Experiences and Lessons Learned in Sanitation Marketing
5. The Hygiene Improvement Framework (HIF) for a Sanitation Market HARDWARE GOODS and SERVICES PROMOTION MARKETING and PROMOTION ENABLING ENVIRONMENT POLICY and LAWS HYGIENE IMPROVEMENT HH SANITATION
Sanitation markets offer a self-sustaining dynamic – a household has no incentive to wait for the next subsidized sanitation campaign. Socio-cultural pressure and desire for status and health motivate households to improve santiation. The market brings them information on how they can afford to purchase what they want.
In sanitation marketing, households are no longer beneficiaries, but are treated as consumers Consumers have the freedom to step onto the sanitation ladder wherever they wish and improve their sanitation status at a pace that they can afford. There are cultures where a nice toilet/latrine is a status symbol, offered for the use of guests, but not used by the household. Obviously there are promotion challenges in these situations
The Hygiene Improvement Framework (HIF) was developed some years ago in the USAID Environmental Health Project as a conceptual framework for designing programs that improve hygiene behaviors in individuals and populations. These can include water provision and treatment, handwashing, sanitation, etc. Programmers need to ensure that each of these sectors is addressed in some fashion as overlooking gaps in a particular area can undermine investments in another.
There is an existing framework in place – some kind of demand, some kind of supply and some kind of enabling environment, no matter how weak they might be We study each of these areas in detail: what is the nature of the demand, what motivates people to address sanitation, what messages touch them, what are their aspirations; what are the existing products and services, the potential for new ones, the market linkages, etc.; what kind of access to credit exists, role of local, regional, national government, development programs, et We design a program to fill gaps in the current functions of the market and to build capacity in market actors to assume these functions, and we figure out how to nudge the market forward to get consumers to begin making purchases and the money (incentives) flowing We implement our activities and where supply, demand, and the enabling market meet – we’ve a santiation market
This Diagram, (taken from HIP’s Sanitation Marketing for Managers – Guidance and Tools for Program Development), does a good job of mapping out the key actors in the sanitation market, their functions, and their inter-relationships.
Refer to notes on previous animated slide
HIP has worked closely with numerous donors, NGOs, and individual consultants on these efforts…
HIP hygiene improvement activities began in 2006… and Sanitation Marketing in 2008. Supply-side of market received most attention.
Currently 21 SanPlat producers and 67 sales points operate in four of Madagascar’s six principle cities. One Bloc Sanitaire has been operating and five more are coming on line.
Program kicked-off with detailed Opportunities Assessment that concluded that, yes, conditions in Uganda are conducive and supportive of a Sanmark initiative. GoU’s Financing Strategy for Improving Sanitation and Hygiene (ISH) key supporting policy at national level, whilke local by-laws further support and focus attention on increasing access to sanitation.
In-Depth Interviews with consumers and suppliers; communication and financial assessments conducted. Demonstrated interest from government leaders in neighboring Districts; bodes well for replication PLAN/Uganda continuing to fund activities to support linking CLTS and sanitation marketing, in support of District SanMark strategy.
Districts – Pachacutec in Callao (Lima); peri-urban; ADRA Peru NGO implementer Chinchero in Cusco; rural communities and secondary city; ADRA Peru is NGO Implementer Independencia in Huaraz; rural communities and secondary city; CARE Peru is implementer - Namora in Cajamarca; rural and secondary city; CARE Peru is implementer - Belen in Iquitos; peri-urban and secondary city; CARITAS Peru implementer
Demand assessment showed that health messages not motivators – status is important Already demand for sanitation – but articulated for a high rung option – pour flush toilet No CLTS, but intensive marketing assessment and campaigns In Chinchero, a key actor turned out to be a financial institution who saw profit in making home improvement loans for sanitation Independencia a hardware store came up with its own low-cost flush toilet product to market Pachacutec developed a low cost toilet and superstructure option that fit better with the location and building materials employed there Cajamarca experimented with village banks for credit, market leadership was assumed by rural hardware stores, market accessed state funding through a poverty alleviation program. Looking at the water and santiaton utility of Lima, the mining industry, and others to implement santiation marketing activities in new geographies
Multi-faceted approach – needs not only interdisciplinary team but experienced professionals. Approach is about understanding, targeting, building capacity, facilitating, the actors and their market functions, and strategically nudging the market toward self-sustaining status Social marketing of sanitation is inherently complex – the investment for a household is substantial, the hardware requires site-specific design, construction; the market segments are varied and multi-dimensional, working with demand supply and enabling environment brings in business, finance, engineering, marketing, communication, governance, etc.: interventinos are multi-disciplinary and integrating them a challenge Old habits - Paradigm change – from supply side approaches to market-building Programmatically (no hardware subsidies, no status quo) Professionally (engineers, public health practitioners, marketers think differently) Moving from beneficiaries to consumers Expect the unexpected…market directions are hard to define, they will grow organically to best serve the needs of participants; need to be ready to respond and react to these positive developments
This materials can be downloaded by clicking on the link provided on this slide. You can also send an email to one of the contact listed and we will send you the CD containing this materials. We hope you will find it useful. Feel free to adapt it, copy and paste in your training manual or in any other materials as you see fit. Please let us know how it works. Also 2010 productions from WSP: Reports on Global Scaling up Sanitation Project: Progress Report: Indonesia, Tanzania, and the States of Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, India July1 – December 31 2009 Building the Capacity of Local Government to Scale Up Community-Led Total Sanitation and Santiation Marketing in Rural Areas… April 2010 Case Study on sustainability of Rural Sanitation Marketing in Vietnam… April 2010 And from the WSP Sanitation Global Practice Team a Technical Paper on; Financing On-Site Sanitation for the Poor: A Six Country Comparative Review and Analysis… January 2010
Sarah Fry on HIP/ Madagascar Sanitation Marketing Malva Baskovitch on WSP /Peru Sanitation Marketing