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Speaks: Our fragile cities (part one) essor Keith Crews – 30 November 2011
Our Fragile Cities ……Sustainability of Infrastructure                  Keith Crews          Professor of Structural Engine...
Overview• Sustainability & Infrastructure     – An Engineer’s perspective• Current Challenges• Identifying Threats and    ...
Sustainability• Broadly, is the ability to maintain a certain    process or state, usually with respect to    biological o...
Sustainability requires                               a radical shift in thinkingRadical transformation of theinfrastructu...
Evolution of the Ages•   Stone Age•   Industrial Age•   Information Age•   Ecological Age                                 ...
(CO2 – 80%)              +   1.44 gha / Capita                   Ecological Footprint   +    HDI Increase                 ...
HDI is a comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy,education and standards of living for countries world wide      ...
Our Shrinking Earth                            Greater Sydney - 6.181900   1950          1987           2005        2030  ...
Sustainability & Economics• Since Industrial Revolution    most Economic systems    are based on growth•   Growth = Prospe...
Energy Consumption                                   11          (Peter Bowtell – ARUP)
The CO2 footprint of transport     Sydney                 (from Peter Head - Brunel Lecture 2009;   12                 Quo...
Getting the Balance Right• Sustainability: improving the quality of human    life while living within the carrying capacit...
Triple Bottom Line Philosophy                                                      Social bearable                        ...
Sustainability and Infrastructure• Economic growth understood    as New = Good•   Political Drivers     – New projects = s...
Infrastructure Challenges• “Infrastructure Australia” an excellent initiative     – Highlighted problems with planning    ...
Infrastructure Challenges• Declining state of existing infrastructure is   evidenced by the Australian Report Cards   (IEA...
IEAust Score Sheet – NSW 2010                                                         18                   (IEAust Infrast...
IEAust Score Sheet – NSW 2010Key Recommendations:• long-term infrastructure vision and plan• greater attention to managing...
Government ChallengesFunding tensions:Maintain existing?Upgrade / improve existing?                20Build new?
Government ChallengesFunding tensions:Maintain existing?Upgrade / improve existing?Build new?                         21
Need for a change in mind-set•   OECD: sustainable infrastructure (structures)    requires 3% of the asset replacement val...
Degradation of Infrastructure    Degradation is caused by one or more of:•   “Normal” wear and tear•   Biological / Chemic...
Infrastructure Degradation    Degradation increases with failure to:•     Detail / construct for      durability•     Reso...
Some Examples of theChallenges facing our cities                           25
I-35W Mississippi River Bridge• An eight-lane, steel truss arch bridge that    carried I-35W across the Mississippi River ...
27(NTSB photo)
What caused failure?• Investigation by the National Transportation    Safety Board & FHWA research centre•   Jan 15, 2008,...
Localised plate buckling Photos - NTSB                           29
What caused failure?• The primary causes were:    – under-sized gusset plates for modern loads    – additional load from 5...
Proactive Asset Management                                   - Lessons Learnt    Understanding the condition of    the ass...
Extreme Loading EventsUrban Flooding                                                  32                            Photos...
Extreme Loading EventsCyclonic Winds                                                33                            Photos –...
Extreme Loading EventsEarthquakes                                                 34                              Photos –...
Sustaining Infrastructure• The issue of aging infrastructure applies to all    materials and all types of structures / ass...
Example: Timber Structures in Australia• Historic applications• Current applications• Development of “tools”   that enable...
Timber has been an  essential and integral part of rural Australia’s      buildings andinfrastructure since early  Europea...
Structures such as these havebeen “out of sight, out of mind”Yet, despite the fact they areoften not well maintainedMany a...
Similarly with bridges –an essential, but undervalued part of our ruralinfrastructure
Multi-storey timberwarehouses were commonin the 1800’s - many havebeen recycled into offices
However, lack ofunderstandingaboutdetailing, maintenance and durabilityissues can lead toperformanceproblems
Resulting in theneed for expensiverepairs!
Case Study:    Sustaining Timber Bridges•    A main focus of R&D at     UTS since 1990•    Collaborative with RTA,     Ind...
Timber Bridges - Context• Approx 40,000+ bridges in Australia• Approx. 27,000 are aging timber bridges   – most are girder...
Special Challenges withHeritage Structures•   Heritage Legislation    means that many old    bridges must be kept    opera...
Addressing the “guess work” in strengthassessment of bridges….                   One of the biggest                   prob...
