Class14a

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Class14a

  1. 1. Class 14a: Natural hazards <ul><li>Vulnerability and disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Geologic events </li></ul><ul><li>Climatic events </li></ul>
  2. 2. Natural hazards and disasters <ul><li>Natural disaster: damage to life or property </li></ul><ul><li>Natural hazard: risk of natural disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of physical and human geography </li></ul><ul><li>Droughts, floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, volcanoes </li></ul>
  3. 3. Natural hazards and disasters <ul><li>Trigger events are natural </li></ul><ul><li>But “disasters” are man-made </li></ul><ul><li>Humans can increase risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building on a hillside </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Or increase vulnerability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building in a floodplain </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Four types of impacts <ul><li>Direct damage </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency response hampered </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term service interruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term economic loss </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1906 San Francisco Earthquake <ul><li>Sunday 5 A.M.; 40 seconds; 8.2 magnitude </li></ul><ul><li>3000 dead; 3/5 of housing, all of CBD </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple, interrelated hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquake led to fire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failure of “lifelines” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water mains and tanks ruptured </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 1906 San Francisco Earthquake <ul><li>Learning from mistakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural damage  stronger codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger water supply (Hetch Hetchy) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Or not! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reservoir on fault line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire debris became Marina District </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake <ul><li>Weekday, 5 P.M; 15 sec.; 7.1 magnitude </li></ul><ul><li>62 dead; 12,000 homeless; $6 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Interrelated hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worst damage on fill from 1906 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failure of lifelines (Bay Bridge) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Natural hazards and disasters <ul><li>Most deaths in poor countries </li></ul><ul><li>Squatter settlements, unclaimed land </li></ul><ul><li>Few warning systems, evacuation plans </li></ul><ul><li>Few building codes </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate risks </li></ul>
  9. 10. Bam, Iran 12/26/2003
  10. 11. Hurricane Jeanne (2004) <ul><li>2,000 dead in Haiti; 12 in Dominican Rep. </li></ul><ul><li>Haiti is 98% deforested </li></ul><ul><li>Very poor, very high birth rates </li></ul><ul><li>French land system: land divided by heirs </li></ul><ul><li>71% of fuel from charcoal (wood) </li></ul><ul><li>No early warning system </li></ul>
  11. 12. Natural hazards and disasters <ul><li>Most property damage in rich countries </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of life avoided </li></ul><ul><li>Prime real estate often disaster-prone </li></ul><ul><li>More reporting, reimbursement </li></ul><ul><li>“ Solutions” may give false sense of security </li></ul>
  12. 13. 1991 East Bay Hills Fire <ul><li>Oct. 20: 25 dead, 2,700 homes, $1.5 billion, 5,100 homeless: 9 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Risk factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation (flammable eucalypts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire suppression policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood houses, decks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow, winding roads </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. 1991 East Bay Hills Fire <ul><li>Interrelated hazards: drought, fire </li></ul><ul><li>Failure of lifelines: narrow roads, incompatible fire equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuilt immediately (high property values) </li></ul><ul><li>But with vegetation, material restrictions </li></ul>
  14. 15. Four stages of response <ul><li>Preparation and readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency response </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery (short- and long-term) </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation </li></ul>
  15. 16. Types of mitigation <ul><li>Warning systems, evacuation planning </li></ul><ul><li>Building regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Land use planning and land acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat protection/restoration </li></ul>

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