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Check(mate) Your Bias: A game-driven approach to educating your team about bias

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Dust off your dice, break out the game board, and get ready to check(mate) your bias! This talk covers how to leverage game play to highlight cognitive bias, how to foster a shared team understanding about bias, and how to see its impact on our work as UX practitioners. By recognizing our own cognitive biases, we can begin to see how our team’s internal biases can distort the perception of research data, design direction, and users.
We will provide an educator’s toolkit to teach your UX team about common cognitive biases using engaging, memorable game play. We will also discuss how these biases influence our work as user experience practitioners when it comes to design, research, and content. We will then provide recommendations on how to implement a cognitive bias game-based training practice in your user experience team or organization.

Game on!

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Check(mate) Your Bias: A game-driven approach to educating your team about bias

  1. 1. 1 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Let’s play a game! • Play alone or form a team. • Go to: quizizz.com/join/game- code • Enter code: 021619 021619
  2. 2. 2 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Thanks for playing! We’ll take a look at the results later…
  3. 3. Check(mate) Your Bias A games-driven approach Joe Johnson and Caron Garstka UXPA 2019
  4. 4. 4 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. JOE JOHNSON LEAD UX ENGINEER CARON GARSTKA SR. UX RESEARCHER WHO?
  5. 5. 5 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Agenda 1 / WHY 2 / WORK 3 / GAMES 4 / PLAY 5 / NEXT
  6. 6. 6 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. 6 WHY
  7. 7. 7 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. WE ARE ALL HUMAN. (IF NOT, THIS TALK ISN’T FOR YOU.) WHY
  8. 8. 8 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. COGNITIVE BIAS EFFECTS HUMANS.WHY
  9. 9. 9 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. What is cognitive bias? Systematic error in thinking that affects the decisions and judgments A cognitive tool Part of decision making Can be beneficial and useful Can distort our interpretation of the world
  10. 10. 10 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. 11 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. 1. WE ARE HUMAN… 2. HUMANS HAVE BIAS… 3. BIAS COLORS OUR WORLD… BECAUSE
  12. 12. 12 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. 12 WORK
  13. 13. 13 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. WE NEED TO RECOGNIZE OUR BIAS TO EFFECTIVELY DO OUR JOBS.
  14. 14. 14 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. WHEN YOU KNOW BETTER, YOU DO BETTER.
  15. 15. 15 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. BIAS IS HARD TO TALK ABOUT.
  16. 16. 16 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. HOW DO WE MAKE IT APPROACHABLE?
  17. 17. 17 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. GAMES!
  18. 18. 18 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Games… • An engaging learning tool • Non-threatening • Experiential • Emotional investment
  19. 19. 19 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. GAMES HELP US BETTER RECOGNIZE BIAS IN ACTION. AWARENESS IS THE FIRST STEP TOWARD CHANGE.
  20. 20. 20 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. 20 TIME FOR A GAME: THREE NUMBERS
  21. 21. 21 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. I’M GOING TO SHOW YOU THREE NUMBERS.
  22. 22. 22 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. I’M GOING TO SHOW YOU THREE NUMBERS. THESE NUMBERS FOLLOW A RULE I HAVE IN MY HEAD.
  23. 23. 23 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. YOUR ULTIMATE GOAL IS TO GUESS MY RULE.
  24. 24. 24 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. TO GET INFO ABOUT MY RULE, YOU’LL GIVE ME THREE NUMBERS YOU THINK FIT THE RULE.
  25. 25. 25 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. I’LL TELL YOU IF YOUR THREE NUMBERS FIT THE RULE.
  26. 26. 26 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. READY?
  27. 27. 27 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. THE NUMBERS ARE: 2, 4, 8 THINK ABOUT THE RULE… (DON’T SAY IT!)
  28. 28. 28 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. THE NUMBERS ARE: 2, 4, 8 GIVE THREE NUMBERS YOU THINK FIT THE RULE. (I’LL TELL IF THEY FIT THE RULE.)
