09/19/12 This presentation was prepared by CPSC staff, has not been reviewed or approved by, and may not reflect the views of, the Commission.
2012 CPSC Safety Academy: ASTM F963 Toy Safety Standard
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission ASTM F963 Toy Standard 2012 CPSC Safety Academy Bethesda, MDThis presentation was prepared by CPSC staff, has not been reviewed or approved by, and may not reflect the views of, the Commission.
The Basics• ASTM F963 was adopted as mandatory rule by CPSC, as required in the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA) – Copyright still owned by ASTM-International – copies must be purchased at www.astm.org – Read-only copies available for viewing online when ASTM proposes revisions to CPSC• F963 is one of the key requirements for children’s toys but other requirements also apply. (E.g. lead content, lead in paint, banned phthalates, small parts, hazardous substances….)
History of the Standard• First version developed by toy industry and published by the National Bureau of Standards – 1976• First version of ASTM F 963 developed by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) –1986• ASTM F 963- 07e1 adopted as a mandatory standard by the CPSIA – 2008• Most recent version (ASTM F 963-11) became effective June 12, 2012
ASTM F 963 - Overview• Subcommittee members from industry, consumer groups, government• Requirements based on injury analysis• Covers toys for children under 14 years• Scope excludes products addressed by other standards• More than 40 sections of requirements• Annexes contain information and rationale
Scope Overview• Addresses thermal, electrical, and mechanical hazards of toys, packaging, and toy chests• Sections for prevention of choking, lacerations, strangulation, impalement, suffocation, falls, burns, poisoning, eye injuries, etc.• Age Grading: Advice for matching toys to children of certain ages
Where are we now? September 2011• 2011 version added: – Lead requirements aligned with CPSIA – Heavy elements in substrate • Compositing Procedure for Total Heavy Metal Analysis – Cadmium requirements – Bath toy projections – Seat overload testing – Acoustics testing aligned with international standard – Elastic tether toys testing – New figures
The Standard Itself• List of other federal rules for toys• Definitions• Requirements• Test methods• Guidelines
Partial List of Requirements ASTM F963• Sound-Producing Toys • Wheels, Tires, and Axles• Battery-Operated Toys • Magnets• Small Objects • Pacifiers• Stuffed and Beanbag-type • Balloons Toys • Projectile Toys• Projections • Certain Toys with Spherical• Marbles and Balls Ends• Folding Mechanisms and • Rattles Hinges • Teethers and Teething Toys• Hemispheric-Shaped Objects • Squeeze Toys• Cords and Elastics in Toys • Toxicology: Heavy Elements in• Yo-Yo Elastic Tether Toys Paint and Substrate• Bath Toy Projections 8
How To Apply the Standard?• Age grading: – matches the attributes of the toy to the capabilities of the child; and – is used to determine the appropriate tests to which a product must comply.• The Commission considers: – the manufacturer’s labeling on the product, if it is reasonable; – whether the product is advertised, promoted, and marketed for that age child; – whether the product is recognized commonly by consumers as being intended for that age child; and – Age Determination Guidelines – September 2002.
Examples• Not All Sections of F963 Apply to Every Toy• Some Sections of F963 Require Third Party Testing, Some Sections Do NOT require Third Party Testing• Clear Examples – Toy Industry Association• “Gray Area” Examples – Testing Laboratory: Pratik Ichhaporia, PhD, Intertek Consumer Goods
Third Party Testing RequiredExcept in the following circumstances:• Sections that address requirements for labeling,instructional literature, or producer’s markings;• Sections that involve assessments that are conducted bythe unaided eye and without any sort of tool or device.• Sections that pertain to the manufacturing process andthus, cannot be evaluated meaningfully by a test of thefinished product (e.g., the purified water provision atsection 18.104.22.168); and• Sections that address food and cosmetics;
Where are we going? New Issues and Emerging Hazards• Working groups: – Batteries in toys Lithium batteries, fire prevention – Magnets in toys Magnet strength, flux index, labeling – Projectile toys Kinetic energy, improvised projectiles – Impaction hazards Nail-shaped hazards – Emerging hazards Projection hazards – Toy Chests
Mandatory Standard Revision Process • ASTM F963 revisions sent to CPSC for review • CPSC may reject revisions within 90 days • Unless rejected, changes become mandatory 180 days after proposal • CPSC rejected removal of toy chest section from ASTM F963-08, so ASTM F963-07e1 toy chest requirements remain in use with ASTM F963-08
Thank You Panelists:Moderator: Jonathan Midgett, PhD, CPSCNeal S. Cohen email@example.comSmall BusinessOmbudsman, CPSC Alan Kaufman & Joan Lawrence, firstname.lastname@example.org Toy Industry Association email@example.com Twitter @CPSCSmallBiz firstname.lastname@example.org Nancy Cowles, KIDS in Danger www.slideshare.net/USCPSC email@example.com www.cpsc.gov/Toysafety Pratik Ichhaporia, PhD, Intertek www.cpsc.gov/GettingStarted Consumer Goods www.cpsc.gov/SmallBiz firstname.lastname@example.org