Uncertainties & Assumptions•   Reliable assessment requires    accurate information about:     – Integrity of member secti...
How safe is safe?                48
Tools that FacilitateSustainable Practicesto manageInfrastructure assets
New Technologies for                   Damage Detection•   Significant R&D on NDE technologies for    determining the loca...
Dynamic / Modal Analysis•   New method developed by UTS in    partnership with IPWEA / RTA•   Provide good “global” indica...
Dynamic / Modal Analysis•   Next generation identifies    location and size of damage    (voids / loss of member integrity...
Ground Penetrating Radar• Uses electromagnetic    waves to generate an    image of internal features•   Ideal for investig...
Ground Penetrating Radar•   Recent developments can create    3D images•   Can be used effectively with other    NDE (e.g....
Ultrasonic Tomography•   Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV)    used to create 2D and 3D images    of internal voiding•   Data...
Acoustic Emission•   AE signals can identify    micro-cracking mechanisms    in reinforced concrete•   Applied to corrosio...
Implementation Challenges•    Translating R&D into practice•    Training professionals to     interpret and apply the resu...
Key Steps to Sustaining           Infrastructure for our CitiesWhat have we learnt from all this?• Understand the asset, w...
Aging Infrastructure makes our       cities vulnerable and fragile•   Our cities are more than    buildings and physical  ...
Urban – Rural crossoverHalf the worlds population live in cities ...which are responsible for nearly 75% ofthe world’s gre...
The Urban Challenges•     Transport•     Existing Buildings•     Waste Management•     Water•     Energy Supply•     Outdo...
Buildings account for:• 38% total energy use• 65% electricity consumption• 30% CO2 emissions                              ...
A Paradigm ShiftBuildings are critical, renewability is essential:    – Materials    – Energy    – Total Life Cycle       ...
Potential of Timber in Buildings• Timber has a role to play in    infrastructure for cities•   Why?     –   Structurally e...
Normal “current” uses ALL LOADS CARRIED BY TIMBER!
Source: B Hutchings - TimberBuilt P/L (2008)
Source: B Hutchings - TimberBuilt P/L (2008)
New Building Applications –       Drivers for O/S developments•   “Green building” a is strong driver for use of timber   ...
New Developments in Europe          7 storey building - Berlin                                       72
New Developments in Europe         M-M Kaufmann Glulam & CLT                               73
New Developments in Europe          4 storey building - Munich                                   74
New Developments in Europe          KLH - Austria                          75
New Developments in EuropeUp to 6 storeys – Switzerland                              76
New Developments in Europe          9 storey building - London                                   77
New Developments OverseasUp to 6 storeys  – Canada                             78
Prototype Buildings                                        NMIT – Nelson NZ                                               ...
Prototype Buildings                     NMIT – Nelson NZWinner of the Institution of Structural Engineers UK’sStructural A...
Sustainable Buildings•   Timber has a role to play as a    sustainable material for    buildings in the Ecological Age•   ...
Conclusions:Sustainable Infrastructure•   Significant challenges facing Design Professionals,    Planners and Government• ...
Conclusions:Sustainable Infrastructure•   Aging infrastructure is a risk    to our Cities that must be    recognised and a...
New thinking is critical for the Economic, Environmental and Socialaspects of Australia’s Infrastructure and Cities it sup...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WRwA291NAuM&feature=youtu.be
Lifetime CO2 emissions                           One building, four designs             8000                     Operation...
Embodied CO2           SteelConcrete           Aluminium                               Wood
Overall CO2 emissions       Carbon Neutral for Timber        Negative for TimberPlus
UTSpeaks: Our Fragile Cities (Part 1: Keith Crews)
UTSpeaks: Our Fragile Cities (Part 1: Keith Crews)
UTSpeaks: Our Fragile Cities (Part 1: Keith Crews)
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UTSpeaks: Our Fragile Cities (Part 1: Keith Crews)

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How do we lead our cities, communities and government towards designing and building the important sustainable infrastructure of the future?

Professor Keith Crews - 30th November 2012

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UTSpeaks is an annual free public lecture series presented by UTS experts discussing a range of important issues confronting contemporary Australia.

