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Mandel uxpa 2015 - good-evil

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Mandel uxpa 2015 - good-evil

  1. 1. © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD Using your UX Design Super Powers for Good or Evil Theo Mandel, Ph.D. June 23, 2015
  2. 2. Theo Mandel, Ph.D. theo@theomandel.com www.theomandel.com linkedin.com/in/theomandel theomandel • M.A., Ph.D., Cognitive/Quantitative Psychology • IBM – Senior user interface architect (OS/2) (11 years) • Independent UX & Usability consultant (20+ years) • Author of two books (Van Nostrand Reinhold, John Wiley & Sons) • Many keynote presentations on “Golden Rules of UX Design” Presentation will be available on SlideShare, from the conference, or contact me directly © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  3. 3. Using Your UX Design Super Powers for Good or Evil Theo Mandel, Ph.D. © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  4. 4. Using Your UX Design Super Powers for Good or Evil Theo Mandel, Ph.D. Evil Design Example – Text Changes © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  5. 5. USING YOUR UX DesignSUPER POWERS forGOOD OR Evil Theo Mandel, Ph.D. Evil Design Example – Text Changes © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  6. 6. “It must be true – I read it on the Internet!” “In a report 'Truth, Lies and the Internet’ (2011), a think tank found that a third of teens polled in the UK believe any information found online was true without qualification Even more staggering is that 15 percent of that group admit to making a decision about the truthfulness of content of a web page based on appearance alone” Why are we talking about this topic? © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  7. 7. Using UX for Good Persuasive Design Evil Design & Dark Patterns© 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  8. 8. Using UX for Good UX design powers should be used to do Good things for users not Bad things to users Understand user behavior, needs and goals • UX guidelines, standards & patterns • “Golden rules of UX design” © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  9. 9. UX Guidelines and Standards • Industry/platform, Web, mobile guidelines • Key industry players – Apple, IBM, Microsoft, Google, Yahoo, etc. • My background, starting at IBM (1982-1993) © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  10. 10. “About 90% of usability guidelines from 1986 are still valid, though several guidelines are less important because they relate to design elements that are rarely used today.” Jakob Nielsen (January 17, 2005) Durability of Usability Guidelines © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  11. 11. Ray Kurzweil, futurist and entrepreneur, considers pattern recognition so important that in his 2013 book, How to Create a Mind, he argued that pattern recognition and intelligence are essentially the same thing Importance of UX Patterns © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  12. 12. Golden Rules of UX Design 3 major areas: • Place users in control • Reduce user’s memory load • Make the experience consistent See my SlideShare Presentation © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  13. 13. Place Users in Control Modeless Flexible Interruptible Helpful Forgiving Navigable Accessible Facilitative Preferences Interactive © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  14. 14. Place Users in Control – Flexible Planes Trains Automobiles © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  15. 15. Place Users in Control – Flexible Customers / Cashier want to order in any order! © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  16. 16. Place Users in Control – Accessible © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  17. 17. Place Users in Control – Accessible © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  18. 18. Reduce Users’ Memory Load Remember Recognition Inform Forgiving Frequency Intuitive Transfer Context Organize © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  19. 19. Reduce Users’ Memory Load – Recognition Recall is difficult Recognition is easier © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  20. 20. Reduce Users’ Memory Load – Inform Users should always be able to answer these four questions: Who I am? (Login info) Where can I go? Where have I been? Where I am? © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  21. 21. Reduce Users’ Memory Load – Context Progressive Disclosure! © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  22. 22. Make the User Experience Consistent Continuity Experience Expectation Attitude Predictable © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  23. 23. Make the User Experience Consistent? Don Norman – Affordances (1988) © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  24. 24. Make the experience consistent Make the User Experience Consistent?? © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  25. 25. Make the User Experience Consistent? © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  26. 26. Using UX for Good Persuasive Design Evil Design & Dark Patterns© 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  27. 27. Persuasive Design B.J. Fogg – Founder, Persuasive Technology Lab, Stanford University © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  28. 28. Fogg Behavior Model © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  29. 29. When 2 elements converge, likeliness increases Fogg Behavior Model © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  30. 30. When 3 elements converge, Behavior happens Fogg Behavior Model © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  31. 31. 8-Step Persuasive Design Process 1st four steps can be worked on in various order, not necessarily sequential © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  32. 32. Key: Test & iterate quickly! © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD 8-Step Persuasive Design Process
