Off-Highway Vehicle Parks            Do Increased          Regulations and        Enforcement Improve         All-Terrain ...
Background In the U.S., ATV crashes account forover:   • 800 deaths and 130,000 ED visits.   • $4.3 billion in lost lives...
Iowa ATV Injury Surveillance Database            IA Dept. of             IA Dept. of           IA Dept. of Natural        ...
Iowa Laws and Park Regulations                Iowa ATV Laws*                                Park Regulations              ...
Hypothesis: Age and Training       Children account for ~25% of deaths                and ~30% of injuries.        We hypo...
Youth Victims Off-Road Outside and Inside the Parks                            92%                                      18...
Hypothesis: No Passenger Law          Passengers are an independent            risk factor for ATV crashes.           We h...
Passenger Victims Off-Road Outside and Inside the Parks                                       97%                         ...
Hypothesis: Helmet Requirement           Helmets have been shown to           reduce the risk of head injury.          We ...
Helmet Use Off-Road Outside and Inside the Parks                                 90%                          76%     % He...
BackgroundHead injuries are among the leadingcauses of death and disability from           ATV crashes.                   ...
Crash severities were similar but head injuries were                            fewer in the parks vs. outside the parks. ...
Injuries Off-Road Outside and Inside the Parks                                                     6%                     ...
Helmets reduced the likelihood of head injuries. Relative likelihood of suffering a head injury Helmet                 Odd...
The pattern of crash mechanisms wasdifferent outside and inside the parks.            Collisions              Jumps       ...
Conclusions As compared to outside the parks, park crashesinvolved:  • Lower proportion of injured children.  • Lower pro...
Conclusions However, relative to other off- road locations, parks had a higher proportion of:   • ATV-ATV crashes.   • Ju...
Public safety laws can reduce                       deaths and injuries.   What makes laws effective?    •   People must ...
Future DirectionsWork with stakeholders to:    Increase ATV user knowledge:       • State laws and park regulations.     ...
Deaths And Injuries From ATV Crashes                   Are Preventable!To prevent deaths and injuries and their accompany...
THANK YOUWhen we have the power to save lives and health,      we have the responsibility to do so.                       ...
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ATV Safety Summit: State Legislation (Enforcement) - Do Increased Regulations and Enforcement Improve ATV Safety?

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Gerene Denning, of the University of Iowa Department of Emergency Medicine, presented this at CPSC's ATV Safety Summit Oct. 12, 2012. Off-Highway Vehicle Parks: Do Increased Regulations and Enforcement Improve All-Terrain Vehicle Safety? Objectives: To determine whether there were differences in crash mechanisms and/or compliance with ATV safety laws and regulations when comparing off-road ATV crashes inside and outside state OHV parks. Methods: Data from our Iowa ATV injury surveillance database (2002-2009) were analyzed. Results: 813 persons were included in the analysis, 6% from OHV park crashes. Relative to outside the parks, a smaller percentage of park victims were under the age of sixteen (7% vs. 31%, p<0><0><0.001). Mean injury severity scores were not different inside and outside OHV parks, but 5% of outside victims had severe brain injuries (GCS =8) as compared to no park victims. Conclusions: OHV park crashes involved more jump-related events, suggesting that additional approaches are needed to identify high-risk areas and improve park safety. However, park victims exhibited better compliance with ATV safety-related laws and regulations and suffered less severe brain injury outcomes. These findings support the hypothesis that ATV safety regulations with effective enforcement promote safe behaviors and may prevent injuries.

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ATV Safety Summit: State Legislation (Enforcement) - Do Increased Regulations and Enforcement Improve ATV Safety?