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UTSpeaks: Our Fragile Cities (Part 1: Keith Crews)

  1. 1. Speaks: Our fragile cities (part one) essor Keith Crews – 30 November 2011
  2. 2. Our Fragile Cities ……Sustainability of Infrastructure Keith Crews Professor of Structural Engineering Faculty of Engineering & Information Technology Centre for Built Infrastructure Research University of Technology Sydney 2
  3. 3. Overview• Sustainability & Infrastructure – An Engineer’s perspective• Current Challenges• Identifying Threats and Managing Risks• New Developments and Opportunities 3
  4. 4. Sustainability• Broadly, is the ability to maintain a certain process or state, usually with respect to biological or human systems• Human sustainability has become increasingly associated with the integration of economic, social and environmental spheres• Involves “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission) – Report to UNGA 1987 4
  5. 5. Sustainability requires a radical shift in thinkingRadical transformation of theinfrastructure that supports life on theplanet is needed if we are to attain asustainable future(from Peter Head - Brunel Lecture 2009) 5
  6. 6. Evolution of the Ages• Stone Age• Industrial Age• Information Age• Ecological Age 6
  7. 7. (CO2 – 80%) + 1.44 gha / Capita Ecological Footprint + HDI Increase Human Development Index = 2050 Ecological Age (from Peter Head - Brunel Lecture 2009) 7
  8. 8. HDI is a comparative measure of life expectancy, literacy,education and standards of living for countries world wide Human Development Index 8 (Peter Bowtell – ARUP)
  9. 9. Our Shrinking Earth Greater Sydney - 6.181900 1950 1987 2005 2030 20507.91 5.15 2.60 2.02 1.69 1.44 Hectares of Land Per Capita (from Peter Head - Brunel Lecture 2009 & NSW State of the Environment report 2006) 9
  10. 10. Sustainability & Economics• Since Industrial Revolution most Economic systems are based on growth• Growth = Prosperity• Growth = Consume• Now being confronted: – Limits to growth – Limits to resources – Limits to consumption Source: NOAH / NASA – Limits to environment 10
  11. 11. Energy Consumption 11 (Peter Bowtell – ARUP)
  12. 12. The CO2 footprint of transport Sydney (from Peter Head - Brunel Lecture 2009; 12 Quoted from Kenworthy - 2003)
  13. 13. Getting the Balance Right• Sustainability: improving the quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of supporting eco-systems• More recently “Triple Bottom line” approach: – commercially viable development – enhance community wellbeing – environmental renewability and conservation of resources• Objective of balancing these is “Sustainability” 13
  14. 14. Triple Bottom Line Philosophy Social bearable equitable sustainableEnvironment Economic Balancing the viable spheres of influence Adams, W.M. (2006) "The Future of Sustainability: Re-thinking Environment and Development in the Twenty-first Century”
  15. 15. Sustainability and Infrastructure• Economic growth understood as New = Good• Political Drivers – New projects = success – No votes in maintenance• Educational Drivers – Engineers trained to design new, not sustain existing• Decisions based on traditional economic models, rather than sustainability principles 15
  16. 16. Infrastructure Challenges• “Infrastructure Australia” an excellent initiative – Highlighted problems with planning – Prioritisation and best value / national interest – Aims to improve decision making processes• However, the focus still appears to be on “new” projects, rather than how we can improve / maintain existing infrastructure• Need for a change in mind-set and new economic / decision making models if we are to develop sustainable practices 16
  17. 17. Infrastructure Challenges• Declining state of existing infrastructure is evidenced by the Australian Report Cards (IEAust & GHD) – civil infrastructure is barely adequate or poor – similar situation in US (refer Civil Engineers Aust - Feb 2009) – e.g: 1 in 4 bridges either deficient or obsolete• Private investment focuses on new projects rather than maintaining existing infrastructure – we actually need to get the mix right for BOTH!• The Great Challenge of “Aging Infrastructure” 17 Priority: “Restore and Improve Urban Infrastructure” Nat. Academy of Eng. (July 2008)
  18. 18. IEAust Score Sheet – NSW 2010 18 (IEAust Infrastructure Report Card NSW 2010)
  19. 19. IEAust Score Sheet – NSW 2010Key Recommendations:• long-term infrastructure vision and plan• greater attention to managing demand for infrastructure services, rather than relying on building new infrastructure to meet demand• factor in the impact of climate change• cooperation and collaboration between all levels of government and business• develop innovative funding models to maintain and provide the required infrastructure (IEAust Infrastructure Report Card NSW 2010) 19
  20. 20. Government ChallengesFunding tensions:Maintain existing?Upgrade / improve existing? 20Build new?
