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Personas alive and kicking designing personas for impact - attendee slides


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For user centred design to be effective, a company needs to have a common understanding of who the user is...that's where personas come in. Create a common language about our users, their needs, behaviours and motivations and bring them to the fore front of Designers and Product Managers minds.
In this course you will learn the core principles involved in creating and using personas effectively within your organization in both waterfall and Agile environments.

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Personas alive and kicking designing personas for impact - attendee slides

  1. 1. Designing personas for impact Personas: Alive & Kicking
  2. 2. Welcome :)
  3. 3. Identify barriers to persona impact 3 Principles for success Hands on experience Workshop overview
  4. 4. Agenda - morning 09:00 - 09:30 Welcome 09:30 - 10:00 The problem with personas 10:00 - 10:30 Principle 1 - Be the voice of the user 10:30 - 10:45 Break 10:45 - 11:15 Activity: State of the nation 11:15 - 12:15 Principle 2 - Be relevant & engaging 12:15 - 12:45 Activity: Sketch persona skeleton 12:45 - 13:45 Lunch
  5. 5. Agenda - afternoon 13:45 - 14:30 Principle 3 - Be credible 14:30 - 15:30 Activity: Triad interviews & affinity mapping 15:30 - 15:45 Break 15:45 - 16:00 Crafting personas 16:00 - 16:30 Activity: Create your personas 16:30 - 16:45 Show & tell 16:45 - 17:00 Wrap-up
  6. 6. Get into 3’s
  7. 7. Introduction The problem with personas
  8. 8. Ready...set….go
  9. 9. Kim Goodwin Designing for the Digital Age “Personas are a user archetype you can use to help drive decisions about product features”
  10. 10. “Personas summarize user research findings and bring that research to life in such a way that everyone can make decisions based on these personas, not based on themselves.” Steve Mulder The User Is Always Right
  11. 11. “Personas are user-centred bullshit.” Steve Portigal Interviewing Users
  12. 12. Ready...set….go
  13. 13. We see the world differently
  14. 14. 1. Confusing/conflicting voice of the customer 2. Uninspiring and ineffective 3. Based on thin, irrelevant or no data 3 Key problems with personas
  15. 15. 1. Be the voice of the user 2. Be relevant and engaging 3. Be credible Create personas with impact
  16. 16. Principle 1 Be the voice of the user
  17. 17. Voice of the customer Analytics Market Segmentation Personas
  18. 18. Analytics Analytics
  19. 19. “We could get that data, if we had the pages coded that way, but we haven’t and it will take a lot of time to do it.”
  20. 20. Market segmentation
  21. 21. Market segmentation is a market research tool used to classify the customer base into distinct groups
  22. 22. Hybrid approach
  23. 23. Principle 2 Be relevant and engaging
  24. 24. Activity State of the Nation
  25. 25. Thinking about your team or organisation, take 5 minutes to complete the “State of the nation” sheet in your packs. Each of us will then share our answers with the group and discuss what our answers mean with regards to how we might approach our persona project.
  26. 26. You probably needed your personas by now
  27. 27. Has the train already left?
  28. 28. ● We identified that you have different persona end users ● It’s highly likely that your primary persona end users will have different needs / uses for the personas ● Crucially you need to think about these people early on and utilise them in your persona project From our “State of the nation activity”...
  29. 29. The proverbial “Middle Finger”
  30. 30. Engineers
  31. 31. UX’ers
  32. 32. Product Managers
  33. 33. Marketing
  34. 34. Senior Stakeholders
  35. 35. Senior Stakeholders
  36. 36. Persona team
  37. 37. You are the Captain!
  38. 38. Persona Sponsors
  39. 39. Who is the persona sponsor ? ● They represent and take action on behalf of one of the primary stakeholder groups / disciplines you identified in the “State of the nation” exercise. ● They need not be the most senior person within that discipline. ● They have the respect of the discipline they speak on behalf of. ● They may or may not be the biggest advocate of personas at the start of the process, but is your job to make sure they are by the end. ● They may not be a person you currently know - reach out to the teams and get their input.
  40. 40. ● NOTE this is not a formality to “tick the box” that you are being collaborative. ● The persona sponsor is not there just to “sign things off” or talk about how well the project went at the end. ● They have to be engaged to give you constant feedback, direction, advice and most importantly help you access others member of the groups / teams / disciplines they represent. ● Consequently they must give you their time. In Google this would probably be someones 20% time project for several months. What is the role of the persona sponsor ?
