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Less is more: an
empirical investigation
of the relationship
between the amount
of digital content and
user engagement
Nim...
How to be
interesting?
A content-based
approach for user
engagement
INTRODUCTION
3
Experience
Nim Dvir
Ndvir@albany.edu
Personal Page |
www.albany.edu/~nd115232/
Research & Teaching Assistan...
Quick experiment #1:
Please choose one
4
Quick experiment #1:
Please choose one
27,083 unique visitors
42%29%
users who had less
information were more
inclined to ...
IDENTIFICATION OF
ZOMBIE HOMES USING
SYSTEM DYNAMICS
END OF THE LIBRARY:
ORGANIZED
INFORMATION AND
DIGITAL UBIQUITY
DEATH ...
IDENTIFICATION OF ZOMBIE
HOMES USING SYSTEM
DYNAMICS
END OF THE LIBRARY:
ORGANIZED INFORMATION
AND DIGITAL UBIQUITY
DEATH ...
IDENTIFICATION OF ZOMBIE
HOMES USING SYSTEM
DYNAMICS
END OF THE LIBRARY:
ORGANIZED INFORMATION
AND DIGITAL UBIQUITY
DEATH ...
WHAT DOES THIS STUDIES HAVE IN COMMON?
Content strategy
9
WHAT IS CONTENT STRATEGY?
•Information → Interaction → Reaction
•Three C’s
10
Content ConsequenceContext
Independent varia...
OBJECTIVES
•Develop a precise criteria to allow
quantitative evaluation and
operational formulation
•Suggest a unified, ge...
Introduction and Scope:
Question: How digital content influence user engagement
Aim: Develop a framework for systematic ev...
13
LITERATURE
REVIEW
What we know
and what we need to
know
RELEVANCE
14
93% of Americans report of
consuming information online,
either via a mobile device or a
computer (Stocking, ...
CHALLENGES
1. Increased competition
substantial increase in online information, published by
commercial businesses, govern...
Information interactions are
becoming highly asymmetrical
16
Only a small portion of information
receives significant atte...
PROBLEM
•Current research is design-focused
•Lack of agreement or
standarization
○Definitions
○Theoretical and operational...
OBJECTIVES
Critical review of
1. Established theories and
prior research
2. Conceptual models of UX
3. Determinants, attri...
19
CONTENT STRATEGY THEORY
Aims to provide a
conceptualization that is
applicable across a range
of situations
(Brodie et ...
METHODOLOGY
1. Interdisciplinarity approach
Draws well-established theoretical
frameworks from a number of domains:
Inform...
DOMAINS
• Information systems
• Effective informing influences users to take
desirable actions
• Means – end theory
• Prov...
INTERDISCIPLINARY SYNTHESIS
22
Domain Information systems Psychology HCI
Unitof
analysis
System User Interaction
Focus
Ado...
ENGAGEMENT
1.A state of emotional
involvement or
commitment
2.Process of drawing
favorable attention
and interest
(Merriam...
USER ENGAGEMENT IS
EVERYWHERE
24
Shane Smith, co-founder and CEO
of VICE.com (“The Engagement
Project,” Google)
“Engagement is the most
important thing. Wh...
ENGAGEMENT
IS
CONSIDERED A
DESIRABLE
GOAL
26
Healthy
participation in
the political
process
Civic
Positive consumer
relati...
WHAT IS USER
ENGAGEMENT (UE)?
1. Users’ level of involvement or
investment in Information and
communication technologies (...
THE USER ENGAGEMENT SCALE (UES)
28
Endurability
Perceived
usability
Focused
attention &
Felt
involvement
Novelty &
Aesthet...
UE DETERMINANTS
29
Task and
contexts
• Organizational/social setting
• Meaningfulness of the activity
• Voluntariness of u...
GAP ANALYSIS
• Theoretical
• Content is not well situated in
current theory
• The UE process model does not
emphasize cont...