  21. 21. Government ChallengesFunding tensions:Maintain existing?Upgrade / improve existing?Build new? 21
  22. 22. Need for a change in mind-set• OECD: sustainable infrastructure (structures) requires 3% of the asset replacement value be budgeted each year for maintenance (on average) OECD Road Transport Research – Bridges (1992) / OUTLOOK 2000 (1999)• Obviously this varies with age and use – new assets would require less, older ones more• Expenditure in Australia varies between less than 0.5% and 1.5% depending on the asset owner (ave. for State Governments approx 1.2%; less in LG)• This lack of adequate funding creates a cycle of obsolescence 22
  23. 23. Degradation of Infrastructure Degradation is caused by one or more of:• “Normal” wear and tear• Biological / Chemical / Environmental hazards• Increased frequency of use (e.g. more traffic / demand)• Increased magnitude / severity of “load” – e.g. increasing axle loads from 8t to10t increases the damage potential by 145% – 10% increase every 10yrs – Extreme natural events – Climate change 23ATSE Report “Assessment of Impact ofClimate Change on Australia’s Infrastructure” (2008)
  24. 24. Infrastructure Degradation Degradation increases with failure to:• Detail / construct for durability• Resource adequately• Correctly identify damage• Understand its impact• Intervene effectively – Maintenance – Repairs Source: Aboura et al – UTS / RTA (2008) – Strengthen / Optimise 24
  25. 25. Some Examples of theChallenges facing our cities 25
  26. 26. I-35W Mississippi River Bridge• An eight-lane, steel truss arch bridge that carried I-35W across the Mississippi River in Minneapolis, Minnesota• During the evening rush hour on August 1, 2007, it suddenly collapsed, killing 13 people and injuring 145• The bridge was Minnesotas fifth busiest carrying 140,000 vehicles daily• Opened to traffic in 1967, inspected annually by Minnesota DOT, but not in 2007 26
  27. 27. 27(NTSB photo)
  28. 28. What caused failure?• Investigation by the National Transportation Safety Board & FHWA research centre• Jan 15, 2008, the NTSB announced they had determined that the bridges design specified steel gusset plates that were undersized and inadequate to support the intended load of the bridge which had increased over time• Nov 13, 2008, the NTSB released the final findings of its investigation 28
  29. 29. Localised plate buckling Photos - NTSB 29
  30. 30. What caused failure?• The primary causes were: – under-sized gusset plates for modern loads – additional load from 51 mm of concrete (road surface) increasing the dead load by 20%. – extraordinary weight of construction equipment and materials (262 t) on the bridge just above its weakest point at the time of the collapse. – inadequate inspection procedures. – corrosion was not the significant factor, but it had contributed to some weakening & cracks. 30
  31. 31. Proactive Asset Management - Lessons Learnt Understanding the condition of the asset needs investment and involves:• Developing effective assessment systems for quantifying safe capacity / acceptable performance• Identifying where the greatest needs / risks are located• Using this information to develop and maintain an “information system” that permits strategic & cost effective interventions• Essential for sustainable 31 management of infrastructure
  32. 32. Extreme Loading EventsUrban Flooding 32 Photos – Courier Mail / AFP
  33. 33. Extreme Loading EventsCyclonic Winds 33 Photos – Paul Crock AFP
  34. 34. Extreme Loading EventsEarthquakes 34 Photos – Andy Buchanan
  35. 35. Sustaining Infrastructure• The issue of aging infrastructure applies to all materials and all types of structures / assets• The reality is that we cant afford to replace every piece of infrastructure• Engineers have a professional and social responsibility to maintain the operational effectiveness and safety of infrastructure• Both a challenge and an opportunity!• Illustrate - short focus on timber structures 35
  36. 36. Example: Timber Structures in Australia• Historic applications• Current applications• Development of “tools” that enable sustainable practices – damage detection – risk assessment – strategic maintenance – repair & rehabilitation 36
  37. 37. Timber has been an essential and integral part of rural Australia’s buildings andinfrastructure since early European settlement
  38. 38. Structures such as these havebeen “out of sight, out of mind”Yet, despite the fact they areoften not well maintainedMany are still performing wellAfter 150+ years!
  39. 39. Similarly with bridges –an essential, but undervalued part of our ruralinfrastructure
  40. 40. Multi-storey timberwarehouses were commonin the 1800’s - many havebeen recycled into offices
  41. 41. However, lack ofunderstandingaboutdetailing, maintenance and durabilityissues can lead toperformanceproblems
  42. 42. Resulting in theneed for expensiverepairs!
