mobile devices! n  Sony-Ericsson Wukong with Guanxi; new Chinese metaphors! n  Consider additional sources of insight! n  Educate corporations/professions/users re culture! n  UN Bookstore: no books on culture models, only tourist interest! n  Many studies, theories, books do not include culture! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 92!AM+A! Increasing Presence of “Culture,” Anthro/Ethnography in UI/UX Design" n  CHI 2009-135: Many culture-oriented sessions, plus many more papers, posters, abstracts- ! n  UPA 2009-15: Increasing number of sessions! n  HCII 2009, 15, DUXU11-15: Many sessions, papers, posters, abstracts! n  At AnthroDesign, Google, Yahoo, Facebook, and other discussion forums: Informed, passionate debate! n  IWIPS 1999-12: Always sessions, papers on culture! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 93!AM+A! Culture in Business: New Activities in Decade of Change, 1/2" n  More articles and books in recent years! n  House, et al (2005). “Cross-Cultural Research on Organizational Leadership”! n  Livermore, David (2010). Leading with Culture Intelligence! n  Jacques, Martin (2010). When China Rules the World! n  McCracken,Grant (2010). Chief Culture Officer: How to Create a Living, Breathing Corporation! n  More studies undertaken by product/service developers! n  Culture audits of software prior to translation into languages/cultures! n  Culture research of one’s own corporation to learn lessons of communication, sharing, cooperation, team building, networking! n  Culture research of one’s customers/markets to learn lessons of product/service innovation, absorption, appeal! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 94!AM+A! Culture in Business: New Activities in Decade of Change, 2/2" n  Examples: Avoiding cultural gaffes! n  Business meeting mistakes: “Russian culture fosters smiling in private settings and seriousness in business settings.”! n  One driving training company expanded into 20 countries before realizing product’s culture flaws, then spent $1m to correct them! n  [Malby, Emily (2010). “Expanding Abroad?Avoid Cultural Gaffes.” Wall Street Journal, 19 January 2010, p. B5.]! n  Need for new thinking about leadership, teamwork, cooperation, sharing, privacy, innovation! n  Can not take for granted that multi-disciplinary teams members think and act alike, even with corporate culture policies and slogans! n  Need for Chief Culture Officer, culture leadership! n  Who will support CCO? Engineering, business, marketing, HR?! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 95!AM+A! Culture in Business: New Approaches to Research/Evaluation" n  Eye-tracking studies to discover culture differences! n  KAIST research in Korea! n  Varying techniques to relate to participant’s culture! n  Individual vs. collective interview! n  Test-Lab vs. on-the-street interview and ethnography! n  Storytelling vs interrogation! n  Cross-cultural heuristic evaluation guidelines! n  AM+A has begun, but not finished one! n  New resources/references for global research! n  Schumacher, R., Ed. (2008). Handbook of Global User Research.! n  Stephanidis, C., Ed. (2009). Universal Access Handbook.! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 96!AM+A! Country Culture 
 vs. Corporate Culture" n  How does country culture corporate culture, especially for global, international firms?! [Images: http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3222/3049140640_f7c68be652.jpg, http://winnersatwork.com.au/images/diagrams/VennDiagramRepresentations.gif]! 34
  35. 35. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 97!AM+A! Culture in Business: New Approaches to Corporate Culture" n  Are corporate cultures truly global? TBD.! n  Consider Cisco example: Are there biases?! n  Collaboration Teamwork! n  Continuous Improvement/ Stretch Goals! n  Customer Success! n  Drive Change! n  Empowerment! n  Fun! n  Giving Back/ Trust/ Fairness/ Integrity! n  Inclusion! n  Innovation! n  Market Transitions! n  No Technology Religion! n  Open Communication! n  Profit Contribution (Frugality)! n  Quality Team! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 98!AM+A! Culture in Business: How Does Culture affect Development Teams?" n  How does culture affect collaboration, communication, cooperation, sharing, delivery?! n  How do teams work together?! n  India: Teams often work together start to finish, mentor newbies! n  USA: Individual groups work on pieces, then assemble the whole! n  What is leadership like?! n  Japan: Strong boss, even with consensus (ringi) model! n  Netherlands: More democratic, lower power distance! n  US vs EU models ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 99!AM+A! Culture in Business: New Contexts Require new Approaches" n  Next decade will be more sensitive to culture in all people-centered development process:! n  Planning, research, analysis, design, evaluation, documentation, implementation, training! n  All stakeholders: engineering, marketing, business, employees, investors! n  All markets for products/services, not just “exotic” cultures! n  Culture issues cannot/should not be secondary ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 100!AM+A! UX Evaluation and Culture: 
