Guidelines for Oral Presentations

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Welcome to our tutorial: Guidelines for Oral Presentations. The purpose of this module is to help organize, construct, and present your oral project. You will find tips on how to use your visual aids effectively and how to reduce your speaking anxiety. You will also find a list of things that you should avoid while presenting, suggestions on how to conduct yourself during the presentation and how to prepare for the question and answer session at the end.

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Guidelines for Oral Presentations

  1. 1. Guidelines for Oral Presentations University of the Sacred Heart Department of Humanities Center for Language Development Across the Disciplines LAD
  2. 2. <ul><li>“There are no secrets to success. It is the result of preparation, hard work, and </li></ul><ul><li>learning from failure” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gen. Colin L. Powell </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>To help with the preparation process of oral presentations and activities </li></ul><ul><li>To improve oral presentation skills </li></ul>
  4. 4. How to Focus Your Message <ul><li>Determine if you want to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Components of a Presentation <ul><li>All presentations must have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A conclusion </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Organize Your Message Effectively <ul><li>Determine your topic, and what you will cover </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm and organize all your ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Research - Make sure you are well-informed on your topic </li></ul><ul><li>Classify and order your ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize the important elements </li></ul>
  7. 7. Write an Effective Conclusion <ul><li>Summarize the key points of the presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize how to implement solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize future predictions based on your persuasion strategies </li></ul>
  8. 8. Creating the Presentation <ul><li>Make it BIG </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If it looks too big on the computer, it’s the perfect size </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep it SIMPLE </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Present the main idea of each concept </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Creating the Presentation <ul><li>Make it CLEAR </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choose an appropriate font, font size, and color </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Be CONSISTENT </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use a logical sequence and one format </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Preparation <ul><li>Prepare your visuals in advance </li></ul><ul><li>Always make back-up copies </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse a lot (avoid the use of papers or note cards) </li></ul><ul><li>Know how to use the technical equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Preview the room, and select the layout that is best for your presentation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Advantages of Visual Aids <ul><li>Enhance understanding of the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Help your speech be more impressive, </li></ul><ul><li>and improve your image </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain the audience’s attention and </li></ul><ul><li>increase their interest </li></ul><ul><li>Help build credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Add variety </li></ul>
  12. 12. Diversity of Audiovisual Aids <ul><ul><li>Sketches and Maps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphs & Charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photographs, Pictures & Slides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects, Models or “Realia” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posters & Books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PowerPoint Presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audiovisual Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overhead Projectors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slides & Transparencies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handouts, pamphlets, brochures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Films, videotapes, audio tapes, music, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD-ROMs & iPods </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Preparing Effective PowerPoint Slides <ul><li>Use visuals sparingly </li></ul><ul><li>Rule 7 X 7 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use no more than 7 lines of text per slide </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use no more than 7 words per line of text </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Restrict the contents of tables and graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain uniformity in font style, font size, and bullets </li></ul>
  14. 14. Constructing Effective Visual Aids <ul><li>Never use confusing abbreviations </li></ul><ul><li>The use of periods at the end of the bullets is not necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Artistry and sounds do not substitute for content, and they can distract your audience </li></ul><ul><li>Select complimentary colors; avoid color clashes </li></ul><ul><li>Use fonts like “Sans Serif” or “Times New Roman” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Constructing Effective Visual Aids 16-18 pt 28 pt 24 pt Body 20 pt 36 pt 28 pt Subtitles 24 pt 48 pt 36 pt Title Hand- outs Slides Transparencies
  16. 16. Construction of Graphs <ul><li>Present one graph per slide </li></ul><ul><li>Limit the amount of numbers or figures </li></ul><ul><li>No more than 3 curves or horizontal bar lines per graph </li></ul>Reading Comprehension in English