  1. 1. Off-Highway Vehicle Parks Do Increased Regulations and Enforcement Improve All-Terrain Vehicle Safety? Gerene Denning, PhD Charles Jennissen, MD Karisa Harland, PhD 1
  2. 2. Background In the U.S., ATV crashes account forover: • 800 deaths and 130,000 ED visits. • $4.3 billion in lost lives and medical care.Risk factors for ATV deaths and injuries are: • Male and/or under the age of 16. • Carrying passengers. • Age-inappropriate sized vehicle. • Lack of training. • Alcohol and drugs. • Riding at night. • Riding on the road.No studies have determined how ATV parks affectrider behavior and riding outcomes. 2
  3. 3. Iowa ATV Injury Surveillance Database IA Dept. of IA Dept. of IA Dept. of Natural IA Dept. of Natural IA State Trauma IA State Trauma Transportation Transportation Resources Resources Registry Registry IA Statewide Injury Surveillance Database (2002-2009) IA Statewide Injury Surveillance Database (2002-2009) Compare Person, vehicle, and crash Person, vehicle, and crash Person, vehicle, and crash Person, vehicle, and crash variables for crashes outside variables for crashes outside variables for crashes inside of variables for crashes inside of of ATV parks (N=767) of ATV parks (N=767) ATV parks (N=46) ATV parks (N=46)Limitations: • Crash location was poorly documented in the state trauma registry. • The DNR does not continuously monitor the parks. • The DNR does not have sufficient resources to respond to every park crash. 3
  4. 4. Iowa Laws and Park Regulations Iowa ATV Laws* Park Regulations All Locations All ATV parks1. No multiple riders on a single-person ATV *All Iowa laws apply to the ATV parks.2. Riding while under the influence of 1.Must stay on marked trails. intoxicating liquor or narcotics is prohibited. 2.Must wear a helmet.3. Vehicles must be registered with the DNR.4. Resident-owned ATVs must display a valid DNR registration.5. Nonresident-owned ATVs must display a valid nonresident user permit. Public Lands Some ATV Parks1. Age limits: 1. No children under 12 years of age. Under 12 years old: Parental supervision 2. Allow side-by-sides (UTVs) 12-17 years old: Safety certificate2. Careless, reckless, or negligent operation is prohibited.3. Speed greater than reasonable or proper under all existing circumstances is prohibited.4. Noise and headlight/taillight regulations5. No riding on the road except for agricultural purposes. 4
  5. 5. Hypothesis: Age and Training Children account for ~25% of deaths and ~30% of injuries. We hypothesize that park-specific age restrictions and a requirement for a training certificate, along with better enforcement, reduces the proportion of youth injuries in the parks. 5
  6. 6. Youth Victims Off-Road Outside and Inside the Parks 92% 18% %Crash Victims%Crash Victims 69% 11% 31% 5% 4% 3% 8% 0% The proportion of youth victims was significantly lower inside vs. outside the parks. (p<0.01). 6
  7. 7. Hypothesis: No Passenger Law Passengers are an independent risk factor for ATV crashes. We hypothesize that the “no passenger” law, along with better enforcement, reduces the proportion of passenger injuries in the parks. 7
  8. 8. Passenger Victims Off-Road Outside and Inside the Parks 97% 87%%Crash Victims 13% 3% The proportion of passenger victims trended toward being lower inside vs. outside the parks. (p = 0.11). 8
  9. 9. Hypothesis: Helmet Requirement Helmets have been shown to reduce the risk of head injury. We hypothesize that the helmet requirement, along with better enforcement, increases helmet use and decreases head injuries in the parks. 9
  10. 10. Helmet Use Off-Road Outside and Inside the Parks 90% 76% % Helmet Use 24% 10% The proportion of helmeted victims was higher inside vs. outside the parks (p<0.0001). 10
  11. 11. BackgroundHead injuries are among the leadingcauses of death and disability from ATV crashes. 11
  12. 12. Crash severities were similar but head injuries were fewer in the parks vs. outside the parks. 88% 90% 94% 84%%Crash Victims %Head Injury 16% 12% 10% 6% The overall trauma severity The overall proportion of head was not different (p = 0.57). injuries was less. 12
  13. 13. Injuries Off-Road Outside and Inside the Parks 6% 5% 4%%Head Injury 1% 0% 0% Glasgow Coma Scale (GSC) Score All head injuries in the parks were mild (GCS 13-14). 13
  14. 14. Helmets reduced the likelihood of head injuries. Relative likelihood of suffering a head injury Helmet Odds Ratio 95% CI P value UseYes 0.18 0.04-0.81 P<0.001No 1.0 (reference) Likelihood of head injury reduced by 82% Iowa Statewide ATV Injury Surveillance Database 14
  15. 15. The pattern of crash mechanisms wasdifferent outside and inside the parks. Collisions Jumps 15
  16. 16. Conclusions As compared to outside the parks, park crashesinvolved: • Lower proportion of injured children. • Lower proportion of injured passengers. • Higher levels of helmet use. • No moderate or severe head injuries. 16
  17. 17. Conclusions However, relative to other off- road locations, parks had a higher proportion of: • ATV-ATV crashes. • Jump-related crashes. We hypothesize that there are high-risk areas in the parks that could be improved to reduce crashes and injuries. 17
  18. 18. Public safety laws can reduce deaths and injuries. What makes laws effective? • People must know the laws (education). • All officers must consistently enforce the laws. • Economic barriers to compliance must be eliminated. Compliance with laws and regulations appears to be significantly better in the ATV parks. • Park rules and regulations, particularly helmet laws. • Monitoring and enforcement by seasonal park officers. 18
  19. 19. Future DirectionsWork with stakeholders to:  Increase ATV user knowledge: • State laws and park regulations. • ATV safety.  Increase park safety: • DNR to use video cameras to identify areas in the park with increased crash risk and compliance. • ATV clubs to create color-coded park maps to help emergency response teams find victims.  Improve crash and injury surveillance: • Improve DNR collection forms. • Develop ways to collect crash reports from other agencies. 19
  20. 20. Deaths And Injuries From ATV Crashes Are Preventable!To prevent deaths and injuries and their accompanying financial costs, we need: • EDUCATION and Public Awareness • ENGINEERING Safer Vehicles • ENFORCEMENT of Evidence-Based Public Health and Safety LawsIt takes all stakeholders working together. 20
  21. 21. THANK YOUWhen we have the power to save lives and health, we have the responsibility to do so. 21

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