FIELD
STUDIES
-
31
OVERVIEW
• Empirically test a functional relationship between content
variables (independent) and engagement variables
(de...
Experiment 1
33
Less is More: An
empirical investigation
of the relationship
between the amount
of digital content and
use...
INTRODUCTION
● Objective: Study user engagement
through the provision of information
● Specifically, an empirical investig...
PROBLEM
Risk
• Uncertainty
• Trust and Credibility
• Potential value
• Relevance and usefulness
• Quality
Complexity
• Eff...
ELABORATION (MORE
INFORMATION)
• Cialdini, R. B., & Goldstein, N. J.
(2002). The science and
practice of persuasion.
• Bri...
METHOD
a between-subjects design and
A/B testing.
• Created two versions of landing
pages:
•Control - Detailed information...
MESSAGE MATCHING
•Message Matching is the idea of
matching the pre-click message to the
post-click message on the landing
...
DATA COLLECTION
●participants (n= 535 and n= 27,900)
were recruited using online
advertising (Google Adwords)
● Online ran...
PILOT STUDY (N= 535)
Conversion results
40
EXPANDED EXPERIMENTS
New York
Atlanta
Miami
Los Angeles
National
27,083 unique visitors
41
EXPANDED EXPERIMENTS
42%29%
users who had less information were more
inclined to provide their data.
42
FINDINGS
Location
PAGE
VARIANT
TOTAL
UNIQUE
VISITORS
CONVERSIO
NS
CONVERSION
RATE
t
National
“A” (Long) 5497 1405 26%
-6.6...
Short
Long
The shorter landing
pages had
significantly higher
conversion rates
across all
locations and
times.
44
DISCUSSION
1. Information impact behavior
• Paradoxical relationship between the increased level of
information and online...
Experiment 2
"Sticky" words:
Improving user engagement using
automatic lexical substitution
Introduction
● Objective: influence user engagement by systematically
changing just one word on the interface
● Identify e...
Method
Operationalized based on three key attributes of “sticky words”.
Novelty - Out-of-context, Low frequency (distincti...
METHODOLOGY
49
Derive a list of
potential Sticky
Words from
IMDB.com (the
Internet
Movie Database)
Classify based
on polar...
METHODOLOGY
50
A baseline prototype to operationalize the
process using the Natural Language Toolkit
(NLTK) and the WordNe...
51
Identification of zombie homes using system dynamics
1
2
3
4
5
End of the library: Organized information and digital ub...
DATA
COLLECTION Apilotstudy
(Qualtrics.com)
One-way Two-group design
- two variations of the same
titles (one change per t...
33%
49%
37%
64%
30%
76%
24%
70%
41%
65%
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%
Be an exemplar: Effective civic engagement
thro...
1.33
3.49
2.37
3.64
1.30
3.76
1.24
4.70
2.41
3.65
1.08
4.96
2.11
4.67
1.97
4.62
1.43
4.27
1.36
3.77
1.76
3.17
1.05
3.25
1....
55Information retention
data love sex
governm
ent
hero hiv zombie homes library cancer
Freq 8 8 10 12 12 12 12 16 17 32
8 8
10
12 12 12 12
16
17
3...
SIGNIFICANCE
• Setting criteria for effective (engaging) content
strategy (message) is relevant to various domains
(Commun...
•Introduction and Scope:
•Question: How digital content influence user engagement
•Aim: Develop a framework for systematic...
QUESTIONS?
59
Nim Dvir
ndvir@Albany.e
du
@nimdvir
University at
Albany
State
University of
New York
(SUNY)
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Less is More: An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship Between Amount of ‎Digital Content and User Engagement

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Does more information elicit users’ compliance and engagement, or the other way around?
This paper explores the relationship between content strategy and user experience (UX). Specifically, we examine how the amount of information provided on marketing web pages, often called “landing pages,” impact users’ willingness to provide their e-mail address (a behavior called “conversion” in marketing terms). We describe the results of two large-scale online experiments (n= 535 and n= 27,900) conducted in real-world commercial settings. The observed results indicate a negative correlation between the amount of information on a web page and users’ decision-making and engagement.

