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WASH Friendly Schools

The desire to address the critical need for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in schools is gaining momentum worldwide. The lack of clean drinking water, toilet facilities for girls and boys and good hygiene practices in schools has a negative impact on the health and cognitive abilities of the entire school population, leads to absenteeism and affects girls especially hard.

This webinar highlights HIP's experience fostering a supportive environment and models for WASH-Friendly Schools in Madagascar and Ethiopia and materials developed to help schools become WASH-friendly.

Presentation by Sarah Fry, USAID-HIP Senior Hygiene Programming Advisor, followed by a Q&A with Sarah and Julia Rosenbaum, USAID-HIP Deputy Director. Moderated by Patricia Mantey, USAID-HIP Knowledge Management Specialist.

More information on USAID-HIP is available at

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WASH Friendly Schools

  1. 1. September 16, 2010<br />Welcome to HIP’s Webinar on<br />WASH Friendly SchoolsPresenters: Sarah Fry and Julia RosenbaumUSAID Hygiene Improvement Project<br />
  2. 2. Why WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) Matters<br />Most diarrhea and worm infestation is caused by unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene<br /><ul><li>Simple hygiene practices can dramatically reduce diarrhea and worms</li></li></ul><li>Treatment and safe storage of drinking water at point of use reduces the risk of diarrhea by 30–40% (USAID 2004)<br />
  3. 3. Hand washingwith soap can reduce the risk of diarrhea by 42-44% <br />(Curtis et al. 2003)<br />Hand Washing<br />
  4. 4. Latrine use/safe feces disposal can reduce the risk of diarrhea by 32% (Fewtrell et al. 2005)<br />
  5. 5. Why is WASH in SCHOOLS important?<br />The school community is healthier<br />Students perform better<br />Excellent opportunity for parent involvement<br />Promotes gender equity<br />Invests in life-long positive skills<br />
  6. 6. We have a BIG PROBLEM…<br />
  7. 7. FACT: WASH in schools improves children’s health <br /><ul><li>WASH reduces diarrhea and worm infestation
  8. 8. 40% of diarrhea transmission happens in school
  9. 9. 400 million school children have worms
  10. 10. Worms affect growth and intellectual development</li></ul>Source: UNICEF Raising Clean Hands <br />and Children Without Worms, (2010)<br />
  11. 11. FACT: WASH in Schools increases attendance and achievement<br /><ul><li>In western Kenya schools, worms contributed to 25% of absenteeism and
  12. 12. Improved WASH led to 50% reduction in ascaris infection
  13. 13. In China, school handwashing with soap program reduced absentee days by 54%</li></ul>Source: UNICEF Raising Clean Hands (2010)<br />
  14. 14. FACT: WASH in Schools promotes gender equality<br /><ul><li>Clean, safe toilets encourage girls to stay in schools when menstruation starts
  15. 15. In Kenya, WASH reduced girls’ absenteeism by 39%
  16. 16. For every 10% increase in female literacy, economy can grow by 0.3%</li></ul>Source: UNICEF Raising Clean Hands (2010)<br />
  17. 17. FACT: WASH involves parents and community<br />Children are effective change agents<br />Parents are an untapped resource<br />PTAs can get involved in school WASH improvements<br />School WASH clubs can host school-community WASH activities<br />
  18. 18. HIP offers 2 new Guides for WASH Friendly Schools<br />
  19. 19. The Model for WASH Friendly Schools emerged from HIP’s work in: <br />Madagascar<br />Ethiopia<br />
  20. 20. What is a WASH Friendly School?<br />Provides sustainable, child friendly latrine and handwashing facilities and adequate safe drinking water<br />Offers hygiene education on using latrines, washing hands with soap and drinking safe water<br />Organizes school to home and community outreach activities for improved WASH<br />
  21. 21. 13 Steps to Becoming WASH Friendly<br />BASIC GUIDE<br />Each step in the pathway is accompanied by tools found in the annexes…<br />
  22. 22. PHASE 1: LAUNCH, CATALYZING, PLANNING<br />Step 1: Survey or rapid assessment of area schools<br />Step 2: Stakeholders meeting at district or local level to prepare for action<br />Step 3: WASH training for teachers, parents, and student leaders identified as potential school WASH champions <br />
  23. 23.  PHASE 2: ACTION<br />Step 4: School ignition—bringing the school community to awareness and a commitment to action<br />Uses CLTS ignition tools:<br />“Walk of Shame” – where is <br /> open defecation practiced?<br />School mapping<br />Feces calculation<br />Feces Flow Diagram<br />Glass of water exercise<br />RESULT: “Oh NO!!! We’re eating and drinking each other’s poop!”<br />
  24. 24. WASH-Friendly School Pledge<br />We the undersigned have assessed the hygiene and sanitation conditions at  <br />Name and Location of School______________________<br />and we agree to participate in the WASH-Friendly School Initiative. We understand that we must assure adequate hygienic toilets for all, a place or places to wash hands with soap, a safe drinking water supply for the school community, and a clean and welcoming school environment; and carry out in-class and after-school activities to teach and practice improved hygiene.<br />Start date:<br />End date:<br />School Year: <br />Signed:<br />School Director_____________________ <br />Education Official___________________<br />PTA Head_________________________ <br />Health Official______________________<br />Date_____________________________ Place_____________________________<br />Step 5:<br />
  25. 25. Step 6: “Where are we now?” <br />The school conducts a more complete baseline assessment of their current WASH-friendly status, if required <br />Annex E of the Guide is a School WASH Survey Form<br />