 How does Culture affect…" n  User profiles (personas) and scenarios?! n  Culturally appropriate people, tasks, stories! n  Testing, questionnaires?! n  Culturally appropriate people, tasks, test environments, questions, techniques! n  Video monitoring and ethnographies?! n  Culturally appropriate persons, inquiries, behaviors, environments! n  Measurement of objective and subjective “facts”! n  Culturally appropriate collection, emotional reactions! n  What about Web 2.0? Social network sites?! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 101!AM+A! Challenges to the Classic Culture Models" n  Ethnographic approaches! n  Local groups, behaviors, “situated practice,” action-oriented! n  Post-modernism, media studies, sociology of culture, production of culture, politics of culture! n  Critique of sociological phenomena, e.g., power, inequality, social construction of technology, other patterns of social organization n  Michèle Lamont, Princeton Univ., contemp. sociological theory: http:// www.princeton.edu/~sociolog/grad/courses/fall1995/soc502.html. Towns in two countries more similar than town to city in each country or two cities to each other.! n  David Brain, New College, Florida, sociology of culture course: http://www.ncf.edu/brain/courses/culture/culture_syl05.htm Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 102!AM+A! Additional Sources of Insight into UX and Culture" n  Persuasion! n  Trust! n  Intelligence! n  Personality! n  Cognition! 35
  36. 36. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 103!AM+A! Cultural UX Issues to Consider: 
 What do You Think?, 1/5" n  Are basics of usability culture-biased? Efficiency, productivity, simplicity, usefulness...for what?! n  How can culture models be added to theories of utility, sociability, community, entertainment, design? ! n  How map UI components to culture dimensions?! n  How can corporations and organizations include more cultural theory in development process?! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 104!AM+A! Cultural UX Issues to Consider:
 What Do You Think? 2/5" n  How does culture affect Web 2.0, social network, and blog-related products/services?! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 105!AM+A! n  Online training: Friend/guru? Tradition/skills?! n  Virtual Web Boyfriends/Girlfriends OK?! n  WebKare.jp: Users choose animated characters who tell you how great you look, per Lisa Katayama, Tokyo Mango blog report 
 [Kane, Yukari Iwatani, WSJ, 2 June 2009, p. Digital-2]! Culture UX Issues to Consider:
 What do You Think? 3/5" Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 106!AM+A! Cultural UX Issues to Consider: 
 What do You Think?, 4/5" n  Interaction styles: informal vs. formal, harmony vs. honesty, sincerity vs. scheming?! n  Conflict: Frequent vs. seldom? Chatroom flaming OK? Clashing opinions OK?! n  Would you send your 
 virtual representatives 
 on vacation (see Korea)?! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 107!AM+A! Cultural UX Issues to Consider: 
 What do You Think?, 5/5" n  What attitudes toward advertising or privacy? Personal Webcams OK?! n  Different men, women sites/apps? ! n  Management training biased to individualism? ! n  SMS messages impolite? (e.g., India, China)! [Bangalore Times, 30 Mar 04, p1]! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 108!AM+A! Your Actions will make the Future: Evolution or Revolution" n  Computer-mediated communication and interaction occurs in a culture context! n  UX development must account for culture ! n  Models, methods exist; many research issues! n  Design professionals cannot ignore the issues! n  Future development of tools, templates, treasure chests of patterns, body of knowledge! 36
  37. 37. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page !! Lecture: Cross-Cultural User-Experience Design !Speaker: Aaron Marcus, President, AM+A !! !! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 109!AM+A! Body of Knowledge: Resources" n  ACM/SIGCHI: chi-intercultural@acm.org,
 www.HCIBib.org//SIGCHI/Intercultural! n  American Anthropological Association’s Internet Resources: http://www.aaanet.org/resinet.htm! n  AM+A URL and publication list! n  Anthrodesign.org! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 110!AM+A! A Challenge: Bone vs. Bottle"   Concept by Donald Day!   IWIPS 1999!   Email: d.day@acm.org! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, Slide 111!AM+A! Cross-Cultural User-Experience 
 Design: What? So What? Now What?"   Aaron Marcus, Principal"   Aaron Marcus and Associates, (AM+A)!   