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Less is More: An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship Between Amount of ‎Digital Content and User Engagement

  1. 1. Less is more: an empirical investigation of the relationship between the amount of digital content and user engagement Nim Dvir ndvir@Albany.edu @nimdvir University at Albany State University of New York (SUNY) 1
  2. 2. How to be interesting? A content-based approach for user engagement
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION 3 Experience Nim Dvir Ndvir@albany.edu Personal Page | www.albany.edu/~nd115232/ Research & Teaching Assistant State University of New York at Albany Operation Manager ClaimFame.com Project Manager The Jewish Agency for Israel Editor, Journalist Pnai Plus, Ynet, Erev Tov Education P h D Information Science Human-Computer Interaction SUNY Albany M B A Information Systems Marketing City University of New York B A International Relations Communication New York University
  4. 4. Quick experiment #1: Please choose one 4
  5. 5. Quick experiment #1: Please choose one 27,083 unique visitors 42%29% users who had less information were more inclined to provide their data 5
  6. 6. IDENTIFICATION OF ZOMBIE HOMES USING SYSTEM DYNAMICS END OF THE LIBRARY: ORGANIZED INFORMATION AND DIGITAL UBIQUITY DEATH OF LIBRARY: ORGANIZED INFORMATION AND DIGITAL UBIQUITY IDENTIFICATION OF VACANT HOMES USING SYSTEM DYNAMICS Quick experiment #2: Please choose one 6
  7. 7. IDENTIFICATION OF ZOMBIE HOMES USING SYSTEM DYNAMICS END OF THE LIBRARY: ORGANIZED INFORMATION AND DIGITAL UBIQUITY DEATH OF LIBRARY: ORGANIZED INFORMATION AND DIGITAL UBIQUITY IDENTIFICATION OF VACANT HOMES USING SYSTEM DYNAMICS 41% 30% 65% 76% Vacant vs. zombie homes End of the library vs. Death of library n = 405 7
  8. 8. IDENTIFICATION OF ZOMBIE HOMES USING SYSTEM DYNAMICS END OF THE LIBRARY: ORGANIZED INFORMATION AND DIGITAL UBIQUITY DEATH OF LIBRARY: ORGANIZED INFORMATION AND DIGITAL UBIQUITY IDENTIFICATION OF VACANT HOMES USING SYSTEM DYNAMICS 1.30 3.76 2.41 3.65 1.97 4.62 1.36 3.77 1.25 4.39 2.28 4.44 1.53 4.70 2.62 3.36 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 End of the library: Adaptable organized information and digital ubiquity Death of library: adaptable organized information and digital ubiquity Identifying vacant homes using system dynamics Identifying zombie homes using system dynamics This article is interesting I believe that reading this article is worthwhile This article is easy to understand This article is appealing, I wish to read more 8
  9. 9. WHAT DOES THIS STUDIES HAVE IN COMMON? Content strategy 9
  10. 10. WHAT IS CONTENT STRATEGY? •Information → Interaction → Reaction •Three C’s 10 Content ConsequenceContext Independent variable effect Dependent variable
  11. 11. OBJECTIVES •Develop a precise criteria to allow quantitative evaluation and operational formulation •Suggest a unified, generalized and overarching principles and models (“heuristics”) •Test the heuristics empirically across domains and applications •Examine the possibility to use the heuristic for methodological, automatic or semi-automatic creation 11
  12. 12. Introduction and Scope: Question: How digital content influence user engagement Aim: Develop a framework for systematic evaluation, optimization, and creation of engaging content Litrature review - Theoretical Foundations ● Definitions of digital content and user engagement ● Original process-based model ● Characteristics / Determinants Field experiments Less is more - An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship Between Amount of Digital Content and User Engagement Sticky words - Automation, using Lexical substitution is the task of NLP to increase engagement identifying a substitute for a word in the context of a clause Developing Framework Content Strategy, Heuristic evaluation Theory Methodology Practice
  13. 13. 13 LITERATURE REVIEW What we know and what we need to know