  26. 26. Step 7: Director, teachers, parents, and students vet the Wash-Friendly Action Plan that the school representatives made during training<br />Step 8: Improve water, sanitation, hand washing facilities<br />
  27. 27. Checklist for Minimum Standards for School Sanitation and Hygiene Facilities <br /><ul><li>Separate latrines for boys and girls
  28. 28. “Child-friendly” facilities
  29. 29. Latrines for male and female teachers
  30. 30. 1 latrine per 25 girls and 1 for female staff
  31. 31. 1 latrine + 1 urinal per 50 boys and 1 for male staff
  32. 32. Hand washing stations next to latrines</li></ul>Latrines should have:<br /><ul><li>Walls and roof
  33. 33. Ventilation
  34. 34. Doors that lock from the inside, not the outside
  35. 35. Washable slabs
  36. 36. Anal cleansing material (paper, leaves, water)
  37. 37. Wastebasket for used wiping material
  38. 38. A place to wash hands after use
  39. 39. Cleaning items such as broom, scrub brush, etc.</li></ul>Hand washing stations should have (at least):<br /><ul><li>Source of running water for rinsing (tap, jug)
  40. 40. Soap, ash, clean sand, or mud
  41. 41. Soak pit to avoid standing water</li></ul>See: Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Standards for Schools in Low-cost Settings (WHO, UNICEF 2009)<br />
  42. 42. Simple low-cost handwashing and water treatment methods<br />A stand for SODIS bottles<br />A Tippy Tap “yoke” for multiple users<br />
  43. 43. More simple technologies<br />
  44. 44. Carrying out the Plan of Action with parent and student involvement<br />
  45. 45. Step 9: Teachers add WASH to lessons on a regular basis (at least once a week)<br />
  46. 46. Step 10: PTA or school forms a school WASH committee<br />
  47. 47. Step 11: Students form an after school WASH club or add a WASH element to existing health, girls, sports and other clubs<br />
  48. 48. Step 12: School puts up posters or other educational materials<br />
  49. 49. Step 13: School leaders invite a WASH assessment team to visit school and assess its progress toward becoming WASH-friendly<br />
  50. 50. Don’t forget to celebrate Global Handwashing Day on October 15th And download this year’s tools from<br />
  51. 51. THANK YOU!<br />
  52. 52. WASH in Schools Resources<br /> You can find the WASH-Friendly School guides and other resources at:<br /><br />
  53. 53. Question 1:<br /> Regarding the baseline survey, and I imagine several participants are from other NGOs, and many of us work in the same regions, for example in Ethiopia. I’d like to know if HIP baseline surveys or other NGOs are left with the local district governments, so that we aren’t duplicating resources for conducting these assessments, which are part of the key process outlined in the guide here. <br />
  54. 54. Question 2:<br /> I have a question for you about access to the latrines. Are they available for use when school is closed? <br />
  55. 55. Question 3:<br /> Does exposure to solar energy for 5-6 hours destroy OVA?<br />
  56. 56. Question 4:<br />Would the presentation be available on the website? <br />
  57. 57. Question 5:<br />Are these materials available in Spanish? <br />
  58. 58. Question 6:<br /> How do you build the second water station you told us about? [NOTE: the second one is the tippy-tap with the gored and the straw] <br />
  59. 59. Question 7:<br /> How can the national commitment be made a reality and not a mere paperwork?<br />
  60. 60. Question 8:<br /> How many schools were involved? What was the failure rate as compared to the success? <br />
  61. 61. Question 9:<br /> How does wash in schools address the need to empty the latrines when they fill up? When you say funding ends, who in practice ends up paying for this expense? <br />
  62. 62. Question 10:<br /> Question about designs for younger children. Have you seen in low income countries school latrines with designs adapted for younger children, especially below 7, for whom privacy is not an issue, and who rather fear being alone in a closed super structure? If yes, what did it look like? And do you know where to find technical resources on designing school latrines that target younger children?<br />
  63. 63. Question 11:<br /> What has been learned about specific changes in the school systems that facilitate girls menstrual management in school?<br />
  64. 64. Question 12:<br /> The CLTS approach defines feces as a disgusting product in order to promote the end of open defecation and the establishment of sanitary latrines and sanitary hygenic practices. However, some approaches, primarily ecological sanitation methods, promote fecal matter as a valuable agricultural resources. Are there studies or other sources of evidence that show that feces as a disgusting product is better or worse as a method of sanitation promotion than feces as a valuable resource?<br />
  65. 65. Question 13:<br /> Do you keep statistics of the sanitation solutions and how successful are they? How do you measure success? <br />
  66. 66. Question 14:<br />I am sure, other aspects such as barriers related to Water and Sanitation are also largely addressed in the WASH friendly school Initiatives. Barriers are largely includes 'Individual, Environmental, Institutional, Social'. Sometimes, even if the facilities available they are not inclusive (gender, disability), facilities are not hygienic due to lack of maintenance, structure are narrow which become difficult for the care givers to assist (for those who needs special support). <br />
  67. 67. Question 15:<br />Is there any experience of behavior change communication strategy for schools? And also does any one members have any study done on the impact of school children on the community? <br />
  68. 68. Question 16:<br /> Are there are many types of latrines? What is best for use in a school?<br />
  69. 69. Question 17:<br />Do you have any guidance on communicating the financial responsibilities of the school community to maintain the school water and sanitation facilities?<br />