 1196 Euclid Avenue, Berkeley, California 94708-1640, USA!   MobTel: +1-510-499-3195, Fax: +1-510-527-1994, Email: Aaron.Marcus@AMandA.com !   Web: www.AMandA.com
 Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/AMandAssociates!   LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/company/aaron-marcus-and-associates-inc-!   YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/AMandAssociates!   Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/amandaberkeley ! ! 37
  38. 38. Tutorial: Cross-Cultural User-Interface Design !Lecture:! For Work, Home, Play, and on the Way !Mobile Phone UX and Culture ! ! ! © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 1!AM+A! Mobile Trends and 
 Culture Differences " Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 2!AM+A! Mobile Trends and 
 Culture Differences " Aaron Marcus and Associates" 1196 Euclid Avenue, Suite 1F! Berkeley, CA 04708-1640, USA! Tel: +1-510-599-3195, Fax: +1-510-527-1994! Web: www.AMandA.com! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 3!AM+A! Mobile Trends" n  Samsung: 
 - Bring music to hearing impaired: implanting mobile, ‘upgrading human’ ! - Assist hearing capabilities to bridge people with hearing difficultly in communication and relationships! Address human auditory abilities! KR! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 4!AM+A! Mobile Trends " n  Samsung
 - Detect Acute Stress by heart rate variability, using prototype mobile ECG Sensor.! Develop unhealthy attitudes.! JP! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 5!AM+A! Mobile Trends" n  Sony Ericsson : 
 - Add new sense to user’s mobile experience (Aroma Sheet)
 - Enhance physical and emotional ‘well- being’ experience.! !Address underexploited issues of users’ ability to perceive and respond to smell.! JP! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 6!AM+A! Mobile Trends" n  Samsung 
 
 - Use various sliding ! directions for different ! modes ! ! KR! 38
  39. 39. Tutorial: Cross-Cultural User-Interface Design !Lecture:! For Work, Home, Play, and on the Way !Mobile Phone UX and Culture ! ! ! © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 7!AM+A! Mobile Trends" n  Sky: OLED keypad environment
 - 27 types of keypad
 - Vibration motors on ! touch sensors: fun & feel ! !Add haptic (touch and movement sensing) feedback into interface to enhance user experience.! KR! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 8!AM+A! Mobile Trends" n  Korea 
 - use double screens ! ! KR! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 9!AM+A! Mobile Trends" n  LG Philips e-paper (A4)
 - flexible & durable screen 
 - 4096 color! Gummi interface ! - bend display to interact! KR! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 10!AM+A! Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture Index Table" 58 17 45 69 87 60 18 39 85 75 54 46 95 92 80 40 91 62 46 29 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Power Distance Individual Index Masculinity Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term Orientation Taiwan South Korea Japan USA Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 11!AM+A! Bottom layout difference " n  Centralized call function in US RAZR. Vs. 