  14. 14. RELEVANCE 14 93% of Americans report of consuming information online, either via a mobile device or a computer (Stocking, 2017) 79% of U.S. adults reported ever making an online purchase, spending nearly $350 billion annually (Smith, 2017) 80% of Americans have used at least one online government service (Im, Porumbescu, & Lee, 2013) 71% of Americans report looking online for health information (Rock Health, 2015) The use of ICT has increased radically
  15. 15. CHALLENGES 1. Increased competition substantial increase in online information, published by commercial businesses, governments, healthcare organizations, and private citizens, lead to billions of Web pages published (Lucian, 2014) 2. Information overload and limited attention Encounters with massive amounts of potentially relevant information limit cognitive abilities. As more web content becomes available user attention stretches even thinner across the online space, making it possible only for a small percentage to receive significant traffic (Arapakis, Cambazoglu, & Lalmas, 2017) 15
  16. 16. Information interactions are becoming highly asymmetrical 16 Only a small portion of information receives significant attention, while the remaining majority is barely noticed (Szabo & Huberman, 2008) From the information that is noticed, less than a third is read by users (Nielsen, 2015)
  17. 17. PROBLEM •Current research is design-focused •Lack of agreement or standarization ○Definitions ○Theoretical and operational Frameworks ○Characteristics ○Measurement metrics ○Automation 17
  18. 18. OBJECTIVES Critical review of 1. Established theories and prior research 2. Conceptual models of UX 3. Determinants, attributes and outcomes of UE in various domains 18 User InteractionSystem
  19. 19. 19 CONTENT STRATEGY THEORY Aims to provide a conceptualization that is applicable across a range of situations (Brodie et al., 2013) Theory is in its infancy, therefore Integrates knowledge and methods from different disciplines (Boyle et al., 2012; O’Brien & Cairns, 2016) Includes adoption and usage of technology, the feeling when using the technology and the motivation to use it (O’Brien et al., 2018; Perski et al., 2017)
  20. 20. METHODOLOGY 1. Interdisciplinarity approach Draws well-established theoretical frameworks from a number of domains: Information Systems (IS) - The system and its usage Psychology and Behavioral Sciences – The users and their motivations Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) – The interaction between system and users 2. Domain research Online news, E-commerce and marketing, Digital games, Social media, online information search, Digital, Public policy and Education / eLearning 20 User Interaction System
  21. 21. DOMAINS • Information systems • Effective informing influences users to take desirable actions • Means – end theory • Provision of information is a central construct in the IS discipline. • Behavioral economics • Digital nudging – Approach to how changes to the decision environment influence choices • Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) • User interface (UI) and UX design • User engagement IS BE HCI 21
  22. 22. INTERDISCIPLINARY SYNTHESIS 22 Domain Information systems Psychology HCI Unitof analysis System User Interaction Focus Adoption and usage Motivation and inherent drives Subjective experience Theories • Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) • The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) • The information systems success model • Means end • Self-Determination Theory (SDT) • Uses and gratifications theory (UGT) • Flow theory • Play theory • Aesthetic Experience theory Determinants • Objective, performance-based and pragmatic • Effectiveness, efficiency, perceived ease of use, and satisfaction • Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations • Cognitive, social and personal needs and gratifications • Utilitarian and hedonic benefits • Subjective, experience- based • Voluntary, focused attention, intrinsic interest and enjoyment ,rewarding and stimulating, and temporal dissociation
  23. 23. ENGAGEMENT 1.A state of emotional involvement or commitment 2.Process of drawing favorable attention and interest (Merriam-Webster dictionary) 23
  24. 24. USER ENGAGEMENT IS EVERYWHERE 24