  33. 33. Persuasive Design Example 1. Choose a simple behavior to target © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  34. 34. Persuasive Design Example 2. Choose a receptive audience © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  35. 35. Persuasive Design Example 3. Find what is preventing the target behavior © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  36. 36. Persuasive Design Example 4. Choose an appropriate technology channel Textual Physical © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  37. 37. Persuasive Design Example 5. Find relevant examples of persuasive technology © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  38. 38. Persuasive Design Example 6. Imitate successful examples © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  39. 39. Persuasive Design Example Spillage rates dropped 80%!! 7. Test & iterate quickly © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  40. 40. Persuasive Design Example 8. Expand on success © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  41. 41. Persuasive Design – Consumer Options Triggers – Middle Options: Overpriced top-tier option makes users feel the middle product is a bargain. © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  42. 42. Persuasive Design – Real World Motivation? Ability? Trigger!! © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  43. 43. Desired behavior takes place when Motivation, Ability and Triggers converge (B=MAT) In order to boost conversion you need to: • Help people do what they already want to do (Motivation) • Tap into the right motivators (money, status, rewards, etc.) • Make taking action as easy as possible (Ability) • Focus on simplification (KISS) • GOAL: Put hot triggers on the path of motivated, able people Persuasive Design – Takeaways © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  44. 44. Obsess about triggers – your business depends on them • Don’t be afraid to use triggers – a trigger is not a nag – you’re helping users. • If you trigger then when they lack ability, they’ll get frustrated • If you trigger people when they don’t have motivation (e.g. asking people to shop for Christmas presents in June), you’re annoying them • Ultimately, if you trigger people at the right time, in the right way, they will thank you! Fogg’s Behavior Wizard – www.behaviorwizard.org Persuasive Design – Takeaways © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  45. 45. Human Factors International (HFI) PET Methodology is based on social psychology, existing marketing principles and research on how users interact with information • Persuasion: Principles used to encourage or discourage a users behavior during a process • Emotion: Principles used to encourage any emotional response during a process such as achievement, empathy or surprise • Trust: Principles used to establish confidence during a process, for example: confidence, security and credibility Persuasion, Emotion and Trust (PET) © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  46. 46. Persuasion, Emotion and Trust © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  47. 47. © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD Persuasion, Emotion and Trust
  48. 48. Using UX for Good Persuasive Design Evil Design & Dark Patterns© 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  49. 49. Using UX for Evil • Make users do things they don’t know they’ve done or they don’t want to do • Poor design is not intentionally deceptive, but dark UX design is!! • Dark Patterns – producing user interfaces using UX techniques designed precisely to trick people © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  50. 50. © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  51. 51. • Pride • Sloth • Gluttony • Anger • Envy • Lust • Greed EvilByDesign.info Seven Deadly Sins (chapter on each sin) © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  52. 52. Envy 1. Examples Kickstarter – business model is making people feel ownership before they’ve bought a product, or indeed, even before it’s even been made. You pledge money and become a backer of a proposed creative project. Obviously, if the project doesn’t meet funding goals you aren’t billed. If you want the product, it’s in your best interest to persuade as many other people as you can that they too should get involved 2. Principles In his book Emotional Design, Don Norman states that we are much more emotionally attached to products for which we feel some involvement. This is true even before we own the product. Clever sites invite us in and make us feel like a member of the family before we even part with our cash 3. How to encourage ownership before purchase • Show people how your product will apply to their lives so that they get excited and remain excited about it through the pre-purchase phase. • For products that have yet to be released, provide frequent status updates, teases and reveals (“leaks”). However, never over-promise! • AND MORE… © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  53. 