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Agile ux fullday-uxpa2016


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In this tutorial for experienced practitioners you will learn how to manage work and make great experiences one sprint at a time. We'll look at common Agile methodologies such as Scrum and Kanban and what opportunities and risks are inherent for UX teams. We will look at team makeup, balancing longer-term research with production needs and strategies for making the most of design spikes. We'll also go through the pros and cons of a Sprint Zero and alternatives. We'll look at how Lean Startup practices are changing business development, and how your UX skills can be a key part in making that successful. Participants will come away with the tools they need to be successful in their Agile/Lean environment

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Agile ux fullday-uxpa2016

  1. 1. Making UX Agile and Lean UXPA 2016, Seattle, WA
  2. 2. Introductions • John • Thyra • Carol
  3. 3. Agile Basics
  4. 4. Agile is • Small teams • Making small pieces of work - “shippable increments” • Effective communication • Ideally co-located Original Via Spotify (original presentation not available). More at: and
  5. 5. Photo by Federico Bierti - We all need to be in the same boat… Test Developers Product Owner Sales Service Engineering Globalization User Experience Content Operations Marketing
  6. 6. Waterfall Define Design Build Test Deploy Months & Years Learn Learn Learn
  7. 7. Agile Test Deliverable Define & Design Build Weeks LearnLearn Learn Test Deliverable Define & Design Build Test Deliverable Define & Design Build
  8. 8. Agile History • February 2001: The Agile Manifesto written at Snowbird Ski Resort in Utah • Authors:14 male software engineers • Agile, as originally conceived, understood nothing of UCD or UX processes
  9. 9. Agile Manifesto We have come to value the items in the dark boxes more. Full version: Individuals and Interactions Customer Collaboration over processes and tools over contract negotiation Working Software Responding to Change over comprehensive documentation over following a plan
  10. 10. Individuals and Interactions • Individuals and interactions over processes and tools • Communication • Working together • Creating opportunities to learn and share • Not doing activities just to check a box • Not allowing tools to get in the way • Finding faster/better ways to work
  11. 11. Shared Documents Aren’t Shared Understanding Cartoon by Luke Barrett © Jeff Patton, all rights reserved,
  12. 12. Working Software • Working software over comprehensive documentation • Working software is the measure of work • Documentation doesn’t improve a system • Complex systems • Documentation is sometimes necessary to make “self serve” • System should be clear and well designed
  13. 13. Customer Collaboration • Customer collaboration over contract negotiation • Software was built for a client (not broad sets of users) • We interpret as Users
  14. 14. Responding to Change • Responding to change over following a plan • Planning is short-term and flexible • Change is a constant – embrace it and prepare • When things change, so does the plan
  15. 15. Benefits of being Incremental • When development runs out of time/resources, the shipped solution • Delivers maximum value • Has a complete design without holes • Has much higher quality • Has no wasted design work
  16. 16. Agile Qualities • Iterative • Incremental • Continuous • Collaborative • Transparent
  17. 17. Agile Terminology
  18. 18. Scaling Agile at Spotify via Slideshare of Vlad Mysla Squads, Tribes, Chapters and Guilds
  19. 19. Scrum • Daily Ceremonies - Standup • 15 minute standing meeting • What you did, what you are doing, blockers • Sprints • 2 – 4 weeks of work • Culminate in a potentially shippable product increment
  20. 20. Scrum
  21. 21. Sprints Test Deliverable Define & Design Build Sprint 2Sprint 1 Sprint 3 Test Deliverable Define & Design Build Test Deliverable Define & Design Build
  22. 22. Kanban • Finite number of “tickets” • Cannot put more work in until previous work is done • Team members pull work as work is completed • Time-boxing is optional • All work is a collaboration • Information radiators
  23. 23. Kanban - work is shared on walls/boards
  24. 24. Story = User Problem with acceptance criteria
