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Class 3b: Climate and Weather
Today’s class <ul><li>Map projection leftovers </li></ul><ul><li>Air pressure and winds </li></ul><ul><li>Climate comparis...
Map projections <ul><li>Project a round globe onto a flat surface </li></ul><ul><li>Options? </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch out...
Map projections <ul><li>Three properties to consider </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area (equal-area or equivalent) </li></ul></ul>...
Cylindrical projections <ul><li>Shapes are preserved </li></ul><ul><li>But not area! </li></ul><ul><li>Mercator projection...
Cylindrical projections: Gall- Peters <ul><li>Adjusting Mercator for a more “just” map  </li></ul><ul><li>Also preserves a...
Conic projections <ul><li>Best for hemispheres or small regions </li></ul><ul><li>Area and shape only slightly distorted <...
Planar projections <ul><li>Equidistant; good for navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Only good for one hemisphere </li></ul><ul><...
Other projections <ul><li>Based on more complicated math </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupted, oval, combination </li></ul>Goode ...
 
Dymaxion
Air pressure and winds <ul><li>Air is a fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Warmer air is less dense </li></ul><ul><li>Air moves from ...
Global air circulation <ul><li>Equator receives most insolation </li></ul><ul><li>Hot air rises, heads towards poles </li>...
<ul><li>Warmer air “holds” more water </li></ul><ul><li>Low pressure=warm air=precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>High pressur...
 
 
Ocean currents <ul><li>Follow same circular pattern (driven by wind) </li></ul><ul><li>Warm currents flow away from equato...
 
 
Climate classification <ul><li>Temperature and precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Köppen classification system </li></ul><ul>...
Climate classification <ul><li>Form groups according to climate </li></ul><ul><li>Verify your answers </li></ul><ul><li>Lo...
 
Weather: hurricanes <ul><li>Start at low pressure centers </li></ul><ul><li>Warm air rises </li></ul><ul><li>Water evapora...
 
 
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Class3b

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Class3b

  1. 1. Class 3b: Climate and Weather
  2. 2. Today’s class <ul><li>Map projection leftovers </li></ul><ul><li>Air pressure and winds </li></ul><ul><li>Climate comparisons </li></ul><ul><li>Weather: hurricanes </li></ul>
  3. 3. Map projections <ul><li>Project a round globe onto a flat surface </li></ul><ul><li>Options? </li></ul><ul><li>Stretch out some areas </li></ul><ul><li>Cut out some areas </li></ul><ul><li>Shrink some areas </li></ul>
  4. 4. Map projections <ul><li>Three properties to consider </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area (equal-area or equivalent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape (conformal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance (equidistant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose two out of three </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How large an area? </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the map </li></ul><ul><li>Ulterior motives? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cylindrical projections <ul><li>Shapes are preserved </li></ul><ul><li>But not area! </li></ul><ul><li>Mercator projection </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate distortion? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cylindrical projections: Gall- Peters <ul><li>Adjusting Mercator for a more “just” map </li></ul><ul><li>Also preserves area </li></ul><ul><li>Distorts shape differently </li></ul>
  7. 7. Conic projections <ul><li>Best for hemispheres or small regions </li></ul><ul><li>Area and shape only slightly distorted </li></ul>
  8. 8. Planar projections <ul><li>Equidistant; good for navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Only good for one hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>Distorts area, not shape </li></ul>
  9. 9. Other projections <ul><li>Based on more complicated math </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupted, oval, combination </li></ul>Goode Robinson
  10. 11. Dymaxion
  11. 12. Air pressure and winds <ul><li>Air is a fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Warmer air is less dense </li></ul><ul><li>Air moves from dense to less dense conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.: Land-sea breezes </li></ul>
  12. 13. Global air circulation <ul><li>Equator receives most insolation </li></ul><ul><li>Hot air rises, heads towards poles </li></ul><ul><li>Air becomes heavy and sinks at 30°N and S </li></ul><ul><li>Plus the Coriolis effect </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Warmer air “holds” more water </li></ul><ul><li>Low pressure=warm air=precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>High pressure=cold air=dry air </li></ul>
  14. 17. Ocean currents <ul><li>Follow same circular pattern (driven by wind) </li></ul><ul><li>Warm currents flow away from equator, pile up on eastern shores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gulf Stream, Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cold currents flow towards equator, cause upwelling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humboldt/Peru, California </li></ul></ul>
  15. 20. Climate classification <ul><li>Temperature and precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Köppen classification system </li></ul><ul><li>Nine types, plus highlands </li></ul>
  16. 21. Climate classification <ul><li>Form groups according to climate </li></ul><ul><li>Verify your answers </li></ul><ul><li>Look at South America: find a city or country with your climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Humid continental and subarctic/tundra, use North America—why?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explain how insolation, global air circulation, altitude, and land/water proximity make your place have the climate that it does </li></ul>
  17. 23. Weather: hurricanes <ul><li>Start at low pressure centers </li></ul><ul><li>Warm air rises </li></ul><ul><li>Water evaporates with energy from sun </li></ul><ul><li>With condensation, energy is released </li></ul>

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