53. Dark Patterns – DarkPatterns.org © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  54. 54. Dark Patterns – Examples • Interfaces easy to get in, hard to get out of • Free trials/subscriptions aren’t easy to cancel • Hidden costs added on at the end of process • Trick questions/deceptive form design • Text effects & text contrast © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  55. 55. Easy to Get In, Hard to Get Out How do users log out? © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  56. 56. Easy to Get In, Hard to Get Out How do users log out? © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  57. 57. Easy to Get In, Hard to Get Out © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  58. 58. Free Trials that aren’t Easy to Cancel © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  59. 59. Free Trials that aren’t Easy to Cancel © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  60. 60. Free Trials that aren’t Easy to Cancel © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  61. 61. Free Trials that aren’t Easy to Cancel © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  62. 62. 2010 $27.00 $44.95 Persuasive techniques: emotion & motivation © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD Hidden Costs at End of Process
  63. 63. Hidden Costs at End of Process 0$27.00 $40.20 $44.95 Ticketmaster’s CEO, Nathan Hubbard – “You don’t like service fees.” You just want to know UP FRONT in the buying process how much of your hard earned money you are being asked to pay for a given seat. The problem is historically we haven’t told you how much you have to pay for a given seat until very late in the buying process. Our data tells us this angers many of you to the point that you abandon your purchase once you see the total cost, and that you don’t come back. The data also says (and this is the important piece) that if we had told you up front what the total cost was, you would have bought the ticket! So by perpetuating this antiquated fee presentation, fans are getting upset, while we and our clients are losing ticket sales. © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  64. 64. The “New” Ticketmaster © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  65. 65. The “New” Ticketmaster © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  66. 66. Upsell! © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  67. 67. More Upsell! © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  68. 68. Even More Upsell!! © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  69. 69. Finally – Hidden Cost © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  70. 70. Then, Even More Upsell! © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  71. 71. Trick Questions / Form Design © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  72. 72. Text Effects – Reading Difficulty • Small fonts • All capital letters • Poor contrast • Text as graphic © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  73. 73. Text Contrast – ContrastRebellion.com © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  74. 74. Persuasive Design vs. Evil Design • Persuasion • Marketing tactics • Open & transparent • Upfront about intent • “Nudging” • Manipulation/Coercion • Deceptive/Fraudulent • Disregards users’ interests • Hidden information / devious intent • “Shoving” Persuasive Design Evil Design © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  75. 75. “Two-thirds of shoppers are unhappy with their online customer experience” • Research reveals shoppers’ frustrations with e-commerce, as 40% of UK consumers bemoan the difficulty of buying on mobile (Information Age, February 16, 2015) • This poor experience could explain why over a third (36%) of UK consumers say they don’t plan to make any purchases from mobile devices this year Online Consumer Experience © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  76. 76. • Consumer confidence is essential to the growth of online commerce. The Internet must provide consumers with clear, accurate information and give sellers an opportunity to fairly compete with one another for consumers’ business • Investigation by the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation found abundant evidence that aggressive sales tactics companies use against their online customers undermine consumer confidence in the Internet and thereby harm the American economy Online Consumer Experience © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  77. 77. Complexity of Privacy Statements © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  78. 78. So, what is being done to guard against Evil design on the Web and to protect consumers? © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  79. 79. Federal Trade Commission © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  80. 80. FTC .Com Disclosures (2013) • Original guidelines released in 2000 • Updated advertising guidelines take into account challenges created by rapid growth of mobile and online advertising platforms, particularly small screen size and other space constraints • New FTC guidelines seek to help businesses apply many of the same principles to modern technologies and marketing channels www.FTC.gov (53-page document) © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  81. 