  25. 25. Epic > Story > Task Backlog Epic 1 Epic 2 Epic 1 Story A Story B Story B Task X Task Y
  26. 26. Name this…
  27. 27. Fibonacci Sequence
  28. 28. Estimating Stories • T-shirts, Fibonacci, days work, etc. • Minimal effort to guess • If cannot guess, further define story
  29. 29. UX Activity Estimation • Should UX activities be estimated towards team velocity? • A hotly debated topic • No. They UX stories should be tracked separately, in parallel • Yes. UX stories should be tracked with other work, especially when part of active work • “Working software is the primary measure of progress”
  30. 30. Velocity • Measure amount of work done • Determine our velocity or “burn down” • Estimates and velocity tell us what we can get done • Longer term, squads can improve velocity
  31. 31. Parking Lot • Used to get to a firm estimate and clarify questions • Able to respond Go/No Go • Problems that can be solved in a single conversation
  32. 32. Design Spikes • Used to get to a firm estimate when not enough information to determine in a parking lot • Intense focus on issue with multiple resources • Done by a few while other work continues • Multiple resources (not just design) • Must continue to support ongoing development
  33. 33. User Acceptance Testing • Customer/client feedback in traditional Agile • Clients (not users): • Are shown a demo by team • Do not touch or interact with system • Not typically a member of the Agile team • Are rarely the users of the system being designed • When feedback is collected in traditional Agile – after iteration/sprint
  34. 34. Demos and Retros • Demos are “playing back” what was done during the sprint • Matches the Epics/Stories from the Sprint • Celebrate progress • Retrospective • Looking at what went well (continue doing) • What could be improved • What we should stop doing
  35. 35. Customers and Lean UX
  36. 36. Customer Feedback – in traditional Agile • Fails to find most learnability and usability issues • Misses opportunity to inform future design • Misses opportunity to gain better user insight with prototypes, observation, etc.
  37. 37. Bring Users into Agile • UX brings the end-user into Agile and expands the meaning of “Customer” to extend to the end-user
  38. 38. Lean Startup • Lean is a business development method, popularized by Eric Ries. • It’s like Agile for the business side of things • Uses the same build – test – learn cycle for business models and product development • Only measure of success is market behavior
  39. 39. Lean UX • Agile is the perfect product delivery method for Lean businesses • Same adaptations that make UX practices work in Agile also make them work in Lean • Lean UX = Agile UX • Rely on early research and usability testing (learn as you go) • Less time to conduct research and think through problems • Handled as a spike if needed
  40. 40. Eric Ries @ericries via @MelBugai on Twitter at LeanStartupMI in 2011 "The biggest waste of all is building something no one wants“ - Eric Ries @ericries
  41. 41. Developing Software in Agile Getting Agile Teams to Care About Usability
  42. 42. We Come from Different Places By Jeff Patton as interpreted by Jim Laing – Source:
  43. 43. Agile • Agile is a philosophy, not a specific set of tools • Principles are not mandates • UX was not deliberately excluded • Software development methods • Scrum, Kanban, XP, etc. meet the criteria for Agile • “Waterfall” does not
  44. 44. Agile Frustrations Scaling Agile at Spotify via Slideshare of Vlad Mysla team member
  45. 45. Agile UX: The Good • Most important features are done first • Working together – not “over the wall” • Keep up with technology and environmental changes • Enables iteration of requirements • Less “design drift” and less wasted design
  46. 46. Agile UX: The Good (continued) • Issues get fixed • “Done” includes design • Satisfying to see designs in real use • Learn from actual product use • User data has effect on current release
  47. 47. So Now What? • If Agile doesn’t care about UX, why should my Agile team care about what I do?
  48. 48. Getting Developers to Care • UX Fail strategies: • “I’m just going to keep doing my job the way I always have and telling the team what they need to do.” • “I’m just going to let them go ahead and fail. Then they’ll come to me begging and let me do my job.”