 Separated call function encouraging users to use localized online applications: ‘i-mode’ and ‘video conference’.!   Taiwan Moto Krzr maxx K3 Source:
 http://www.sogi.com.tw/park/content.asp?a_id=6107! Customized Moto Razr for FIRESTONE in Taiwan! Standard Moto Razr for North America! TW! US! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 12!AM+A! Keypad Language Input " n  Improved typing experience by special key set ‘Won Xing System’, using buttons, clustered in similar sounds between English and Chinese! TW! 39
  40. 40. Tutorial: Cross-Cultural User-Interface Design !Lecture:! For Work, Home, Play, and on the Way !Mobile Phone UX and Culture ! ! ! © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 13!AM+A! Business card digitalized, including Chinese character identified software! Language (Character Differences) " n  Digital business card scannable with phone to make difficult Chinese character input easier and faster. ! ! TW! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 14!AM+A! Navigation: Icons and Metaphors " n  Localized icon design using each metaphor, representing different meanings within each cultural context! n  Navigation system in Taiwan uses standard doorplate and noodles to represent “road” and
 “restaurant”! TW! US! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 15!AM+A! n  Use less colors on icons and backgrounds in latest Korean mobile products (i.e. Samsung, LG) for viewers’ simple and easy eye flow. ! ! More Colors Fewer colors Navigation: Color Differences" US! TW! US! US! US! US! US! US! US! US! KR! KR! KR! KR! KR! KR! KR! KR! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 16!AM+A! Full Screen Mobile" n  Simpler and less assertive icons and navigation techniques in Asian mobiles ! n  Information hierarchy: 
 highly populated and categorized (Asia) vs. informally organized and categorized structure (US)! n  Black background and icons more “cool,” less emotionally expressive users!TW! KR! US! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 17!AM+A! Photo Editing " n  Built-in multi-photo-editing options in Asian phones to enrich photo-sharing! n  Examples: adding frame, “artsy” fonts, animation cartoon character, ASCII-art! n  Desire satisfied to create group by using personalized expression and language through custom selections !KR! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 18!AM+A! Calendar Application " n  Asian versions use 
 special I-mode online content of Chinese traditional calendar, which is combined with fortune forecast ! TW! KR! 40
  41. 41. Tutorial: Cross-Cultural User-Interface Design !Lecture:! For Work, Home, Play, and on the Way !Mobile Phone UX and Culture ! ! ! © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 19!AM+A! Emoticons " n  US expresses emotion with mouth shapes vs. KR changes eye shapes! n  TW emoticons tend to use more Chinese characters! US! : )" =(" :’(" XD" :P" :O" ^-^" T_T"@o@" =_=" -_-" >o<" KR! TW! Orz _ rz (___ )@m (____ )_ ( ___ _ )_ ~ __ Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 20!AM+A! Virtual Social Networking Space" n  Provides interspaces for people to coexist and communicate ! n  Individualism vs. Collectivism: US prefers importance given to individuals vs. KR representations appear by themselves or within groups! 58 17 45 69 87 60 18 39 85 75 54 46 95 92 80 40 91 62 46 29 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Power Distance Individual Index Masculinity Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term Orientation Taiwan South Korea Japan USA US!JP!KR!TW! US! KR! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 21!AM+A! Femininity vs. Masculinity" n  US: Attention gained through games and competitions! n  TW:
 - Attention gained through poetry, visual aesthetics, and appeals to unifying values
 - Mutual cooperation, exchange, and support (rather than mastery and winning)! 58 17 45 69 87 60 18 39 85 75 54 46 95 92 80 40 91 62 46 29 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Power Distance Individual Index Masculinity Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term Orientation Taiwan South Korea Japan USA 58 17 45 69 87 60 18 39 85 75 54 46 95 92 80 40 91 62 46 29 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Power Distance Individual Index Masculinity Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term Orientation Taiwan South Korea Japan USA TW! US! US!KR!TW! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 22!AM+A! Cuteness" n  Japanese, Korean, and