  25. 25. Shane Smith, co-founder and CEO of VICE.com (“The Engagement Project,” Google) “Engagement is the most important thing. Who cares about hits? Who cares about pageviews? You care about a user being engaged for a duration of time — not just to monetize, but because it’s a good user experience ” 25
  26. 26. ENGAGEMENT IS CONSIDERED A DESIRABLE GOAL 26 Healthy participation in the political process Civic Positive consumer relationships with a company or a brand Consumer Participation in learning experiences Education
  27. 27. WHAT IS USER ENGAGEMENT (UE)? 1. Users’ level of involvement or investment in Information and communication technologies (ICT) 2. Characterized by time, attention, interest and emotion 3. The quality of the user experience (UX) and the depth of the interaction 4. Associated with being captivated by technology and so being motivated to use it 27
  28. 28. THE USER ENGAGEMENT SCALE (UES) 28 Endurability Perceived usability Focused attention & Felt involvement Novelty & Aesthetic appeal Attribute-based approach for evaluating engaging outcomes with a technology. Taps into six dimensions of experience: Novelty and aesthetics reflect users’ attraction to the media system or interface, focused attention and felt involvement capture cognitive and emotional focus on media content, and the endurability of system use represents evaluations of success and voluntary participation to recommend the website to others.
  29. 29. UE DETERMINANTS 29 Task and contexts • Organizational/social setting • Meaningfulness of the activity • Voluntariness of use User • Internal state • Predispositions • Expectations, needs and motivation • Interest System • Complexity, purpose, usability, functionality, etc. • Characteristics and features. • Interface (design and content) Content An important determinant of UE when interacting with ICT
  30. 30. GAP ANALYSIS • Theoretical • Content is not well situated in current theory • The UE process model does not emphasize content; Rather, it focused primarily on the characteristics of the system and how these were perceived and acted upon by users. • O’Brien et al. ( 2016) suggested that the user engagement framework be broadened to incorporate content • Empirical • Content and its attributes are not thoroughly explored as a determinant of UE. (O’Brien, 2011) • Practical • Despite its importance, there are no clear methodologies for creating engaging content. • Current research is focused on identifying and evaluating UE, but not on the actual development of engaging experiences. • Designing for engaging experiences is an oft-cited goal of interactive system development in many disciplines, yet there are no guidelines to create UE 30
  31. 31. FIELD STUDIES - 31
  32. 32. OVERVIEW • Empirically test a functional relationship between content variables (independent) and engagement variables (dependent) • Variables - Operational definitions, isolate one independent variable, Control of extraneous variables • Field experiments - the environment (field) is manipulated in a controlled way • Between-group design - two groups of subjects each being tested simultaneously (between-subjects)
  33. 33. Experiment 1 33 Less is More: An empirical investigation of the relationship between the amount of digital content and user engagement
  34. 34. INTRODUCTION ● Objective: Study user engagement through the provision of information ● Specifically, an empirical investigation of how the amount of content provided on marketing web pages (often called “landing pages”) impact users’ willingness to provide their e-mail address (“conversion”) ● Pre-test (n= 535) and a large-scale field experiment (n= 27,900) conducted in real-world commercial settings 34
  35. 35. PROBLEM Risk • Uncertainty • Trust and Credibility • Potential value • Relevance and usefulness • Quality Complexity • Effort • Ease of use • Cognitive Load and Limited Attention • Curiosity 35 A pertinent debate among scholars and practitioners relate to the question of information amount: Does more information elicit compliance and engagement, or the other way around?