  41. 41. ● You need a sponsor for each of your primary persona end user groups where you envisage that group having a significant need for the persona work. ● Do not build a “grand committee”. ● Build a small autonomous group that can make decisions and allow you to move quickly. How many persona sponsors do I need ?
  42. 42. ● Mobile Engineering (Senior Engineer) ● Product (Product Manager) ● UX (Designer) ● Marketing (Marketing Lead) ● Operations (Operations Manager) ● Senior Stakeholder (Clubcard Brand Director) Persona sponsor example
  43. 43. Engineers
  44. 44. ● Software Engineers are used to solving problems, usually through building and deploying code (be that front-end or back-end). ● Typically Software Engineers think about very practical solutions to problems, and perhaps the overall UX may not be at the forefront of their mind. ● It’s quite likely that to some extent the Software Engineer is coding and building software based wholly or partly on their own own needs. Engineers : How they think
  45. 45. ● Software Engineers are most satisfied when they solve a problem or when faced with a challenge that seems almost impossible. ● Software Engineers in teams can be quite competitive and really thrive off friendly inter engineer team competition. Engineers : How they think
  46. 46. ● Be careful not to lose Software Engineers by framing your personas in the abstract too much. ● Ensure the personas talk and visualise problems the persona has with the software, and have these problems prioritised. ● Ensure the persona makes references to challenges they face and the long-term needs they have as this will stimulate the Software Engineer to start thinking about solving a challenging problem. ● Software Engineers not surprisingly are often very very data driven, so triangulation with quant data can really help validate the persona in the eyes of the Software Engineer. Engineers : Persona needs
  47. 47. Engineers : Example assets
  48. 48. UX’ers
  49. 49. ● Obviously they think about user needs, and how the work they do can make a difference to the end user. ● Often will think in terms of journeys and flows, where they are trying to understand the context of a problem and the many possibilities there can be. ● Will be thinking about what can be fixed on a product, but also in an ideal world what the product could be and how amazing it could be given the time and resources. ● It’s definitely true that UX’ers can sometimes think far more broadly about a problem or challenge, but this may require time and not be immediate. UX’ers : How they think
  50. 50. ● For UX’ers the persona needs to inspire them to design a better experience based on that solution. ● Your personas need to call out key differences, otherwise UX’ers may struggle to tell any differences apart. ● Think about detailing persona journeys, overlaid with user needs on your personas. UX’ers : What they might need from personas
  51. 51. ● It’s often not about giving very succinct prioritised lists, it’s more about the persona being an asset that can guide the UX’er in their design work, be that a very specific design challenge or a broader design question. ● Is often more interested in a deep understanding of a behavior rather than knowing how many people might exhibit it. UX’ers : What they might need from personas
  52. 52. UX’ers : Example assets
  53. 53. Product Managers
  54. 54. ● Product Managers (PM’s) like to think about the “Big Picture”, but also how that breaks down into day to day activities. ● PM’s can be very numbers focused, and will make decisions based on the evidence around them, but also trust their own judgement. ● PM’s may be thinking about and balancing many problems or activities at a time, and will look to constantly prioritize. ● For many PM’s its about delivering, as delivery is often the key performance metric. ● Can be quite unpredictable, and the difference between PM’s in the same organisation can be substantial. Product Managers : How they think
  55. 55. ● Ensure your personas link back to the product or product area. Again like with Software Engineers do not be too abstract with your personas. ● Call out how your different personas may need different things from the software, and the reasons why. ● Ensure the PM can easily digest the persona, and that each persona as 2-3 core pieces of information in order not to drown the PM. ● Show priorities where possible, and what could have the biggest impact on the user. ● Information on pain points and insights that can be turned into user stories. Product Manager : Persona needs
  56. 56. Product Manager : Example assets
  57. 57. Marketing
  58. 58. ● Will often think of users in terms of “buckets” and “lifecycles” and campaigns. ● Marketing will often think about the user but not in the same way as a UX’er will. For marketing it’s often about demographics and various subpopulations that they look to monitor and report on. ● Marketer’s can both be creative and deep thinking when it comes to understanding the user. ● Marketers generally love their data, particularly survey data as it’s quantifiable and repeatable. Marketing : How they think