 Chinese visual design style tolerates, even celebrates, cuteness much more than EU +US! n  Examples found throughout UIs, publications, packaging
 of products and services! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 23!AM+A! Multi-Media Message (MMS)" n  Realistic vs. Abstraction! n  Hard vs. Soft forms! n  Vivid vs. Pastel colors ! n  Indirect vs. direct emotional expression ! n  Avoiding cuteness, emphasis on clearness. vs. softer edges and shapes!KR! US! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 24!AM+A! China: Culturally Different UX Trends" n  Chinese UX trends emerging: more complex, more cuteness, more comparisons, more trends, more people: more = more, more = more, not less = more! Xiaomi recruitment mobile page! ! 41
  42. 42. Tutorial: Cross-Cultural User-Interface Design !Lecture:! For Work, Home, Play, and on the Way !Mobile Phone UX and Culture ! ! ! © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page! Aaron Marcus and Associates, www.AMandA.com, 25!AM+A! Mobile Trends and 
 Culture Differences " Aaron Marcus and Associates" 1196 Euclid Avenue! Berkeley, CA 04708-1640, USA! Tel: +1-510-599-3195, Fax: +1-510-527-1994! Web: www.AMandA.com! 42
  43. 43. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates. !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page ! !! Tutorial: Cross-Cultural User-Interface Design !Lecture 3: Country/Corporate Culture Anallysis! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 1!AM+A! Analysis of Country Cultures to Improve Teamwork in Development Teams!   Aaron Marcus, Principal!   Aaron Marcus and Associates (AM+A)!   1196 Euclid Avenue, Suite
 Berkeley, California 94708-1640, USA!   Tel: +1-510-599-3195, Fax: 1-510-527-1994!   Email: Aaron.Marcus@AMandA.com!   Web: www.AMandA.com!   [Based on Gould, and Marcus ((2011). ““Company Culture Audit to Improve Development Team’s Collaboration, Communication, and Cooperation” Proc., HCII 2011, Orlando, Fl, July 2011]! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 2!AM+A! Presentation Summary! n  1. Introduction! n  2. Recommendations! n  3. Analytical Criteria ! l  Traditional Measures of Culture! l  Criteria: Tech Innovation and Globalization! l  Criteria: Equal Employment and Gender Ratio! l  Additional Considerations: Corp Culture and HQ Effect! n  4. Conclusions 
 ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 3!AM+A! Introduction! n  California Client X asked AM+A to recommend 4 sites from 15 countries in 6 work regions for company-wide collaboration study! n  Objectives: Greatest diversity re headquarters site, greatest opportunity for colaboration innovation ! n  Two sets of criteria initially! l  Traditional measures of culture applicable to teamwork! l  Technological innovation and globalization! n  After review with Client, additional data on employee demographics led to additional criterion! l  Gender balance! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 4!AM+A! AM+A Recommendations! n  Four cities in addition to US corporate HQ! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 5!AM+A! Additional Recommended Cities! n  Feltham, UK, for Amsterdam: ! l  US, UK share values; Amsterdam more egalitarian, gender-neutral! n  Singapore for Dubai, UAE: ! l  Dubai leads world pop growth, oil economy -> trade, finance, info! l  Singapore already successfully refocused economy on same objectives through more regulated, state-controlled process similar to Chinese values: strong leadership, high power distance, collectivism! n  Seoul for Tokyo:! l  Seoul uses strong Confucian style of leadership that promotes group coordination and tends to limit individual action! n  Optional (outside Client’s sites): Shanghai! l  Western educ influence changing Chinese univs + Confucian culture; employees, less conservative than Japan, Korea, Singapore! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 6!AM+A! Data Visualization of Recommendations! n  AM+A recommended locations with 200+ employees so data statistically valid! n  Values show HQ city as 1.0! n  Black = max, White = min for criteria! n  Cities provide strongly different culture attributes for study by Client of corporate culture and differences/ similarities in teamwork, which is objective of Client’s research! 43
