Class4a

357 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Travel
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
357
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Class4a

  1. 1. Class 4a: Natural Resources and the Economy <ul><li>Primary economic activity </li></ul><ul><li>Resource-based economies (Gabon) </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture and trade (Chile) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Economic geography <ul><li>How do people earn a living? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics/economic system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How does that vary by place? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it connect places? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Economic geography <ul><li>Primary economic activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closest contact with natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, lowest income </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary: value added (manufacturing) </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary: services for primary or secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Quaternary: information-based services </li></ul>
  4. 5. Primary economic activity <ul><li>“ Gathering” industries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forestry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial vs. subsistence </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially renewable resources </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum sustainable yield </li></ul>
  5. 6. Fisheries <ul><li>Protein for 1 billion people </li></ul><ul><li>Inland 6%, aquaculture 23%, oceans 71% </li></ul><ul><li>Tragedy of the commons </li></ul>
  6. 8. Forestry <ul><li>Commercial use or fuelwood </li></ul><ul><li>Coniferous (softwood) for paper, lumber </li></ul><ul><li>Deciduous (hardwood) for furniture, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical hardwood for fuelwood, furniture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And clearing land </li></ul></ul>
  7. 10. Tropical forests <ul><li>Land and fuel under pressure from growing population </li></ul><ul><li>Beef more profitable than timber </li></ul><ul><li>Gone: Central America 70%, Asia 50%, Africa 50%, South America 40% </li></ul>
  8. 11. Tropical forests <ul><li>Forests as carbon sink </li></ul><ul><li>Rain forests and biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costa Rica birds = North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>72 species of ant on Peruvian tree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medical resources </li></ul><ul><li>Ecotourism </li></ul>
  9. 12. Primary economic activity <ul><li>“ Extractive” industries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quarrying (gravel, sand) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonrenewable resources </li></ul><ul><li>Huge capital investment: then what? </li></ul>
  10. 13. Resource-based economies <ul><li>Multiple scales (from countries to towns) </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent on one commodity </li></ul><ul><li>Volatile commodity prices </li></ul><ul><li>Boom-and-bust cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Need value-added activity </li></ul>
  11. 15. Example: Antofagasta, Chile <ul><li>Founded in 19 th century for nitrate mining </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth led to Chile’s first banks </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical substitutes by 1930s </li></ul><ul><li>Port for Bolivia </li></ul>
  12. 16. Example: Antofagasta, Chile <ul><li>New technology made copper mining possible </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalized in 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>1990 boom when reopened to private investment </li></ul><ul><li>Today: 9% of GDP, 33% of world copper </li></ul><ul><li>But: foreign investment, no value-added </li></ul>
  13. 18. Agriculture <ul><li>About 1/3 of Earth’s land </li></ul><ul><li>Subsistence, traditional, commercial </li></ul>
  14. 19. Subsistence agriculture <ul><li>Your responsibility! </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive vs. intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic herding, shifting cultivation, intensive subsistence </li></ul><ul><li>Where and why </li></ul>
  15. 20. Commercial agriculture <ul><li>Maximizing profit, not food security </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization by location </li></ul><ul><li>Off-farm sales </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependence of producers and consumers </li></ul>
  16. 21. Agribusiness <ul><li>Focus on minimizing risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producers want standard products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers want guaranteed markets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contracts between farmers and corporations </li></ul><ul><li>Political pressure for subsidies </li></ul><ul><li>Political pressure on health </li></ul>
  17. 22. Von Th ü nen’s land use model <ul><li>German landowner in 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>Noticed pattern of agricultural land use </li></ul><ul><li>Three assumptions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated city (no trade) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounded by homogenous landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All that matters is transport costs </li></ul></ul>
  18. 24. Distance from market Land value
  19. 25. Distance from market Land value
  20. 26. Distance from market Land value
  21. 27. Distance from market Land value
  22. 28. Distance from market Land value
  23. 29. Distance from market Land value
  24. 32. Von Th ü nen’s land use model <ul><li>So what? </li></ul><ul><li>Connections between city and country </li></ul><ul><li>General patterns of agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Can be applied to urban settings, too </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased transport costs make the pattern larger </li></ul>

×