  49. 49. Be Part of the Team • They’re not going to “stop the train” for you • Make UX processes Agile • Build trust by providing value of work • Attend daily standups/scrums
  50. 50. Get Ahead of the Train • Design one iteration ahead if necessary, so you have designs ready to go when they are needed • Regular usability testing (iteration-aligned) • Test whatever is ready that day • Plus your look-ahead designs • Plus user research for existing issues and potential future work • Test designs before developers build them – saves arguments
  51. 51. Welcome the Team to your World • Invite developers to observe tests of features they wrote • Seeing someone struggle is strongly motivating to them • Even more so for product managers • Engage developers in helping you to figure out solutions • Their knowledge of code and systems provides ability to come up with innovative solutions • Credit developers when features they wrote work well (even if you designed it)
  52. 52. Bring Your World to Them • No time or inclination to watch your testing? • Record the tests • Bring key clips to the next meeting(s) • Provide easy access to sessions (always consider ethics) • Information radiators • Share info on the walls • Use online tools • Get it in the backlog Photo: four-creative-ways-to-share-research-c10fa047f025#.cdauyngei
  53. 53. Fit into the Process • Time product testing: results ready when most useful • Track usability metrics on the team dashboard • Ensure they are reported upwards • Help prioritize usability problems to simplify backlog grooming • Add preemptive cards to the schedule for “problems we will find while testing”
  54. 54. Design Adapts to Agile • Falling short of end goals is a constant • Focus on meeting user’s primary needs • Constant Improvement is key • Widen the Design family • Distribute the work • Empower entire squad to inform design • Agile is reactive – no time for predictive work • Prepare to react Adapted from Jim Laing’s presentation at UX Pittsburgh, May 2014
  55. 55. Participate in Retrospectives • Encourage retrospectives if they aren’t happening • Information provided enough/too much? • Questions still open? • Still confusing/frustrating? • More effectively communicate user needs? Image: most-of-your-retrospectives/
  56. 56. Let’s Chat
  57. 57. Let’s Get to Know Each Other • Who has had agile training? • Reading, no formal training • Other team members trained • No training • Some training • How long have you been doing Agile?
  58. 58. Who’s Here? • Roles? • UX practitioner, UX manager -- is this who we all are? • Resources? • Single UX resource on a single Agile team/project • Single UX resource on 2+ Agile teams/projects • Part of a UX team on a single Agile team/project • Part of a UX team on 2+ Agile teams/projects • Maturity of UX Practice?
  59. 59. What’s Your Team Like? • Distributed/remote? • Large/small? • Who else is on the team? • How long have you been together?
  60. 60. Balancing Team Work • Within UX team • Research • Wires/clickable prototypes • Usability testing preparation • Usability test facilitation • UX Issue wrangling • Visual design • What else? • Split team up on different items or attack together
  61. 61. Marketing, Sales and Business Analysts • Have customer access • Knowledge • Business rules • Usage patterns, what other tools customer has • Can support • Research (users/stakeholders) • Wires • Demos/Clickable prototypes
  62. 62. Developers and UX • Trust is key • FED (front end developers) and UI Developers • Can provide • Clickable prototypes • Coded “prototypes”
  63. 63. product owner = product manager + dev lead + interaction designer
  64. 64. Break 30 Minutes, Fifth Avenue
  65. 65. Scaling Agile at Spotify via Slideshare of Vlad Mysla Squads, Tribes, Chapters and Guilds
  66. 66. Parallel-Track Workflow a.k.a. Staggered Sprints
  67. 67. Agile Design Timing: Parallel Tracks • Developer track: Focus is on production code • Interaction designers track: Focus is on user contact
  68. 68. Iteration 1: Developer Track • Underlying architecture work • Critical features with little user interface design required
  69. 69. Iteration 1: Interaction Designers • Design, create prototypes, usability test (UTest), and iterate (RITE method) • Field studies to understand user needs (contextual inquiry)
  70. 70. Iteration 2: Developers • Take the verified designs and start making them a reality
  71. 71. Iteration 2: Interaction Designers • UTest completed code for integration and implementation issues
  72. 72. Iteration 2: Interaction Designers • UTest completed code for integration and implementation issues • Use data gathered in the last iteration to create designs for next iteration
  73. 73. Iteration 2: Interaction Designers • UTest completed code for integration and implementation issues • Use data gathered in the last iteration to create designs for next iteration • Field studies for detailed information needed for upcoming iterations
  74. 74. And so on… • Constant communication between the two tracks is essential for success • These are not just hand-offs
  75. 75. We repeat: • Constant communication between the two tracks is essential for success • These are not just hand-offs • This is the most misunderstood thing about staggered sprints.