  29. 29. 29 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. LET’S DISCUSS…
  30. 30. 30 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Anchoring Bias The tendency to rely too heavily on an initial piece of information.
  31. 31. 31 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Complexity Bias The tendency to believe that complex solutions are better than simple ones.
  32. 32. 32 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Confirmation Bias The tendency to find or use evidence in a way that confirms preexisting beliefs.
  33. 33. 33 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. • Takeaway 2: K.I.S.S. (Keep it simple, silly) • Takeaway 3: Point and counter point
  34. 34. 34 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. 34 TIME FOR ANOTHER GAME: GROUP ‘EM UP
  35. 35. 35 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. LET’S SAY YOU HAVE A CROWD OF PEOPLE.
  36. 36. 36 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. EACH PERSON IS WEARING A BADGE.
  37. 37. 37 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. BADGES CAN VARY BY SHAPE, COLOR, AND SIZE.
  38. 38. 38 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved.
  39. 39. 39 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. YOUR TASK IS TO FORM GROUPS.
  40. 40. 40 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. NOW FORM NEW GROUPS.
  41. 41. 41 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. ONE FINAL ROUND OF GROUPS
  42. 42. 42 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. THIS TIME, INCLUDE YOURSELF.
  43. 43. 43 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. LET’S DISCUSS…
  44. 44. 44 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Framing Effect When people make different choices based on how a decision is presented or interpreted.
  45. 45. 45 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Availability Heuristic The tendency to rely on immediate examples that come to mind when evaluating a decision.
  46. 46. 46 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Affinity Bias The unconscious tendency to get along with others who are like us.
  47. 47. 47 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. • Takeaway 1: Lift the veil, see beyond • Takeaway 2: What am I m_ss_ing? • Takeaway 3: Birds of a feather, dissent together
  48. 48. 48 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. 48 LAST GAME: LEG’GO OF MY LEGO
  49. 49. 49 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. LET’S SEE HOW THE LEGO SET IS SHAPING UP…
  50. 50. 50 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. NOW I NEED A SECOND VOLUNTEER.
  51. 51. 51 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. HERE ARE THE RULES…
  52. 52. 52 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. YOU’LL NAME THE HIGHEST PRICE YOU’RE WILLING TO PAY FOR THE LEGO SETS.
  53. 53. 53 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. I’VE PICKED A PRICE THAT REPRESENTS THE VALUE OF EACH SET. (I’LL REVEAL IT LATER.)
  54. 54. 54 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. IF YOUR PRICE IS EQUAL TO OR ABOVE MY PRICE, YOU’LL GET A PRIZE.
  55. 55. 55 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. IF YOUR PRICE IS BELOW MY PRICE, YOU’LL WALK AWAY WITH NOTHING.
  56. 56. 56 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. YOU’LL EACH GIVE A PRICE FOR YOUR LEGO SET AND YOUR PARTNER’S.
  57. 57. 57 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. READY?
  58. 58. 58 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. WRITE DOWN THE HIGHEST PRICE YOU’RE WILLING TO PAY FOR YOUR LEGO CREATION.
  59. 59. 59 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. WRITE DOWN THE HIGHEST PRICE YOU’RE WILLING TO PAY FOR YOUR PARTNER’S LEGO CREATION.
  60. 60. 60 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. WHAT DID YOU BID?
  61. 61. 61 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. NOW TIME FOR THE BIG REVEAL…
  62. 62. 62 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. $10.79!
  63. 63. 63 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. LET’S DISCUSS…
  64. 64. 64 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. IKEA Effect The tendency to place a disproportionately high value on the things you have helped create.
  65. 65. 65 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Sunk Cost Fallacy Tendency to make future decisions based on how much effort or resources have been put in previously.