  36. 36. ELABORATION (MORE INFORMATION) • Cialdini, R. B., & Goldstein, N. J. (2002). The science and practice of persuasion. • Brian J. Fogg. (2013). The Web Credibility Project: Guidelines. Stanford University • Eisingerich, A. B., & Kretschmer, T. (2008). In E-Commerce, More Is More. Harvard Business Review Brevity (less information) • Norton, M. I., Frost, J. H., & Ariely, D. (2007). Less is more: The lure of ambiguity, or why familiarity breeds contempt. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, • Alter, A. L., & Oppenheimer, D. M. (2009). Uniting the Tribes of Fluency to Form a Metacognitive Nation. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13(3), 219–235. • Song, H., & Schwarz, N. (2010). If it’s easy to read, it’s easy to do, pretty, good, and true. Psychologist. 36
  37. 37. METHOD a between-subjects design and A/B testing. • Created two versions of landing pages: •Control - Detailed information •Treatment – no information •Task (observed outcome) - form prompting the users to sign-up for a newsletter by providing their e-mail address (“conversion”) Usefulness Trust Potential value Quality 37
  38. 38. MESSAGE MATCHING •Message Matching is the idea of matching the pre-click message to the post-click message on the landing page. •The goal of message matching is to create a landing page that directs individuals to a page on a product or subject they are expecting. 38
  39. 39. DATA COLLECTION ●participants (n= 535 and n= 27,900) were recruited using online advertising (Google Adwords) ● Online randomized experiments (also called A/B tests, split tests) - Using Unbounce.com. ●Participants were randomly directed to one of the variants. ● Relevant usage metrics, such as response rate (called “conversion rate”), location, and visit time were recorded. 39
  40. 40. PILOT STUDY (N= 535) Conversion results 40
  41. 41. EXPANDED EXPERIMENTS New York Atlanta Miami Los Angeles National 27,083 unique visitors 41
  42. 42. EXPANDED EXPERIMENTS 42%29% users who had less information were more inclined to provide their data. 42
  43. 43. FINDINGS Location PAGE VARIANT TOTAL UNIQUE VISITORS CONVERSIO NS CONVERSION RATE t National “A” (Long) 5497 1405 26% -6.651** “B” (Short) 5494 1718 31% Atlanta “A” (Long) 3690 1231 33% - 14.560* *“B” (Short) 3688 1838 50% Miami “A” (Long) 1235 444 36% 2.470** “B” (Short) 1237 639 52% Los Angeles “A” (Long) 1945 529 27% - 13.817* *“B” (Short) 1948 937 48% New York “A” (Long) 1176 324 28% -8.946** “B” (Short) 1173 528 45% Total “A” (Long) 13543 3932 29% - 22.166* *“B” (Short) 13540 5660 42% Both 27,083 9,593 Conversion results demonstrate a negative correlation between the content amount and consumer behavior Significant advantage to the pages with less content (treatment) 43
  44. 44. Short Long The shorter landing pages had significantly higher conversion rates across all locations and times. 44
  45. 45. DISCUSSION 1. Information impact behavior • Paradoxical relationship between the increased level of information and online engagement • Users that did not have any information on the service, its value, or how their data will be used still tended to convert more. • By contrast, users who were provided with this information were less inclined to convert. 2. Contrary to previous work in offline contexts, not all engagement theories are effective online 3. While not enough to establish a linear relationship, results suggesting that “less is more” can go a long way in creating commercial value. 45
  46. 46. Experiment 2 "Sticky" words: Improving user engagement using automatic lexical substitution
  47. 47. Introduction ● Objective: influence user engagement by systematically changing just one word on the interface ● Identify engaging words (“sticky words”) based on pre-defined attributes ● such words are not "free-standing;" When strategically placed, they impact their surrounding context and create a more engaging user experience (UX) ● Lexical substitution is the task of identifying a substitute for a word in the context of a clause (using semantic analysis, natural language processing and a rule-based approach)
  48. 48. Method Operationalized based on three key attributes of “sticky words”. Novelty - Out-of-context, Low frequency (distinctiveness) in academic titles Familiarity - Popularity, High frequency on Imdb.com Emotional value – imdb.com, Sentiment Analysis Example: Identify Influential Factors of Abandoned Buildings Identify Influential Factors of Zombie Buildings
  49. 49. METHODOLOGY 49 Derive a list of potential Sticky Words from IMDB.com (the Internet Movie Database) Classify based on polarity using sentiment analysis analyze academic titles to find and replace synonyms