  43. 43. Case Study: Sustaining Timber Bridges• A main focus of R&D at UTS since 1990• Collaborative with RTA, Industry, Local and Federal Governments• Approx $5m of R&D projects• Development of new technologies: – risk ID / assessment – repair & rehabilitation 43
  44. 44. Timber Bridges - Context• Approx 40,000+ bridges in Australia• Approx. 27,000 are aging timber bridges – most are girder / corbel (spans 8-10m) – some truss bridges (spanning up to 36m)• Essential part of our transport infrastructure – mainly in rural areas / Local Government – most 70+ years old – designed for 14 to 18t – now carrying 44t plus!• Asset value in excess of $25B• An important part of our history with social & cultural significance 44
  45. 45. Special Challenges withHeritage Structures• Heritage Legislation means that many old bridges must be kept operational• Tension between maintaining hist. integrity (size of members) and safety for current loads• Significant R&D projects, consulting and training• Development of new structural systems, design & detailing methods 45
  46. 46. Addressing the “guess work” in strengthassessment of bridges…. One of the biggest problems has to do with the assumptions we make and conclusions we draw when we assess / model the bridge structure…… 46
  47. 47. Uncertainties & Assumptions• Reliable assessment requires accurate information about: – Integrity of member sections (decay / corrosion / spalling) – Load history and damage – Structural interactions – Material properties (variability and aging effects)• Errors can be significant!• Overly conservative decisions also can be costly! 47
  48. 48. How safe is safe? 48
  49. 49. Tools that FacilitateSustainable Practicesto manageInfrastructure assets
  50. 50. New Technologies for Damage Detection• Significant R&D on NDE technologies for determining the location and extent of “damage”• The concept of “health monitoring”• Emerging Technologies (most promising): – Dynamic / Modal Analysis – Radiography and GPR – Stress Wave techniques – Acoustic Emission• Potential for a “quantum leap” in assessing the condition of existing structures 50
  51. 51. Dynamic / Modal Analysis• New method developed by UTS in partnership with IPWEA / RTA• Provide good “global” indication of safe response of superstructure• Quick to perform and cost effective• Provides accurate information about global behaviour of beam structures (timber, conc & steel) 51
  52. 52. Dynamic / Modal Analysis• Next generation identifies location and size of damage (voids / loss of member integrity)• Development of neural networks that enable the system to “learn”• Linked with probabilistic strength models derived from testing 52
  53. 53. Ground Penetrating Radar• Uses electromagnetic waves to generate an image of internal features• Ideal for investigating objects with low conductivity such as masonry, concrete and timber Source: W.Muller – QDMR (2008) 53
  54. 54. Ground Penetrating Radar• Recent developments can create 3D images• Can be used effectively with other NDE (e.g. thermal imaging) 54 Source: L. Binda – TU Milano (2008)
  55. 55. Ultrasonic Tomography• Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) used to create 2D and 3D images of internal voiding• Data is analyzed in terms of propagation velocities and arrival of the transmitted ultrasonic pulse Source: De La Haza et al - SFR (2008) 55
  56. 56. Acoustic Emission• AE signals can identify micro-cracking mechanisms in reinforced concrete• Applied to corrosion-induced cracks due to expansion of corrosion products• Potentially effective for identifying / quantifying damage accumulation Estimate of crack depth Image of water filled crack 56 Source: Ohtsu et al - SFR (2008)
  57. 57. Implementation Challenges• Translating R&D into practice• Training professionals to interpret and apply the results• What is the effect of damage on structural performance?• Is it still safe?• What needs to be done?• How soon? Client: How do I fix it? 57
  58. 58. Key Steps to Sustaining Infrastructure for our CitiesWhat have we learnt from all this?• Understand the asset, what is does, how it is performing and what is required to keep it safe• Rate it’s value using “triple bottom line” criteria• Accurately assess and quantify it’s condition• Maintain and plan strategic interventions that repair, rehabilitate or upgrade• Develop tools and techniques for “sustaining” rather than “replacing”• Fund accordingly 58
  59. 59. Aging Infrastructure makes our cities vulnerable and fragile• Our cities are more than buildings and physical infrastructure, yet they are totally dependent upon it• Infrastructure is often hidden; a skeleton that provides a framework for the city eco-system• Design and operation of our cities is a critical challenge to humanity in the 21st century 59