  76. 76. During Each Iteration • Be present with developers day to day • Are they building what you expect? • Get their feedback on your designs in progress © Copyright 2014 Desirée Sy & John Schrag. All rights
  77. 77. During Each Iteration • Look back • Validate the work done in previous iteration © Copyright 2014 Desirée Sy & John Schrag. All rights
  78. 78. During Each Iteration • Look ahead • Design for next iteration (n+1) • Research for future iterations (n+2, n+3…) © Copyright 2014 Desirée Sy & John Schrag. All rights
  79. 79. Combine Your Investigations • Maximize your time with users • Test completed code • Test paper prototypes of upcoming design • Elicit data for future design © Copyright 2014 Desirée Sy & John Schrag. All rights
  80. 80. Agile Roles and Parallel Tracks • UX Takes Time • Having multiple roles (e.g. UX + product owner, UX + scrum master) leads to overload • Working on multiple teams is a bad idea
  81. 81. Incremental Implementation Getting to complete workflows, one DONE at a time
  82. 82. “Story” = User Problem with acceptance criteria
  83. 83. Story Myths • Story = feature • Story = specification • Story must fit in one iteration • Stories are time limited • All stories have firm estimates and specs in Iteration Zero (or even Iteration One) • These are NOT true.
  84. 84. Story Examples Advantages of the “As a user, I want” user story template. By Mike Cohn antages-of-the-as-a-user-i-want-user-story- template
  85. 85. To make a story INVEST • A good story is: • Independent • Negotiable • Valuable to users or customers • Estimate-able • Small • Testable User Stories Applied for Agile Software Development, By Mike Cohn
  86. 86. What if your story is too big? • If work can’t be completed in one iteration • Where are the break lines? • How do you prioritize the feature cards?
  87. 87. Big Design - Waterfall • Everyone signs off before Dev begins • One big design document contains everything • Dev builds it until they run out of time • QA doesn’t test until Dev has run out of time • Result • Whatever is built first is completed • Details are left out, quality issues identified too late • Holes are left in the design • Much of your design effort is wasted
  88. 88. Big Design - Agile • Deliver incremental value quickly • Break the story into small pieces • What is the smallest piece that can be built? • Delivers value to the user • Incremental • Something to learn from • Minimum Viable/Valuable Product (MVP) – from Lean Startup
  89. 89. Big Design – Agile (continued) • Schedule the pieces in order of importance • Design incrementally, as if the each piece were the final one • Change your future plans between iterations if you have learned new things
  90. 90. Original via Spotify (original presentation not available). More at: 4383-9673-9e715ff47a75&v=default&b=&from_search=14 and
  91. 91. Story Card Progress • Is UX Needed? • What is the story? • What do we know? • What do we need to know? • Conduct Lean UX to answer outstanding questions • Interviews, observations, prototype testing, etc. • Work with Dev to respond to questions as needed 92 Kanban Do Review Done
  92. 92. Benefits of being incremental • When development runs out of time/resources, the shipped solution • Delivers maximum value • Has a complete design without holes • Has much higher quality • Has no wasted design work
  93. 93. Mistakes to avoid • Designing all the detail up front • Not thinking about the full experience up front • Not breaking things down far enough • Not delivering a complete (sub) story each iteration – “now the user can…”
  94. 94. Incremental Example: Doorway • User story: The user can get in and out of her house easily. • Completion Criteria: - Secure - Insulated - Lets light in - Allows large furniture items to pass - Fits with house décor - Works even without keys
  95. 95. Incremental Example: Doorway • Initial Rough Design: - Beautiful Colonial Door - Unbreakable translucent window - Programmable digital lock - Steel deadbolt - Metal-clad on the outside - High R-Value
  96. 96. Incremental Example: Doorway • What is the minimum work that will give the user incremental value towards their goal? • What needs to be designed for that? • What is the next smallest item that will give the user an added capability? • What needs to be designed for that?