  59. 59. ● Where possible show where your persona may link to or be part of a marketing segment. ● Show how the persona might respond to marketing messages and campaigns, and that will help the marketer better understand how to communicate and talk with the customer. ● If you mention demographic data make sure that doesn’t over power the persona. ● If you can show how the persona may evolve over time, and how their needs may change and alter depending on how long they are a customer. Marketing : Persona needs
  60. 60. Marketing : Example assets
  61. 61. Senior Stakeholders
  62. 62. ● Often they have their focus on the much bigger picture in the team / organisation. ● They will think in terms of their vision, and consider anything they believe will get them to that vision. ● Less time is spent about the day-to-day and more about realising goals and ensuring others are aligned and understand that vision. ● Will be overloaded with information, and unlikely to retain everything they are told. Senior Stakeholders : How they think
  63. 63. ● How the needs and behaviors of the persona map to their vision ● A clear succinct view of who the customer is. ● The critical challenges the persona faces and linking that clearly to where opportunities lie. ● A language about the user that they can share and articulate to others. ● Quick facts they can remember and take with them as they talk to others in the business. Senior stakeholders : Persona needs
  64. 64. Senior stakeholders : Example assets User Needs Efficiently find personal content Be able to easily collaborate on documents Be able to keep a log of outstanding activities
  65. 65. So it’s going to be tough
  66. 66. ● Train your stakeholders to moderate ● Train your stakeholders to note take ● Make sure your stakeholders attend interviews with you ● Publish mini vignettes on your progress! Drip feed them “pearls of wisdom” to feed their interest. Get your stakeholders involved in the research
  67. 67. There is danger to this
  68. 68. Stakeholder interview
  69. 69. ● These interviews can be very insightful if your persona End Users have spent time with customers previously and have knowledge about the product. But be careful? ● Their view will be heavily based on what they have remembered about their users, and if they are a user of the product, their view of their users may infact be a projection of themselves. ● You need to challenge everything that your stakeholder says about the user, in order that you can start to see the difference between a genuinely useful piece of insight vs a projection of their self. The stakeholder interview
  70. 70. Ready...set….go
  71. 71. IMPACT planning sheet
  72. 72. Persona board
  73. 73. What is it? ● This is effectively your progress board for your persona project, but it serves more than just a display, it’s plays a crucial part in your project. ● The persona Board is where you meet and discuss the personas with the Stakeholder Sponsors, as well as conduct part of your analysis. Why is it effective? ● It lives in a very prominent place, it’s visual, it changes regularly as the persona project evolves, it’s an active reminder persona creation is in progress and persona stakeholders can see you working off the Board. Persona board (wall)
  74. 74. Persona posters
  75. 75. Don’t just print out your persona bigger
  76. 76. What is it? ● This contains the “need to know” elements of your persona and is aimed at your secondary stakeholders and the much wider organisation. Why is it effective? ● This is will raise awareness that a persona project has happened, but you need to provide a “hook” so those that read the poster can easily find out more or learn how to use the personas. Think of the poster as a “lure” or a hook. Where to put them? ● Meeting rooms, communal meeting points, near photocopiers, near daily standup areas, and the toilets (loo media). Persona poster
  77. 77. Persona sprint
  78. 78. What is it? ● This is where you embed yourself in as many sprints as you can handle and start to disseminate the insights in the persona or personas into the team. ● This will involve you spending time with each team member ensuring they know about the personas, as well as supporting with the creating of users stories and helping the PM prioritise the backlog. Persona sprint
  79. 79. Why is it effective? ● It takes the persona and immediately starts transfusing the insights in the personas into the teams that need to be thinking about and designing for the Persons. How do the personas get used? ● The personas are there as a reference point for the team, but ultimately the team move away from the assets as they begin to learn what is in each persona. Persona sprint
  80. 80. Persona brown bags & expo
  81. 81. What is it? ● Resist the temptation to not make a Powerpoint deck for your personas. Instead think of assets you can use that allow you to take teams through the personas and the key findings. ● With as Expo or Brown Bag you essentially create an engaging board of the information you want your stakeholders to know, and then you walk them through the board as if you are telling a story. Persona brown bag & expo
  82. 82. Why is it effective? ● Very useful when in draft stake to walk through with your persona Sponsors and the teams they represent. They can ask questions and give feedback on the personas and you will get a more collaborative output rather than organising a meeting around a board table. How do the personas get used? ● All personas are displayed, but key parts of the persona are featured in more details in order that persona End Users can think about what the persona means for them. Persona brown bag & expo