  60. 60. Urban – Rural crossoverHalf the worlds population live in cities ...which are responsible for nearly 75% ofthe world’s greenhouse gas emissions 60 (from Peter Head - Brunel Lecture 2009)
  61. 61. The Urban Challenges• Transport• Existing Buildings• Waste Management• Water• Energy Supply• Outdoor Lighting• Planning &Urban Land Use• Food & Urban Agriculture• ICT• Finance & Economy• Climate Adaptationhttp://www.arup.com/Publications/Climate_Action_in_Megacities.aspx 61 (source: Peter Bowtell ARUP - 2011)
  62. 62. Buildings account for:• 38% total energy use• 65% electricity consumption• 30% CO2 emissions 62 (from Peter Head - Brunel Lecture 2009)
  63. 63. A Paradigm ShiftBuildings are critical, renewability is essential: – Materials – Energy – Total Life Cycle 63 (from Peter Head - Brunel Lecture 2009)
  64. 64. Potential of Timber in Buildings• Timber has a role to play in infrastructure for cities• Why? – Structurally efficient & reliable – Low process energy – Efficient carbon store – Recyclable & Sustainable – Relative ease of de-construction – Renewable - we can grow more• Overview existing uses• New timber technologies 64
  65. 65. Normal “current” uses ALL LOADS CARRIED BY TIMBER!
  66. 66. Source: B Hutchings - TimberBuilt P/L (2008)
  67. 67. Source: B Hutchings - TimberBuilt P/L (2008)
  68. 68. New Building Applications – Drivers for O/S developments• “Green building” a is strong driver for use of timber overseas in terms of carbon store, process and operating energies and renewability• Shift from individual dwellings to multi-functional precincts (multi-storey commercial & residential)• New products with inherent sustainability (LCA)• Prefabricated Floor, Wall & Roof systems with significant benefits for construction and de- construction / recycling 71
  69. 69. New Developments in Europe 7 storey building - Berlin 72
  70. 70. New Developments in Europe M-M Kaufmann Glulam & CLT 73
  71. 71. New Developments in Europe 4 storey building - Munich 74
  72. 72. New Developments in Europe KLH - Austria 75
  73. 73. New Developments in EuropeUp to 6 storeys – Switzerland 76
  74. 74. New Developments in Europe 9 storey building - London 77
  75. 75. New Developments OverseasUp to 6 storeys – Canada 78
  76. 76. Prototype Buildings NMIT – Nelson NZ 79Aurecon - Engineers, ISJ - Architects
  77. 77. Prototype Buildings NMIT – Nelson NZWinner of the Institution of Structural Engineers UK’sStructural Awards 2011 in the health & education category 80
  78. 78. Sustainable Buildings• Timber has a role to play as a sustainable material for buildings in the Ecological Age• Designing for “whole of life” value & worth• Understanding sustainability processes• Detailing & const. for durability• Creative use of new products and processes 81
  79. 79. Conclusions:Sustainable Infrastructure• Significant challenges facing Design Professionals, Planners and Government• Urgent need to educate existing & future decision makers: – Triple Bottom Line “sustainability” principles – Design of new structures incorporating “renewable” mat’s – Assessment, protection / enhancement of existing• Need for us to provide leadership in the community – Understanding and communicating the need for change – Lobbying for appropriate resources – Using our skills & new technologies to create and implement sustainable practices 82
  80. 80. Conclusions:Sustainable Infrastructure• Aging infrastructure is a risk to our Cities that must be recognised and addressed• How we manage existing and create new infrastructure must be informed by an ethos that is committed to the concept of sustainable precincts 83
  81. 81. New thinking is critical for the Economic, Environmental and Socialaspects of Australia’s Infrastructure and Cities it supports, to becometruly Sustainable. Creative leadership and the multidisciplinary skills ofDesigners, Planners & Decision makers are essential for this to occur. thank you for your attention
  82. 82. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WRwA291NAuM&feature=youtu.be
  83. 83. Lifetime CO2 emissions One building, four designs 8000 Operational energy > embodied energy 7000 6000 5000 Sequestered Operationaltonnes CO2 4000 Transport 3000 Maintenance 2000 Embodied 1000 0 -1000 Concrete Steel Timber TimberPlus -2000
  84. 84. Embodied CO2 SteelConcrete Aluminium Wood
  85. 85. Overall CO2 emissions Carbon Neutral for Timber Negative for TimberPlus

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