  97. 97. Activity Story Selection
  98. 98. Activity: Early Story Selection • Select the first 10 stories that should be done. • How many do you have to complete before you would be willing to try it with real customers? • See handout
  99. 99. Incremental Implementation Continued
  100. 100. Fitting This to Your Process • The purpose of incremental implementation is to get feedback early and often • After each iteration, gather feedback • Questions that can affect your breakdown: • Who evaluates your product? • Is it always the same people? • Are your target users internal or external?
  101. 101. Gather feedback from • Internal ‘expert users’ • Beta/Usability testers under NDA • The general public (after release or open beta) • Internal users in a protected ‘sandbox’ • Internal users after general deployment
  102. 102. Before releasing, consider • Are you getting the feedback you need? • Is there enough completed for an external user to evaluate? • Sometimes you may want to hold back certain work until more is done.
  103. 103. Make it Easier for the Team • Write staged specifications • Best guess at breaking the design into 1-iteration Story increments • “Break” the Stories with developers into Tasks • Remember: they own the Tasks • You need to know how to map those back to Stories & Capabilities (See story mapping)
  104. 104. Ways to Break a Story Down • Workflows • Stories with many “mini-workflows” • e.g., Channel changer • Allowed inputs • Story that applies across different data types • e.g., Image file reader • Capacity • Completion criteria involve extreme size or speed • e.g., File transfer of large files
  105. 105. Example: Ordering Your Sub-Stories • Big Story: User can move, duplicate, or remove selected text in a document. © Copyright 2014 Desirée Sy & John Schrag. All rights
  106. 106. Example: Story Breakdown • Big Story: User can move, duplicate, or remove selected text in a document. • Note: there are many possible designs that achieve this user capability © Copyright 2014 Desirée Sy & John Schrag. All rights
  107. 107. Example: Story Breakdown • Big Story: User can move, duplicate, or remove selected text in a document. • The selected design is to provide 4 menu items with hotkeys: Cut, Copy, Paste, and Delete. © Copyright 2014 Desirée Sy & John Schrag. All rights
  108. 108. Example: Story Breakdown • Written out as proper stories: • The user can move selected text out of the document and into an off-screen clipboard. • The user can copy selected text into the off-screen clipboard. • The user can replace selected text with the contents of the off-screen clipboard. • The user can delete selected text. © Copyright 2014 Desirée Sy & John Schrag. All rights
  109. 109. Example: Story Breakdown • Stories: Cut, Copy, Paste, Delete • How engineering breaks it down: • Sprint one: create memory buffer system • Sprint two: add menu items, tooltips, etc • Sprint three: Copy • Spring four: Cut, Paste, Delete • What is wrong with this? © Copyright 2014 Desirée Sy & John Schrag. All rights reserved.
  110. 110. Example: Story Breakdown • Stories: Cut, Copy, Paste, Delete • How do you order these four stories? • Which one comes first? Why? • Which one comes second? Why? • Which one comes third? Why? © Copyright 2014 Desirée Sy & John Schrag. All rights
  111. 111. Activity Story Breakdown
  112. 112. Activity: Story Breakdown • Chandra needs all the application functions available to him in his native language or another language he understands well. • Which of these breakdowns is/are Agile? Why? • What factors would determine which breakdown you should choose? • See handout
  113. 113. What if no breakdown is possible? • You can have a story with one single capability that takes more than a sprint to build. • For example, a calculation with a difficult algorithm. • This is an engineering problem, not a UX problem. • If possible, see if the work-in-progress can be validated using partial results.
  114. 114. Discussion • What are your story breakdown problems?
  115. 115. Lunch 12:30 pm – 1:30 pm
  116. 116. Agile Qualities • Iterative • Incremental • Continuous • Collaborative • Transparent
  117. 117. User Story Mapping
  118. 118. Shared Documents Aren’t Shared Understanding Cartoon by Luke Barrett © Jeff Patton, all rights reserved,
  119. 119. User Story Mapping • Organizing user stories into a map that communicates experience Book: User Story Mapping, Discover the whole story, build the right product. By Jeff Patton (with Peter Economy)
  120. 120. Visible Depiction of Available User Stories • Frame questions such as • What is needed? • When is it needed? • Where is there value? • What is really important?