  17. 17. Examples of Font Sizes <ul><li>This is font 48 </li></ul><ul><li>This is font 36 </li></ul><ul><li>This is font 28 </li></ul><ul><li>This is font 24 </li></ul><ul><li>This is font 20 </li></ul><ul><li>This is font 18 </li></ul><ul><li>This is font 16 </li></ul><ul><li>The font size of the word below is written in 48. </li></ul>Word Art
  18. 18. Overuse of Visual Aids <ul><li>Attention of audience will be divided </li></ul><ul><li>Audience may pay more attention to visuals than to speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid slides with too much movement and/or sounds </li></ul>
  19. 19. How to Conduct Yourself During Your Presentation <ul><li>Be punctual </li></ul><ul><li>Stand up, or sit straight </li></ul><ul><li>Keep hands in front of you </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain eye contact with the audience </li></ul><ul><li>on all sides of the room </li></ul><ul><li>Start the presentation with a smile </li></ul><ul><li>Use a conversational tone </li></ul><ul><li>Dress neatly and professionally </li></ul>
  20. 20. Use Your Voice Effectively <ul><li>Speak loud enough to be heard, and be confident </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t speak in a monotone </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate the rate of your voice </li></ul><ul><li>Slow down when emphasizing important points </li></ul><ul><li>Pauses can also be used to add emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Drink water to prevent voice problems </li></ul>
  21. 21. Top Ten Mistakes Made by Presenters <ul><li>No preparation </li></ul><ul><li>No presentation objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Mediocre first impression </li></ul><ul><li>Lack good visuals </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffective closing </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>No eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of facial expression </li></ul><ul><li>Stays in one place </li></ul><ul><li>No audience involvement </li></ul>
  22. 22. Things to Avoid <ul><li>Corporal Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Swinging and moving excessively </li></ul><ul><li>Playing with hair </li></ul><ul><li>Chewing gum </li></ul><ul><li>Clicking the top of a pen </li></ul><ul><li>Playing with jewelry </li></ul><ul><li>Leaning against something for support </li></ul>
  23. 23. Things to Avoid <ul><li>Speaking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too fast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too slow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too low </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arrogance </li></ul><ul><li>Fillers (repetitive sounds and phrases) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ah” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ um” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ and” </li></ul></ul>Voice
  24. 24. Steps to Reduce Your Speaking Anxiety <ul><li>Know the room </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arrive early </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Walk around the room </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Know the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Know, practice, and revise your material </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how to relax </li></ul><ul><li>Visualize yourself speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Realize people want you to succeed </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t apologize for being nervous </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate on your message </li></ul><ul><li>Turn nervousness into positive energy </li></ul><ul><li>Gain experience </li></ul>
  25. 25. How to Control Your Nervousness <ul><li>Transform fear and nervousness to presentation presence and strength </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathe deeply and exhale slowly (repeat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stretch your muscles (neck, legs, and arms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat breathing exercise, close your eyes, relax, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feel prepared and ready </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walk the room: feel the space of your success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greet your audience (Impact them) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Question and Answer Session <ul><li>Know the background of your topic </li></ul><ul><li>Find out if there are any current / recent studies </li></ul><ul><li>Know if there is any influence or impact on society / environment / organization </li></ul><ul><li>Know the sources on which your research is based </li></ul>
  27. 27. References <ul><li>4 Important Design Concepts – http://www.kumc.edu/SAH/OTEd/jradel/Effective_visuals/102.html </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing EFL Learners for Oral Presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Presenters Online </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.presentersonline.com </li></ul>
  28. 28. References <ul><li>Overcoming Speaking Anxiety in Meetings and Presentations </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.all-biz.com/newroot/Authors.asp ? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Técnicas de Presentación Publicitaria” </li></ul><ul><li>Prof. Modesto Aguayo, Universidad de Sagrado Corazón </li></ul><ul><li>Using Visual Aids </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.askjeeves.com/main/followup.asp?qcat = home&ask = how+can+i+make+a+good+oral+presentation </li></ul>
  29. 29. GOOD LUCK!!! Prepared by Professors Delia Serrano and Jennifer Soler 2002 Revised by Professor Delia Serrano 2003 Revised by Patricia Kidd 2004 Revised by Prof. Delia Serrano 2005

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