ATV Safety Summit: State Legislation (Enforcement) - Knowledge and Compliance with Road Use Laws

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Gerene Denning, of the University of Iowa Department of Emergency Services, presented this at CPSC's ATV Safety Summit Oct. 12, 2012. High Proportions of Roadway Deaths and Injuries on ATVs Suggest Poor Knowledge and Compliance with Road Use Laws. Objectives: To compare fatal and non-fatal ATV crashes on and off the road. Methods: Retrospective studies were performed using national fatality data (CPSC) and statewide injury data. Results: From 1985-2009, 62% of U.S. ATV deaths resulted from roadway crashes, and roadway deaths since 1998 have increased at a greater rate than off-road deaths. Fatal roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to result in multiple deaths and to involve multiple riders, higher alcohol use, more collisions, and more head injuries. Similarly, non-fatal Iowa roadway crashes (2002-2009) involved more passengers, alcohol use, and collisions as compared to off-road crashes. Helmet use was significantly lower in roadway crashes relative to off-road; and more severe injuries overall, including head injuries, characterized roadway crashes. Both studies showed helmets reduced the likelihood of head injury. Conclusion: Despite road use laws, over half of U.S. ATV-related deaths and one-third of serious injuries in Iowa resulted from roadway crashes. We hypothesize that multiple risk factors exacerbate the inherent difficulty of safely operating ATVs on roads, and that speed and lack of protective equipment increase injury severity. Improving knowledge and enforcement of road use laws may be an effective way to reduce ATV-related deaths and injuries.

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  • One of the major differences between ATVs and vehicles designed to be driven on the road is the tires. ATVs are more prone to loss of control relative to other vehicles even on flat, dry road surfaces. The risk of losing control is even higher on wet or icy surfaces.
  • ATV Safety Summit: State Legislation (Enforcement) - Knowledge and Compliance with Road Use Laws