  66. 66. 66 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. • Takeaway 1: If you build it… • Takeaway 2: Let it go
  67. 67. 67 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. 67 BIAS CHECKER QUIZ REVIEW
  68. 68. 68 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. LET’S REVISIT THE QUIZ
  69. 69. 69 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Revisit the Quiz What we Learn Answer (1) or (3) could indicate the Sunk Cost Fallacy at work. Depends on your reasons for keeping it!
  70. 70. 70 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Revisit the Quiz What we Learn “Yes” indicates a Confirmation Bias or Affinity Bias.
  71. 71. 71 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Revisit the Quiz What we Learn (1) may indicate Affinity Bias. (3) may be the best answer, where a diversity of views contributes to a rich creative process.
  72. 72. 72 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Revisit the Quiz What we Learn “Yes” indicates the Sunk Cost Fallacy.
  73. 73. 73 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Revisit the Quiz What we Learn (3) “Both” would be the balanced approach to avoid Confirmation Bias.
  74. 74. 74 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Revisit the Quiz What we Learn “Yes” may indicate an Availability Heuristic or an Anchoring Bias. Also the first idea might not be simple - think of Complexity Bias and the 2-4-8 game.
  75. 75. 75 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. HOW MANY OF YOU WANT TO CHANGE YOUR ANSWERS?
  76. 76. 76 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. 76 CONCLUSION
  77. 77. 77 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. GAME PLAY TO SHAPE EMPATHIC + DATA-DRIVEN CULTURE.
  78. 78. 78 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. THIS IS WHAT IT COULD LOOK LIKE IN THE REAL WORLD…
  79. 79. 79 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. NEXT • Rinse and repeat • Be open • Be kind • Game on!
  80. 80. 80 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. QUESTIONS?
  81. 81. 81 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Contact Us: Joe Johnson Joe_johnson@express-scripts.com Caron Garstka cegarstka@express-scripts.com
  82. 82. 82 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. APPENDIX
  83. 83. 83 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Cited resources These resources were directly incorporated in the presentation. • H. Arkes & C. Blumer. “The psychology of sunk costs.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. (1985) 35, 124- 140. • B. Benson. “Cognitive bias cheat sheet.” (2016): https://betterhumans.coach.me/cognitive-bias-cheat-sheet-55a472476b18 • J. Beshears, S. Frederick, and F. Gino “Test Yourself: Are You Being Tricked by Intuition?” Harvard Business Review. (2015): https://hbr.org/2015/04/test-yourself-are-you-being-tricked-by-intuition • T. Bradberry. “13 Cognitive Biases That Really Screw Things Up For You.” (2018): https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/13-cognitive- biases-really-screw-things-up-you-dr-travis-bradberry/ • S. Fowler. “Intercultural Simulation Games: A Review (of the United States and Beyond).” International Simulation and Gaming Association. (2010): https://doi.org/10.1177/1046878109352204 • M. Funchess. “Implicit Bias -- how it effects us and how we push through.” TEDxFlourCity. (2014): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fr8G7MtRNlk • E. Hall. “The 9 Rules of Design Research.” (2018): https://medium.com/mule-design/the-9-rules-of-design-research-1a273fdd1d3b • D. Kahneman. Thinking, Fast and Slow. (2011) • T. Keereepart. “3 design principles to help us overcome everyday bias.” TEDxPortland. (2016): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K6dstCUWsFY • R. F. Mackay. “Playing to learn: Panelists at Stanford discussion say using games as an educational tool provides opportunities for deeper learning.” (2013): https://news.stanford.edu/2013/03/01/games-education-tool-030113/ 0