  44. 44. © Copyright 2015 by Aaron Marcus and Associates. !AM+A, www.AMandA.com !Page ! !! Tutorial: Cross-Cultural User-Interface Design !Lecture 3: Country/Corporate Culture Anallysis! ! !! ! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 7!AM+A! Data Visualization of Recommendations! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 8!AM+A! Sources for Data! n  Power Distance: With exception of Shanghai, data drawn from raw scores comparing 53 countries and national regions by Hofstede (1997)! l  Due to dependence on IBM data, Hofstede did not include China in original study, so China score drawn from Schwartz’s comparison of 39 cultural groups (1994) for Hierarchy, normalized from a 9-point scale in ratio to US! n  Individualism: As with Power Distance, all scores for individualism taken from Hofstede (1997) with exception of Shanghai! l  Shanghai score taken from Schwartz’s score for Conservatism, reversed, normalized, and cross-validated against his scores for Egalitarian Commitment, Affective Autonomy, and Intellectual Autonomy! n  Digital Nativity: This taken from employee demographic data ! l  Variable defined as client employees 30 and younger! n  High Growth/ New Cities: Data taken from urban agglomerations: ! l  Average annual rate of change (%), World urbanization prospects: The 2007 revision population database, United Nations Population Division (esa.un.org/unup)! n  Female/Male Gender Ratio: Data from client employee demographics! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 9!AM+A! Analytical Criteria: Traditional Measures of Culture, 1/10! n  Since 1980s, variables from factor analysis:! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 10!AM+A! Analytical Criteria: Traditional Measures of Culture, 2/10! n  Some culture concepts overlap, not bipolar! l  Some are exclusively high/low; others can be multiple! n  Culture concepts associated with teamwork types! l  Hofstede: Hi power dist/collectivist: MX, CN (HK), SI! l  Hofstede: Hi power dist/individualist: FR! l  Hofstede: Low power dist/individualis: US, UK, NE! n  Collectivist countries, high PD (respect authority)! l  Dependnt on ingroups, rely on strong leaders with moral authority! l  Avoid direct confrontation, but engineer situations to enableuse of rules for justified refusal ! l  INhistorical variations: tradition of close coop and mentorship between experience and novice group memers! l  JPhistorical variations: managers are more separate from subords! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 11!AM+A! Analytical Criteria: Traditional Measures of Culture, 3/10! n  Individualist cultures, high power distance:! l  Often develop burocratic systems to reconcile personal independence with absolute authority and centralized power! l  Contrast with collectivist cultures: more confrontational! n  Indivdualist cultures, low power distance:! l  Tend to work in loose groups, treat others as peers! l  Allegiance to ingroups weak, easier to work with new people, outsiders! l  Different historical patterns: Scandinavia more egalitarian, feminine; work roles show less gender bias, groups seek to achieve consensus! n  Hofstede: Complex! l  Surface validity used in business studies, but much changed in 30y! l  Bond challenged Hofstede re Chinese values! l  Hampden-Turner data more recent, partially overlap with Hofstede! Aaron Marcus and Associates, Inc., www.AMandA.com, 12!AM+A! Analytical Criteria: Traditional Measures of Culture, 4/10! n  Parsons’ social systems teamwork concepts (1951):! l  Universalists use rules applied to everyone and rely on procedural equity; particularists see social situations as more complex, tend to apply different rules to different types of people! l  Communitarians (like collectivists) place group needs, objectives ahead of personal needs; individualists place their needs first! l  People who display neutral affect tend to use reason as basis for developing relationships; people who display more emotional affect are more open about their feelings and expect emotional responses! l  People who have specific range of involvement tend to view different business, personal contexts as separate; may recognize authority of manager at work but treat manager as equal outside! l  People who have diffuse range of involvement with work do not separate these contexts; manager whose authority they recognize at work will retain that authority when met in a different situation.! 44

×