    1. 1. High Proportions of Roadway Deaths and Injuries on ATVs Suggest Poor Knowledge and Compliance with Road Use Laws Gerene Denning, PhD Charles Jennissen, MD Karisa Harland, PhD 1
    2. 2. Background22 states, including Iowa, have road use laws restricting use to work- related purposes.However, survey studies suggest that riding on the road is a widespread practice, including among Iowa youth: • 81% of Future Farmer’s of America (FFA) members (Burgus et al. 2009) • 82% of 4 H Clubs of America members (Hafner et al 2010) • 81% Iowa school students (11-16 yrs old) (Jennissen et al.)In addition, West Virginia reported that 60% of statewide ATV-related deaths were due to crashes on the roadway (Helmkamp et al. 2008). Why and how are ATVs more dangerous on the road? 2
    3. 3. Not all tires are created equal. Under-inflated, knobby ATV tires are designed to handle UNEVEN, ROUGH off-road surfaces. They can GRAB the road surface Well inflated and throw a rider automobile tires with off, or cause the good tread are ATV to ROLLdesigned to GRIP and OVER,RELEASE the ROAD particularly while surface to help turning.maintain control of the vehicle. Automobile Tires ATV Tires 3
    4. 4. Many factors contribute to loss of control on the road. High center of Need wider gravity. turning radius CM than road is designed for.Entering roadway Knobby tires from ditch has can grab whenvisibility problems. accelerating. 4
    5. 5. Objective of Our StudiesTo compare roadway and off-road deaths and injuries todetermine whether there were differences in: Demographics Riding practices and risk factors Injury outcomes, including head injuries 5
    6. 6. Data Sources Used Consumer Product SafetyCommission (CPSC) National Fatality Database Iowa Statewide ATV Injury Surveillance Database 6
    7. 7. Iowa ATV Injury Surveillance Database 7
    8. 8. Fatal crashes have increased at a greater rate on the roadway vs. off. Roadway vs. Off-Road Deaths Per Year• Dramatic increase 600 followed expiration Roadway Off-Road of the 10-Year 500 Consent Decree. 48 + 2.8 More Roadway 400• Fatal roadway Deaths/yr crashes increased 300 at more than twice 10-Year Consent Decree the rate of off-road 200 crashes. 20 + 1.8 More Off-road 100 Deaths/yr• From 1985-2009, 62% of all fatal ATV 0 crashes were on the roadway! Year CPSC Fatality Database 8
    9. 9. Teens and young adults are over-represented in roadway deaths. % of Roadway vs. Off-Road Deaths by Age 35 Roadway > Off-Road Roadway 30 Off-Road 25 Off-road > Roadway 20 15 Off-road > Roadway 10 5 0 Age Range CPSC Fatality Database 9
    10. 10. ATV-related injuries also disproportionately affect the young. 70% 67% Approximately 3 out of 10 injuries in our database were among 30% 33% victims less than 16 years of age. 64% 58% 42% 36% Twice that number (6 out of 10) involved victims 25 years of age and younger.Iowa Injury Surveillance Database 10
    11. 11. Fatal roadway crashes were more likely to involve multiple deaths than off-road crashes. Single vs. Multiple Fatalities per Crash N= 3,658 Crashes (1985-2009)Fatalities Roadway Off-RoadSingle 97% 99%Multiple 3% 1% Roadway vs. Off-Road Why were roadway crashes aOR 3.15 3X more likely to 95% CI 1.95-5.09 involve multiple deaths? P value <0.0001 CPSC Fatality Database 11
    12. 12. Fatal roadway crashes involved more multiple riders than off-road crashes. 15% 12% 13%16% 69% 75%31% Multiple Riders > 25% Multiple Riders CPSC Fatality Database 12
    13. 13. More than 1 out of 10 non-fatal Iowa crash victims were passengers. 16% 15% 84% 85% Iowa Injury Surveillance DatabaseOver 50% of passenger victims were female andover 60% were children under the age of 16. 13
    14. 14. Fatal and non-fatal roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve collisions. CPSC Fatality Database Over 10 timesFatality Mechanism Roadway Off-Road Relative riskATV-Vehicle Collision 29% 6% Odds Ratio 10.4ATV-Other Collision 37% 22% 95% CI 8.9-12.2Rollover 34% 72% P value <0.001 Iowa Injury Surveillance Database Almost 5 timesInjury Mechanism Roadway Off-Road Relative riskATV-Vehicle Collision 35% 5% Odds Ratio 4.7ATV-Other Collision 27% 20% 95% CI 3.51-6.34Rollover 38% 74% P value <0.001 ATVs on the roadway are a serious traffic safety hazard! 14
    15. 15. Fatal and non-fatal roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve alcohol. CPSC Fatality Database Almost twice Involved Alcohol Roadway Off-Road Relative risk Yes 45% 30% Odds Ratio 1.96 No 55% 70% 95% CI 1.74-2.21 P value <0.001 Iowa Injury Surveillance Database Almost twice Involved Alcohol Roadway Off-Road Relative risk Yes 13% 8% Odds Ratio 1.91 No 87% 92% 95% CI 1.09-3.36 P value <0.001Better enforcement of laws prohibiting alcohol use are needed! 15
    16. 16. Vehicles in fatal crashes are getting bigger and more powerful. CPSC Fatality Database 100 775-900 cc 90 80 625-750 cc 70 475-600 cc 60 50 375-450 cc 40 225-350 cc 30 20 100-200 cc 10 <90 cc 0 1985-1990 1991-1998 1999-2003 2004-2009 YearsDo higher rates of roadway fatalities reflect the growing popularity of large vehicles capable of achieving highway speeds? 16
    17. 17. Roadway vs. Off-Road Outcomes Head injuries are among the leadingcauses of death and disability from ATV crashes. 17
    18. 18. Fatal and non-fatal roadway crashes were associated with more head injuries. CPSC Fatality Database Iowa State Trauma Registry 90% 66% 74% 50% 50% 34% 17% 9% 5% 5% Crashes Glasgow Coma Scale Fatal Roadway vs. Off-road Non-fatal Roadway vs. Off-roadcrashes were 2X more likely to crashes were 3X more likely to involve a head injury. involve a head injury. 18
    19. 19. Helmets reduced the likelihood of head injuries. Fatal Non-fatal Roadway Off-Road Roadway Off-RoadHelmet use 16% 24% 14% 23%P value p<0.0001 p<0.01 Helmets reduced the likelihood of head injury: •77% for Iowa non-fatal crashes. •46% for national fatal crashes. All states need ATV helmet laws that are effectively enforced! 19
    20. 20. CPSC Fatality Database 62% of fatal ATV crashes occurred on the roadway. ATV-related roadway fatalities were more likely than off- road fatalities to involve: • Teens and young adults • Multiple deaths • Multiple riders • Collisions with another vehicle • Alcohol • Head injuries ATV-related roadway fatalities were less likely than off- road fatalities to involve: • Helmet use among riders. Helmets reduced the risk of head injury. 20
    21. 21. Iowa ATV Injury Surveillance DatabaseATV-related roadway injuries were more likely than off- road injuries to involve: • Teens and young adults • Collisions with another vehicle • Alcohol • Head injuries • Severe trauma (ISS >15)ATV-related roadway injuries were less likely than off- road injuries to involve: • Helmet use among ridersHelmets reduced the risk of head injury. 21
    22. 22. Conclusions ATV riders in states with road use laws are not complying with the law. Compliance with laws requires: • Knowledge of the laws. • Enforcement of the laws. • Removal of economic barriers with compliance. ATV riders in states with the following laws also appear to have poor compliance. • No passenger laws. • Alcohol prohibition. • Helmet laws. 22
    23. 23. To reduce ATV-related deaths and injuries… All states need evidence-based ATVlaws that are effectively enforced. 23
    24. 24. Deaths And Injuries From ATV Crashes Are Preventable!To prevent deaths and injuries and their accompanying financial costs, we need: • EDUCATION and Public Awareness • ENGINEERING Safer Vehicles • ENFORCEMENT of Evidence-Based Public Health and Safety LawsIt takes all stakeholders working together. 24
    25. 25. THANK YOUWhen we have the power to save lives and health, we have the responsibility to do so. 25

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