  84. 84. 84 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Cited resources These resources were directly incorporated in the presentation. • F. Menzies. “ ‘A-Ha’ Activities for Unconscious Bias Training.” (2018): https://cultureplusconsulting.com/2018/08/16/a-ha-activities- for-unconscious-bias-training/ • M. I. Norton. “The Ikea Effect: When Labor Leads to Love.” (2012): http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:12136084 • K. Pressner. ”Are you biased? I am.” TEDxBasel. (2016): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bq_xYSOZrgU • J.B. Soll, K.L. Milkman, and J.W. Payne. “Outsmart your own biases.” Harvard Business Review. (2015): https://hbr.org/2015/05/outsmart-your-own-biases • D. Stirling. “Games As Educational Tools: Teaching Skills, Transforming Thoughts.” Infospace. (2013): https://ischool.syr.edu/infospace/2013/06/27/games-as-educational-tools-teaching-skills-transforming-thoughts/ • O.Svenson. “Are we all less risky and more skillful than our fellow drivers?” Acta Psychologica. (1981): https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0001691881900056?via%3Dihub • H. Turnball. “The Affinity Bias Conundrum: The Illusion of Inclusion Part III.” Diversity Journal. (2014): http://www.diversityjournal.com/13763-affinity-bias-conundrum-illusion-inclusion-part-iii/ • “Can You Solve This?.” Veritasium – YouTube.com. (2014): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vKA4w2O61Xo 0
  85. 85. 85 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. These resources were not quoted or directly used for our presentation, but present ideas and examples that influenced our thinking and offer valuable, interesting insights. • M. Hartmann. “Unpacking the biases that shape our beliefs.” TEDxStJohns. (2015): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dU7Mhne4CzU • N.A. Heflick. “We Are Blind to Our Own Biases.” Psychology Today. (2011): https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-big- questions/201102/we-are-blind-our-own-biases • C. Jager. “24 Cognitive Biases You Need To Stop Making [Infographic]” Lifehacker. (2018): https://www.lifehacker.com.au/2018/03/find-out-which-cognitive-biases-alter-your-perspective/ • T. Laurinavicius. “Cognitive Biases You Need to Master to Design Better Websites.” (2018): https://webdesign.tutsplus.com/articles/cognitive-biases-you-need-to-master-to-design-better-websites--cms-30742 • C. Ratcliff. “12 ways to fight bias in your team” Synopsys of #uxchat on Twitter, hosted by K. Bachmann. (2018): http://whatusersdo.com/blog/how-to-fight-bias-in-your-organisation-or-team/ • Mind Tools. “Avoiding Psychological Bias in Decision Making: How to Make Objective Decisions.” (2018): https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/avoiding-psychological-bias.htm • M. Simmons. “Studies Show That People Who Have High ‘Integrative Complexity’ Are More Likely To Be Successful.” (2018): https://medium.com/the-mission/studies-show-that-people-who-have-high-integrative-complexity-are-more-likely-to-be- successful-443480e8930c Additional resources 0
  86. 86. 86 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. ADDITIONAL QUIZ REVIEW
  87. 87. 87 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Revisit the Quiz What we Learn Statistically (2) is most likely. (3) Indicates a Conjunction Bias. The combination of two conditions being considered more likely than one condition.
  88. 88. 88 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Revisit the Quiz What we Learn “Yes” may indicate the Pollyanna Principle. Framing Bias may show up in the viewpoint “look at the bright side...”
  89. 89. 89 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Revisit the Quiz What we Learn “Yes” may indicate the Bandwagon Effect or simply Wishful Thinking.
  90. 90. 90 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Revisit the Quiz What we Learn “Yes” may indicate the Halo Effect or a Clustering Illusion.
  91. 91. 91 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Revisit the Quiz What we Learn “Yes” indicates the Sunk Cost Fallacy.
  92. 92. 92 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Revisit the Quiz What we Learn An answer of “Yes” indicates a Clustering Illusion or the Gambler’s Fallacy.
  93. 93. 93 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Revisit the Quiz What we Learn If “good chance” means more than 50-50, then “Yes” indicates a Clustering Illusion or the Gambler’s Fallacy. Assumes 50% independent probability of red vs green!
  94. 94. 94 © 2018 Express Scripts. All Rights Reserved. Revisit the Quiz What we Learn If more people answered (1) than (2) it indicates Illusory Superiority. 93% of drivers claim to be better than average! (Svenson)

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