  83. 83. Hack day
  84. 84. What is it? ● As soon as you have your draft personas ready you can hold a persona Sprint. This is where you gather colleagues from across the team (if not the entire team) and you get them to focus on a user problem /challenge / opportunity identified by each persona, and come up with solutions. Hack day (or week)
  85. 85. Why is it effective? ● It takes research and makes it actionable through teams working together to understand the personas, and then actually start prescribing solutions. Engineers code, UX’ers design and structure - it’s very hands on and allow you to coach and mentor the team on how to use the personas. How do the personas get used? ● At every step of the sprint the persona is used as a reference and then as a guide as the team’s sprint towards solutions and new ideas. Hack day (or week)
  86. 86. Persona tool kits
  87. 87. Used alongside planning poker
  88. 88. Sprint planning
  89. 89. What is it? ● These are mini booklets, cards, stickers that encapsulate the essence of each persona, so that they can be used by the team as they plan and think about the personas in their everyday activities e.g. sprint planning, estimating, workshops. Why is it effective? ● The toolkit is something that is used by the teams, and hence it gets the teams to think about the personas and turn that thinking into solutions. How do the personas get used? ● The toolkit may not contain the full detail on each persona, but it gives enough information to be useful in the above scenarios. Hack day (or week)
  90. 90. Think differently
  91. 91. Awful!
  92. 92. Activity Persona Skeleton
  93. 93. In your triads, imagine that you need to create a persona for just one of your persona end user groups e.g. product, engineering, UX. Take 10 minutes in your group to think about and then sketch how you would architect and display information about your persona to meet the needs of that persona end user.
  94. 94. Principle 3 Be credible
  95. 95. Recruitment
  96. 96. Ready...set….go
  97. 97. 1. Use Market Segments 2. Use Analytic Segments 3. Task-Based Segments Targeted Recruitment
  98. 98. 1. Use Market Segments 2. Use Analytic Segments 3. Task-Based Segments Targeted Recruitment
  99. 99. Task-based segments 1. List behaviors 2. Group behaviours 3. Name groups Approach taken from Indi young’s book Mental Models
  100. 100. Brainstorm all the things people do before, while and after using your product List all the ways users might behave differently List activities using verb-noun format List behaviours
  101. 101. Group by behaviour affinity Think about the people who do the things Do NOT group by verb affinity Group behaviours
  102. 102. Assign provisional labels to the groups Name groups
  103. 103. Data collection
  104. 104. We need to get data quickly
  105. 105. Qualitative ● Interviews ● Focus groups ● Diary studies ● Call centre logs ● Blogs, websites & review sites ● Metric-based user testing ● Surveys ● Web analytics ● Business Intelligence Quantitative
  106. 106. Deciding what approach to take will depend on ... ...your research questions ...the data you have available and the resources you have to collect data ...the product / products you are creating personas for ...who your persona end users are (look back to our persona : State of the Nation sheet)
  107. 107. 3 Approaches to data-driven personas ● Built from qual data only ● Built from qual data + validated with quant data ● Segmented by quant data + enriched by qual data
  108. 108. Built on qual data only +ve ● Common and useful for teams working in fast-paced agile environments ● Quickly delivers a view of the customer ● Predominantly uses interviews (but may be supplemented with other qual methods) for data gathering ● Allows the team to make UX and design decisions in the sprint about the users. -ve ● You may not identify a major behaviour / motivation / need that exists, or be able to help stakeholders prioritise between personas because you don’t know what might be the most prevalent/important behaviours / motivations
  109. 109. Built from qual data + validated by quant data +ve ● Great because the personas start with a blank canvas which is then populated through qualitative insights, which will be deep and meaningful. ● The quant stage can then be used to measure the prevalence of the certain qual findings, which reassures stakeholders -ve ● Takes time and is best done in phases
  110. 110. Segmented by quant data + enriched by qual data +ve ● Analytics can reveal patterns of behaviours with your products ● Market segmentation helps us pinpoint the most important customers that need supporting from a business perspective ● We all know stakeholders often love a bit of Quant! -ve ● Analytics shows an incomplete picture and assumptions are made which may lead us down the wrong path ● for personas it may be more appropriate to take a behaviours first approach rather than start from the position of demographics and spend
  111. 111. Ready...set….go
  112. 112. Many lenses!