  121. 121. Depth and Breadth of Entire System © Jeff Patton, all rights reserved, time Below each activity, or large story are the child stories that make it up Arrange spatially to tell bigger stories
  122. 122. Represents Complexity and Size of Work time Refine the map and test for completeness with the entire team - developers, designers, BA’s etc.
  123. 123. Conversations to Understand • Relationships between stories • Structure and hierarchy of related stories • Functionality that is being built • Conversations to share knowledge and clarify assumptions
  124. 124. Clarity of What is to be Built • Organizes stories • Context of use for product • Clear understanding of use makes prioritization easier • Backlog completeness can be verified • Can be overwhelming to see entire product • Important to know information now rather than later
  125. 125. Enables Better Releases • Select relevant, high priority stories in releases • Valuable functionality • Complete sets of functionality • Plan, at a high level • What would come next • What is for “later”
  126. 126. © Jeff Patton, all rights reserved, Activity: Story Mapping • What were all the things you did to get ready to be here today? • Starting from the moment you woke up until you arrived here • Write one item per sticky note
  127. 127. Activity: Story Mapping • In a small group (3 to 5) merge stickies into a single model • Arrange left to right in order that makes sense to group • Eliminate duplicates • Cluster items that seem similar and create labels for the clusters if items that seem to go together© Jeff Patton, all rights reserved,
  128. 128. * from Cockburn’s Writing Effective Use Cases Story Detail – Level of Fidelity © Jeff Patton, all rights reserved, Functional or “Sea level” I’d reasonably expect to complete this in a single sitting Sub-Functional or “Fish level” Small tasks that by themselves don’t mean much. I’ll do several of these before I reach a functional level goal Activity or “Kite level” Longer term goals often with no precise ending. I’ll perform several functional tasks in the context of an activity Too abstract Too detailed Think about user experience at this level Be sensitive to your user task’s “altitude”
  129. 129. Discover as much as possible, as quickly as possible • Prototype early • Learn from prototypes and iterate
  130. 130. Agile UX Prioritization Knowing what’s important
  131. 131. Timing for Prioritization • When grooming the backlog • During formative usability testing
  132. 132. Prioritizing Problems • It’s better to fix the few most important issues than to find every issue because: • Big problems can mask other problems • Every fix changes user behavior
  133. 133. Prioritizing Problems High Value Low Cost High Value High Cost Low Value Low Cost Low Value High Cost UX/Product Management determines “Value”
  134. 134. Prioritizing Problems High Value Low Cost High Value High Cost Low Value Low Cost Low Value High Cost Development determines “Cost”
  135. 135. Prioritizing Problems High Value Low Cost High Value High Cost Low Value Low Cost Low Value High Cost A B C Seriously?
  136. 136. “If a user can’t find or use feature, it’s the same as if the feature is broken.” VS. “It’s more important to fix things that really don’t work. The user can learn the hard stuff.” Prioritizing UX vs “real” bugs
  137. 137. Prioritizing UX vs “real” bugs • You cannot win this argument on a case-by-case basis • Instead, adopt a strategy for getting required investment in UX work
  138. 138. Strategies for Getting Investment in UX • Political strategy: Create a formal equivalence of UX versus bug priorities. • Investment strategy 1: Block out fixed time • Investment strategy 2: Block out people • End-run strategy: get your own engineer • Fix UX problems early, if possible.
