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  1. 1. Class 5b: Population and Migration <ul><li>Push and pull factors </li></ul><ul><li>Types of migration </li></ul><ul><li>Determining destinations </li></ul>
  2. 2. Migration basics <ul><li>Long-distance change of residence and “activity space” </li></ul><ul><li>Pull and push factors </li></ul><ul><li>International or internal </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary or forced </li></ul><ul><li>Affects both receiving and sending places </li></ul>
  3. 4. Pull and push factors <ul><li>Pulls: economic opportunity, natural resources, climate, freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Pushes: war or conflict, natural disaster, population pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Political or economic trends </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in life cycle or career cycle </li></ul>
  4. 7. International migration <ul><li>3% of world population </li></ul><ul><li>Wide range of push and pull factors </li></ul><ul><li>Major cultural and political impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Remittances to home country </li></ul>
  5. 8. U.S. 11% California 26.2%
  6. 9. California 26.2% Sacramento Co. 16.1%
  7. 10. Sac. Co. 16.1% Folsom 2.5% Fruitridge 39.6%
  8. 13. New England Plymouth, MA Jamestown, VA
  9. 14. Harlem Schuylkill, NY Holland, MI
  10. 15. Baton Rouge, LA Sault Ste. Marie, MI Fond du Lac, WI
  11. 16. Germantown, PA Frankfort, KY New Berlin, WI
  12. 17. New Uppsala, WI Bergen, MN Denmark, IA
  13. 18. Little Italy (NY, SF) Pulaski Ave. (Chi) Ukrainian Village (Chi)
  14. 20. Internal migration <ul><li>From one region or state to another </li></ul>1998-1999 (thousands)
  15. 21. Internal migration <ul><li>Rural to urban migration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Push: land or income shortage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pull: jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Historically goes with industrialization </li></ul><ul><li>Population shift in developing countries </li></ul>
  16. 22. Voluntary or forced <ul><li>Voluntary: free choice </li></ul><ul><li>Forced: not your choice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refugees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redevelopment </li></ul></ul>
  17. 24. Where to? <ul><li>Hierarchy of destination decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Different scales mean different factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Region or city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighborhood </li></ul></ul>
  18. 25. Where to? <ul><li>Migration field: for a given place, where people tend to come from and go to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance or accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural or social similarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal contacts </li></ul></ul>
  19. 27. Where to? <ul><li>Channelized migration: historical patterns matter </li></ul><ul><li>Great Migration (1890-1920) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500,000 African-Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic/social push </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic pull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North to South and rural to urban </li></ul></ul>
  20. 28. Where to? <ul><li>Return migration: back to place of origin </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 25% of all migrants </li></ul><ul><li>Unsuccessful trip, or the goal all along </li></ul><ul><li>Guestworkers: intended to be temporary </li></ul>
  21. 29. U.S. Immigration and California <ul><li>Unrestricted immigration till 1880s </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 </li></ul><ul><li>National Origins Act of 1924 </li></ul><ul><li>1934 restrictions on Filipinos </li></ul><ul><li>Bracero program of 1942-1964 </li></ul><ul><li>Today, preference to families or skilled workers </li></ul>