  50. 50. METHODOLOGY 50 A baseline prototype to operationalize the process using the Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK) and the WordNet Interface. Derived a list of potential Sticky Words from IMDB.com keywords. Used Lexical substitution to revise academic titles. Goal: Automatic, systematic identification and replacement
  51. 51. 51 Identification of zombie homes using system dynamics 1 2 3 4 5 End of the library: Organized information and digital ubiquity Death of library: Organized information and digital ubiquity Should reproduction and adoration be related in HIV research? Should sex and love be related in HIV research? Identification of vacant homes using system dynamics Grappling cancer treatment using new types of treatment Be an exemplar: Effective civic engagement through open data and digital government Fighting cancer using new types of treatment Be an action hero: Effective civic engagement through open data and digital government
  52. 52. DATA COLLECTION Apilotstudy (Qualtrics.com) One-way Two-group design - two variations of the same titles (one change per title) Online user studies – college student (n=405) Randomized A/B test (between-subjects) Measured: Choice (awarness, attention) Affect (UES) Memorability 52
  53. 53. 33% 49% 37% 64% 30% 76% 24% 70% 41% 65% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Be an exemplar: Effective civic engagement through open data and digital government Be an action hero: Effective civic engagement through open data and… Grappling cancer treatment using new types of treatment Fighting cancer using new types of treatment End of the library: Adaptable organized information and digital ubiquity Death of library: adaptable organized information and digital ubiquity Should Reproduction and adoration be related in HIV research? Should sex and love be related in HIV research? Identifying vacant homes using system dynamics Identifying zombie homes using system dynamics 53
  54. 54. 1.33 3.49 2.37 3.64 1.30 3.76 1.24 4.70 2.41 3.65 1.08 4.96 2.11 4.67 1.97 4.62 1.43 4.27 1.36 3.77 1.76 3.17 1.05 3.25 1.25 4.39 1.66 3.27 2.28 4.44 1.89 4.30 1.63 4.91 1.53 4.70 1.74 4.25 2.62 3.36 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 Be an exemplar: Effective civic engagement through open data and digital government Be an action hero: Effective civic engagement through open data and digital government Grappling cancer treatment using new types of treatment Fighting cancer using new types of treatment End of the library: Adaptable organized information and digital ubiquity Death of library: adaptable organized information and digital ubiquity Should Reproduction and adoration be related in HIV research? Should sex and love be related in HIV research? Identifying vacant homes using system dynamics Identifying zombie homes using system dynamics This article is interesting I believe that reading this article is worthwhile This article is easy to understand This article is appealing, I wish to read more 54
  55. 55. 55Information retention
  56. 56. data love sex governm ent hero hiv zombie homes library cancer Freq 8 8 10 12 12 12 12 16 17 32 8 8 10 12 12 12 12 16 17 32 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 56
  57. 57. SIGNIFICANCE • Setting criteria for effective (engaging) content strategy (message) is relevant to various domains (Communications, Marketing, Information Science, Public Policy, Education…) • Methodological - Definitions of user engagement, an original process-based model, Identify determinants / characteristics that can be isolated and measured • Operational - Develop a framework for systematic evaluation, optimization, and creation of engaging content ➊ ➋ ➌
  58. 58. •Introduction and Scope: •Question: How digital content influence user engagement •Aim: Develop a framework for systematic evaluation, optimization, and creation of engaging content Litrature review - Theoretical Foundations ● Definitions of digital content and user engagement ● Original process-based model ● Characteristics / Determinants •Field experiments ● Less is more - amount of content ● Sticky words - Automation, using Lexical substitution is the task of NLP to increase engagement identifying a substitute for a word in the context of a clause Developing Framework ● Content Strategy, Heuristic evaluation
  59. 59. QUESTIONS? 59 Nim Dvir ndvir@Albany.e du @nimdvir University at Albany State University of New York (SUNY)

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