  139. 139. Detail Matters • Users are usually more delighted by low-cost annoyance fixes than by big flashy new features
  140. 140. Focus and Negotiation • Keep an intense focus on fixing the most important things • Negotiate on behalf of users • Represent their needs as best you can
  141. 141. Break 30 Minutes
  142. 142. Research & Requirements
  143. 143. Research Balancing Act  Understand users, context, etc.  Create personas, mental models, etc.  Prepare for story mapping and other sessions thoroughly Strive for UX Best Practices  Engineers need designs to develop - will move on without UX involvement  Research cannot continue forever Meet Production Needs Agile requires leaner methods
  144. 144. How much is good enough? • What is being developed? • What do you know? • What questions are still open? • Meet goal when users starting to talk about colors and icons (not functionality)
  145. 145. Light Design - Lean UX • Familiar UX methods made lean: • Iterative (flexible, change as needed) • Repeatable (easy to do, expected next steps) • Incremental (lead into next, small changes over time)
  146. 146. Tips for Lean • Usability Testing • Insert questions to find out more for open issues • Schedule regular testing to reduce preparation time • Reach users quickly for meaningful information (panels, remote testing, surveys etc.) • Incentives as needed • Put all data together quickly – no big reports
  147. 147. Documentation & Reporting
  148. 148. Don’t Overwhelm Audience or You • Document in Wiki or similar (avoid PPT) • Just enough to understand the “why” • Always challenging due to: • Limited time • Multiple changes over time • Findings building upon one another 150
  149. 149. Provide Details as Appropriate • Archive prototypes and other deliverables • Regulatory environment or complex interactions • Test plans and guides • Detailed changes • Participant information as needed, but avoid sharing with wider team 151
  150. 150. Capture the Evolution • Helps avoid making same mistakes later • Helpful to capture first, middle and end screenshots: • primary pages • primary features • contentious issues • Don’t sweat the small stuff • Use final prototypes as a base for recommendations (vs. written documentation and/or comps) 152
  151. 151. Separation affects documentation needs • When team is not co-located, does not share time zones and/or does not share language • Use additional documentation to communicate and coordinate • Use Agile tools (GitHub, JIRA/Confluence) and UX tools (, etc.) to share understanding • Use communication tools as frequently as possible (Skype, online meetings, etc.) 153
  152. 152. Lean Reporting • Put all data together quickly • No big reports • Information as needed • Get it to the team – quickly (Evernote,, Trello, Story/Bug tracker, etc.) • Tell the story – pertinent information – who, why? • Provide solutions (wireframes, etc.)
  153. 153. Tell the Story • Strive for “Caterpillar to Butterfly” • Show progressions of key sections of the interactions • Use more screenshots – fewer words • Explain what changes were made and why 155
  154. 154. Activity: Make it Lean (45 minutes)
  155. 155. Activity: Determine User Expectations • Early stages of a project - defining scope. • Stakeholders: “Users will never sign a catering contract on their phone!” Doesn’t need to work on the phone. • UX team: Not likely to be their primary access choice, but will be desired to be done on their phone. • You have 2 days: Determine if common/critical use case • Teams of 3 people • Make a plan for what to do (10 minutes) • Share your plan
  156. 156. Guidelines • What do you need to know? • What resources do you have? • How much effort/time do you have?
  157. 157. Activity: Part 2 • Take roles and act them out • Discuss ramifications of findings • What's in and what's out? • Make tradeoffs – conversations • Vote within teams • See handout
  158. 158. Sprint Zero
  159. 159. Sprint Zero for Scrum Teams • Time to do initial research, setup usability testing, etc. • When technical teams are setting up environments • Back end that doesn’t hit front end • Getting alignment on business goals – WHY?? • All bought in across board • Do just enough work to get development started
  160. 160. Alternatives to Sprint Zero • Can be in parallel sprints while other teams are wrapping up previous work • Do work in Sprint 1 • Planning, story mapping, etc. (or already done) • Story creation (or not done yet, or will do later) • Create initial wires and prototypes (or in Sprint 1) • Goal is to have initial questions answered – doesn't matter what you call it
  161. 161. Pros and Cons - Sprint Zero • Pros • Gives UX a head start • Lot of backend work needs to be done anyway • Establish common vision • Who for? • Common “elevator statement” • Cons • Can be a trap leading to Waterfall • Big Design Up Front (BDUF) • Time box and Focus on Outcomes to avoid this
  162. 162. Requirements • Change in presence of the artifact • Questions change as you learn more • Pointless to do ALL requirements gathering up front • Works better iteratively – unless in hands of those that will use it • Don't know what we don't know
  163. 163. Make it Quick! • Proxies as needed • Quick enough analysis • Get to 80% confidence • Continued learning with additional contacts • Usability testing • Customer visits (enterprise software)
  164. 164. Setting Expectations • Developers • Only get a little bit of information at a time • Need to fit work in • May need to rework as we learn • Repeat it as we go
  165. 165. Arguments About UX • Not done (what is “done?”) • Indecisive (make up your mind!) • Never right (“more feedback already?”)
