Class 6b: Intro to Cultural Geography
What is culture? <ul><li>Material objects (artifacts) </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal relations (sociofacts) </li></ul><ul...
What does culture include? <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Cl...
Artifacts of culture <ul><li>Survival vs. leisure activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing, food, clothing </li></ul></ul>...
Environmental influence <ul><li>Old: environmental determinism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical environment shapes everythin...
Architecture <ul><li>Building materials based on environment  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood in forested areas </li></ul></ul>...
Syria Dominican Republic Newfoundland Nebraska
Architecture <ul><li>House shape may depend on environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior courtyards for privacy </li></ul...
Amsterdam Massachusetts China
Architecture <ul><li>House form and orientation as sociofacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Front porches, front stoops </li></ul>...
Brooklyn Guyana
Poland Yemen Korea
Clothing <ul><li>Based on climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm or cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet or dry </li></ul></ul>...
Samoa Netherlands China Guatemala Morocco
 
Food <ul><li>Strong part of group identity </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates innovation, diffusion, acculturation, and assimi...
Food <ul><li>Preferences may depend on environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staple foods: rice, sorghum, maize, wheat </li></...
<ul><li>Food hearths map </li></ul>
American foodways <ul><li>Colonial foods (Thanksgiving) </li></ul><ul><li>Foods diffused back to New World </li></ul><ul><...
American foodways <ul><li>Acculturation (or not) </li></ul><ul><li>Southern cooking retains strong regional identity  </li...
American foodways <ul><li>More immigrants mean more foods </li></ul><ul><li>Similar diffusion pattern to place names </li>...
American foodways <ul><li>Towards “fusion cooking” </li></ul><ul><li>Depression, wars encouraged thriftiness </li></ul><ul...
Vinegar Tomato Mustard
Food and place identity <ul><li>Historical connections </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism an...
Pineapples and Hawaii <ul><li>Originally South American </li></ul><ul><li>Plantations since 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>Dole’s...
Lobsters and Maine <ul><li>Originally food for poor, or fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy New Englanders in 1860s </li>...
Wine geography <ul><li>Production based on environmental factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate climate (hot summer, wet ...
 
Wine geography <ul><li>Terroir : how environment shapes wine flavor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil, sunlight, slope, rainfall,...
 
Introduction to cultural geography <ul><li>Material, social, ideological expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial distributio...
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Class6b

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Class6b

  1. 1. Class 6b: Intro to Cultural Geography
  2. 2. What is culture? <ul><li>Material objects (artifacts) </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal relations (sociofacts) </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas and beliefs (mentifacts) </li></ul><ul><li>Each element has a spatial distribution </li></ul>
  3. 3. What does culture include? <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Gender relations </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul>
  4. 4. Artifacts of culture <ul><li>Survival vs. leisure activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing, food, clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arts, recreation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Folk vs. popular culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local, homogenous groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large, heterogeneous groups </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Environmental influence <ul><li>Old: environmental determinism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical environment shapes everything </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prone to racist conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New: possibilism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People are the driving force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But environment shapes cultural activity </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Architecture <ul><li>Building materials based on environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood in forested areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brick in hot, dry places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass or sod on prairies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skins for nomads </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Syria Dominican Republic Newfoundland Nebraska
  8. 8. Architecture <ul><li>House shape may depend on environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior courtyards for privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open plan for letting in air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall, narrow to maximize land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steep roofs in snowy areas </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Amsterdam Massachusetts China
  10. 10. Architecture <ul><li>House form and orientation as sociofacts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Front porches, front stoops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sacred direction, sacred wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleeping orientation </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Brooklyn Guyana
  12. 12. Poland Yemen Korea
  13. 13. Clothing <ul><li>Based on climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm or cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet or dry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May reflect occupation/status </li></ul><ul><li>Also reflect values, traditions </li></ul>
  14. 14. Samoa Netherlands China Guatemala Morocco
  15. 16. Food <ul><li>Strong part of group identity </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates innovation, diffusion, acculturation, and assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Can be part of place identity </li></ul><ul><li>Back and forth between culture and place </li></ul>
  16. 17. Food <ul><li>Preferences may depend on environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staple foods: rice, sorghum, maize, wheat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salted meats, fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Or genetics (lactose intolerance) </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Food hearths map </li></ul>
  18. 19. American foodways <ul><li>Colonial foods (Thanksgiving) </li></ul><ul><li>Foods diffused back to New World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potatoes to Ireland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tomatoes to Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chocolate to Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peanut and sweet potato to Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixing of foods (creole) </li></ul>
  19. 20. American foodways <ul><li>Acculturation (or not) </li></ul><ul><li>Southern cooking retains strong regional identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African slaves cooked on plantations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less urban influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-North attitudes discouraged </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. American foodways <ul><li>More immigrants mean more foods </li></ul><ul><li>Similar diffusion pattern to place names </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-immigrant attitudes through dieticians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chili power bad for stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common pot unsanitary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pickles unhealthy </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. American foodways <ul><li>Towards “fusion cooking” </li></ul><ul><li>Depression, wars encouraged thriftiness </li></ul><ul><li>Soldiers ate same food, encountered diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class: “exotic” foods </li></ul><ul><li>Melting pot  salad bowl </li></ul>
  22. 23. Vinegar Tomato Mustard
  23. 24. Food and place identity <ul><li>Historical connections </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism and place “consumption” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pineapples and Hawaii </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lobster and Maine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wine appellations and terroir </li></ul>
  24. 25. Pineapples and Hawaii <ul><li>Originally South American </li></ul><ul><li>Plantations since 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>Dole’s national ad campaign in 1907: Hawaiian pineapple </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper to grow in Thailand, Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Hawaii focuses on fresh fruit for tourists </li></ul>
  25. 26. Lobsters and Maine <ul><li>Originally food for poor, or fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy New Englanders in 1860s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summering in Maine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imitating the locals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only for wealthy vacationers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Now negative symbol for locals </li></ul>
  26. 27. Wine geography <ul><li>Production based on environmental factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate climate (hot summer, wet winter) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hillsides allow drainage, sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coarse, well-drained soil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And social factors that determine consumption </li></ul>
  27. 29. Wine geography <ul><li>Terroir : how environment shapes wine flavor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil, sunlight, slope, rainfall, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies at the vineyard scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appellation: place-of-origin label </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Champagne, Bordeaux, Burgundy, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parmigiana Romano, Stilton, Camembert </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. Introduction to cultural geography <ul><li>Material, social, ideological expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial distribution of culture traits </li></ul><ul><li>Folk vs. popular, survival vs. recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental influence on culture </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion and acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>Food and place identity </li></ul>

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