81. FTC Effectiveness Factors – 4 P’s Clear and Conspicuous Requirements 1. Prominence: whether the qualifying information is prominent enough for consumers to notice it and read (or hear) it 2. Presentation: whether the qualifying information is presented in easy to-understand language that does not contradict other things said in the ad and is presented at a time when consumers’ attention is not distracted elsewhere 3. Placement: whether the qualifying information is located in a place and conveyed in a format that consumers will read (or hear) 4. Proximity: whether the qualifying information is located in close proximity to the claim being qualified © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  82. 82. Effectiveness Factors – Proximity Good Bad © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  83. 83. © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD Effectiveness Factors – Proximity, Placement
  84. 84. © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD Effectiveness Factors – Placement, Presentation
  85. 85. 4 © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD Effectiveness Factors – Placement, Presentation
  86. 86. FTC ROSCA Restore Online Shoppers’ Confidence Act (2010): • Focus on 3rd party sellers who use a free trial period to enroll members, after which they periodically charge consumers until consumers affirmatively canceled the memberships. • Use of ‘‘free-to-pay conversion’’ and ‘‘negative option’’ sales that takes advantage of consumers’ expectations that they have an opportunity to accept or reject the membership club offer at the end of the trial period. © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  87. 87. FTC ROSCA NO NEGATIVE OPTIONS, unless: 1. Provide text that clearly and conspicuously discloses all material terms of the transaction before obtaining the consumer’s billing information 2. Obtain consumer’s express informed consent before charging consumer’s credit card, debit card, bank account, or other financial account for products or services through the transaction 3. Provide simple mechanisms for a consumer to stop recurring charges from being placed on the consumer’s credit card, debit card, bank account, or other financial account © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  88. 88. FTC ROSCA – Good Example © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  89. 89. FTC ROSCA – Good Example © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  90. 90. EU Consumer Rights Directive • European Union law (June 2014) Law applies to anyone selling goods, services, or digital products online and offline. • "Web Designer's Guide to the Consumer Rights Directive" book is written for website designers, web developers, site administrators, and e- commerce managers to teach them how to make websites compliant. © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  91. 91. EU Consumer Rights Directive © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  92. 92. Where to go for more information on these topics © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  93. 93. • Usability.gov – Research-based guidelines • Mandel “Golden Rules” presentations (SlideShare) • UI-Patterns.com – UI patterns • Mobile UX: Patterns to Make Sense of it All (book) • Yahoo Design Pattern Library (+ list of patterns) • Apple IOS Human Interface Guidelines • Nielsen’s Usability Heuristics Podcast – Part 1 www.designreviewpodcast.com/02/10/2015/episode-16-nielsens-usability- heuristics-part-1/ • Nielsen’s Usability Heuristics Podcast – Part 2 www.designreviewpodcast.com/02/25/2015/episode-17-nielsens-usability- heuristics-part-2/ References – “Good Design” © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  94. 94. • BJ Fogg – BJFogg.com, FoggMethod.com • Stanford Persuasive Tech Lab • Persuasion, Emotion, Trust Methodology, HFI • Changing Behavior through Persuasive Design (Matt Danna, 2014 SlideShare) • How to Get People to Do Stuff (Susan Weinschenk, 2013 book) • Designing for Behavior Change: Applying Psychology and Behavioral Economics (Stephen Wendel, 2013 book) • Mobile Persuasion Design (Aaron Marcus, 2015 book) References – Persuasive Design © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  95. 95. • Evil by Design: Interaction Design to lead us into Temptation (Chris Nodder, 2013 book) • Evil by Design – EvilbyDesign.info • Dark Patterns – DarkPatterns.org Government Consumer Rights Efforts • FTC .Com Disclosures • FTC Restoring Online Shoppers Confidence Act • EU Consumer Rights Directive References – Evil Design, Dark Patterns © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  96. 96. Are you a UX Design Super Villain? © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  97. 97. UX Villains = Unhappy Users © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  98. 98. Or, are you UX Design Super Heroes? © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  99. 99. UX Super Heroes = Happy Users © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  100. 100. Thank You! © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD
  101. 101. theo@theomandel.com www.theomandel.com linkedin.com/in/theomandel theomandel Questions? Presentation will be available on SlideShare, from the conference, or contact me directly © 2015 Theo Mandel, PhD

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