  166. 166. Agile Usability Testing
  167. 167. UX Made “Agile” • Any UX method can be adapted • Don’t have to give up our favorite methods • Don’t have to learn new ones • Doesn’t take much effort to adapt our methods to fit the Agile process • Think about “lean” and “iterative” methods • RITE is a good place to start
  168. 168. RITE Overview • Qualitative user feedback • actions + comments • Series of small usability tests • 3 participants each day • Minimum of 3 days of testing • Iteration between testing days • Total of 5 days
  169. 169. RITE Process Test Update Test 1 2 3 High Medium Low Priority & Level of Effort
  170. 170. What Works for RITE • Best used early in project lifecycle • Early concepts • Need to be vetted with users • Can assist in quickly shaping designs • Doesn’t this sound “agile”? 172
  171. 171. Evaluation + Testing • Think evaluation → testing throughout the product development lifecycle • Start with design evaluations and move onto testing the deliverables for each Sprint/Iteration • Start with the big questions and narrow down quickly (what would be the top 3 things to fix/improve? would you use it? Would it be a “wow”? which of 3 approaches do you prefer?)
  172. 172. Number of Participants • Think fast and iterative • For example ~5 participants for each, and iterate if needed • Key is to get the needed feedback, iterate, and move on • Do you really need 10 participants to tell you it’s something they would never use? • Know when enough is enough • If 3 participants so far have “failed”, do you need to test the other 2?
  173. 173. Testing Cycles • Set a schedule and expectations with the team early • User testing days (e.g., every Friday, we’ll have 3 hours set aside for testing) • Schedule set to Sprints/Iterations (e.g., at end of every Sprint, schedule a round of testing to cover what has been completed) • Also consider combining sessions for multiple goals (e.g., test what was done last Sprint, get early feedback on what you are working on now)
  174. 174. Testing Materials • Use the lowest fidelity method possible to get the needed information (the time spent in developing the materials is time you won’t have for iterating and testing) • Use sketches and wireframes to work on basic concepts and keep attention focused away from details • Use higher fidelity when you are testing the details and interactions
  175. 175. Test Only Until “Done” • Stop testing when you know enough to move forward • Test for the big stuff first: when you start hearing about icons and colors, not function or layout, you know it’s “enough”
  176. 176. Light Reporting • Don’t write a report • Focus on most important changes • Record change decisions and reasons why (for future reference, and for onboarding new designers) • Explain changes to the team face-to-face • Tell the story
  177. 177. Discussion
  178. 178. Discussion • Additional topics • Bringing work in – how do you select the right thing(s)? • Backlog grooming and where UX fits in • Types of prototypes • Other frameworks for Agile • Working with PM’s, and leadership • What are your experiences?
  179. 179. Session Survey •
  180. 180. Contacting the Presenters • John Schrag, @jvschrag • Thyra Rauch, • Carol Smith, @carologic
  181. 181. Additional Reference
  182. 182. Principles behind the Agile Manifesto 1. Customer satisfaction by rapid delivery of useful software 2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development 3. Working software is delivered frequently (weeks rather than months) 4. Close, daily cooperation between business people and developers 5. Projects are built around motivated individuals, who should be trusted 6. Face-to-face conversation is the best form of communication (co-location) 7. Working software is the principal measure of progress 8. Sustainable development, able to maintain a constant pace 9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design 10.Simplicity—the art of maximizing the amount of work not done—is essential 11.Self-organizing teams 12.Regular adaptation to changing circumstance
  183. 183. • Adapting Usability Investigations for Agile User- Centered Design by Desirée Sy • Journal of Usability Studies, Volume 2, Issue 3 (the most-cited paper in JUS) •
  184. 184. References • Shivani Mohan and Lissette Sotelo Parr, Sharing Ethnographic research: research-c10fa047f025#.of9i2n5g7