  113. 113. Triangulate “Triangulation is a means of checking the integrity of the inferences one draws. It can involve the use of multiple data sources, multiple investigators, multiple theoretical perspectives, and/or multiple methods.” (p. 298) He continues: “The strategy of triangulation is often wedded to the assumption that data from different sources or methods must necessarily converge or be aggregated to reveal the truth.” (p. 298) Schwandt, Thomas, A. 2001, Dictionary of Qualitative Research, Sage, Thousand Oaks, California.
  114. 114. Qualitative ● Interviews ● Focus groups ● Diary studies ● Call centre logs ● Blogs, websites & review sites ● Metric-based user testing ● Surveys ● Web analytics ● Business Intelligence Quantitative
  115. 115. In-depth contextual interviews
  116. 116. Research plan & interview guide ● The research plan outlines the goals, the questions the research will answer and the methods ● The interview guide contains the themes you’ll explore with the participants ● You involve and collaborate with your persona end users on both of these!
  117. 117. Qualitative Data : The Interview (Key Points) Leave your views behind!
  118. 118. Build empathy! You are not a robot
  119. 119. Take stakeholders with you
  120. 120. Make sure you do the listening!
  121. 121. Drip feed excitement!
  122. 122. User
  123. 123. Activity Triad Interviews
  124. 124. Ok so we need you to collect some data. In your triads, interview each other about your needs / reasons / and experiences of using the UXPA conference website. Write down the key points from each interview. Take 10 minutes per interview Take it in turns so that everyone is interviewed.
  125. 125. Analysis
  126. 126. Identify patterns
  127. 127. Affinity mapping Cluster behaviours in a workshop using post its with stakeholders
  128. 128. Speaks to a Few Contacts Speaks to Many Contacts Define key dimensions
  129. 129. Speaks to a Few Contacts Tech Cautious Makes Infrequent Video Calls Texts Infrequently Separates Work & Home Life Speaks to Many Contacts Tech Savvy Makes Frequent Video Calls texts Frequently Blends Work & Home Life
  130. 130. Speaks to a Few Contacts Tech Cautious Makes Infrequent Video Calls Texts Infrequently Separates Work & Home Life Speaks to Many Contacts Tech Savvy Makes Frequent Video Calls texts Frequently Blends Work & Home Life Behaviour mapping
  131. 131. Speaks to a Few Contacts Tech Cautious Makes Infrequent Video Calls Texts Infrequently Separates Work & Home Life Speaks to Many Contacts Tech Savvy Makes Frequent Video Calls texts Frequently Blends Work & Home Life
  132. 132. Speaks to a Few Contacts Speaks to Many Contacts Tech SavvyTech Cautious Makes Infrequent Video Calls Makes Frequent Video Calls Texts Infrequently texts Frequently Separates Work & Home Life Blends Work & Home Life Find commonalities
  133. 133. Speaks to a Few Contacts Tech Cautious Makes Infrequent Video Calls Texts Infrequently Separates Work & Home Life Speaks to Many Contacts Tech Savvy Makes Frequent Video Calls texts Frequently Blends Work & Home Life
  134. 134. Activity Defining dimensions
  135. 135. Working in your triads, use the data that you collected in your interviews to define your dimensions. Use the paper provided to write your dimensions on and then plot the response from each interview.
  136. 136. Crafting Personas
  137. 137. Anatomy of a persona 1 - Profile 2 - Personality 3 - Referents & Influences 4 - Archetype & Quote 5 - Technology Expertise 6 - UX Goals 7 - Used Devices & Platforms 8 - Domain Details 9 - Must Do / Never Do 10 - Brand Relationship
  138. 138. Activity Create your personas
  139. 139. Working in your triads, now start to draft your persona, thinking carefully about who your primary persona end user might be. At this stage it’s a draft (your first version) so don’ t get too stressed about it, just get ideas down on paper and iterate.
  140. 140. Wrap-Up
  141. 141. Recap Personas are loved or hated If personas are to be impactful they must: 1. Be the voice of the user 2. Be relevant and engaging 3. Be credible For personas to be successful you must plan for impact
  142. 142. Wrap-Up Unanswered questions? Share just 1 thing you will take away with you
  143. 143. Thank You! Bryn Williams Craig Spencer
  144. 144. Resources What else is out there?