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20110204 alarm management seminar ureason v1 3

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Alarm Management Seminar presentation Bergen op Zoom- February 2011

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20110204 alarm management seminar ureason v1 3

  1. 1. Alarm Management Principles & Guidance
  2. 2. Today’s Seminar <ul><li>Most of you here have a Plant, DCS system, ESD system Improving the effectiveness of the alarm systems improves overall operation and increases safety </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s seminar focuses on a good foundation to achieve this </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction to UReason </li></ul><ul><li>Example Cases </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm Management Principals & Guidance </li></ul><ul><li>How UReason can help You! </li></ul><ul><li>Questions & Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>(Every attendee will receive the presentation) </li></ul>
  4. 4. UReason is … <ul><li>Anglo-Dutch Company with offices in Leiden and Maidenhead </li></ul><ul><li>Delivers real-time applications and solutions in the area of Operational Excellence </li></ul><ul><li>Customers in Europe, North-America and Middle-East. Industries: Oil & Gas, (Petro)chemical, Traffic, Energy and Utilities </li></ul>“ We Combine our Expertise and Technology with that of our customers to improve Operational Excellence”.
  5. 5. Operational Excellence <ul><li>Operational Advisories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sabic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DSM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote Surveillance: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Siemens Power Generation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vestolit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shell Global Solutions/NAM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Alarm Management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BASF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KPE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Siemens Oil & Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LyondellBasell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total E&P </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anglian Water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simulation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WaterSpot: DZH/PWN/Waternet /ABB/DHV/Vitens/TU-Delft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DISCONTO: PWN/DHV/TU-Delft/ Vitens/Dunea/Brabant Water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active Participant in: </li></ul><ul><li>ANSI/ISA S18.02 Standard </li></ul><ul><li>ISA S18.02 TR Development </li></ul><ul><li>EEMUA 191 Guideline </li></ul>
  6. 6. Example: Northsea Gas producer <ul><li>Scope of Supply: </li></ul><ul><li>- Alarm Management Survey </li></ul><ul><li>- Philosophy Development </li></ul><ul><li>- Support Alarm Rationalization </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Auditing </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Alarm Management System for Onshore Centralized Control Room </li></ul><ul><li>DCS: Foxboro IA </li></ul><ul><li>A&E Historian: TiPS LogMate </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm Reporting: OASYS-AM </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Alarm Management: OASYS-AM </li></ul>Alarm reduction on 4 platforms, Visionary Approach for Centralized Control Room
  7. 7. Overview of the reduction realized, varying between 30% – 65% Next generation alarm management Example: LyondellBasell Scope of Supply: - Rule Discovery from Historical Data - Alarm Display Replacement - Alarm Predictions in Control Room Corporate Agreement – Advanced Dynamic Alarm Management DCS: Emerson DeltaV Data: TiPS LogMate Emerson OPC Advanced Alarm Management: OASYS-AM
  8. 8. Example: Chemical Plant Germany Proactive 24x7 information on gas leaks Vision/Smell & Sound Sensors Combined Operators don’t have to do a 12 hours plant inspection Important for keeping licence to operate Operator Advisories Interfaces: Emerson, ABB, Siemens
  9. 9. Example: Refinery Netherlands <ul><li>Scope of Supply: </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm & Event Historization </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm & Event Reporting </li></ul><ul><li>- Alarm Awareness Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm Philosophy Development </li></ul><ul><li>Master Alarm Database </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm MOC </li></ul>DCS: Honeywell TDC, Foxboro IA, Yokogawa CS Historian: SQL Server
  10. 10. Example: Refinery Netherlands <ul><li>Scope of Supply: </li></ul><ul><li>Consultancy </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm Awareness Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm Philosophy Development </li></ul><ul><li>Setup Master Alarm Database </li></ul><ul><li>Vendor Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A&E Historization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A&E Reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Master Alarm Database & MOC </li></ul></ul>DCS: Honeywell TDC, HIMA/MagLog ESD
  11. 11. Siemens – Process Real-Time Historian PIMAQ <ul><li>SISOG PIMAQ System Embeds OASYS-AM </li></ul><ul><li>PIMAQ Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maersk Al-Shaheen FDP 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maersk Al-Shaheen FDP 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maersk Halfdan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petrobas FPSO Piranema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venture Oil FPSO Hummingbird </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statoil Snorre A, Snorre B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ConocoPhillips EldFiks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydro Njord A & B </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Siemens - PIMAQ
  13. 13. Siemens - PIMAQ
  14. 14. <ul><li>Alarm Management </li></ul><ul><li>Principles & Guidance </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Just imagine … you drove to this seminar and every 2/3 minutes an alarm went off </li></ul>Breaks are overheating Left front tire pressure is down Oil Temperature drifting to High … . And you were also expected to find your way, drive safe-fully, listen to the radio for traffic jams and decide on alternative routes…
  16. 16. <ul><li>.. our car and our driver </li></ul>
  17. 17. Why Focus on Alarm Management ? <ul><li>Abnormal conditions cost billions annually: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of equipment and life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Off-spec Product and Lost Production (3-8% per year) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Excursions and Remediation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major contributing factors include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Overflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poorly Designed Operator Interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate Alarm Management System </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alarm Management is recognized as a significant plant reliability improvement </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Alarm System - Definition <ul><li>The primary function of the alarm system is to warn the operator about a situation that is not normal </li></ul><ul><li>Operator’s Response to </li></ul><ul><li>an alarm = action: </li></ul>Source EEMUA 191
  19. 19. Some Examples … Source HSE CRR 166 On 13th May 2002, pilot lights on the flare system at a chemical plant were extinguished. This occurred because there were fluctuations in the gas supply to the flare. A large gas cloud formed but, fortunately, did not ignite. The flare gas came from an installation which was being restarted. The restart process produced 3,700 alarms so, not surprisingly, the operators failed to detect the alarm for the flare . HSE Briefing Note No. 9
  20. 20. Alarm System Contributes to Stress <ul><li>Alarm annunciation is the biggest stress factor for operators </li></ul>Picture Source: ASM Consortium Stress is the main cause for human errors Human errors are the most frequent cause for incidents and upsets Human errors are caused by ineffective systems Next generation alarm management
  21. 21. How did we get here ? <ul><li>Old days – hardwired – ‘optimized’ alarm system </li></ul><ul><li>(100 Light Fixtures) </li></ul><ul><li>DCS systems – Inflation of number of configured alarms per operator station: </li></ul>
  22. 22. What Do you Have? <ul><li>Seminar Attendees: </li></ul><ul><li>Question1: How many configured alarms does your plant have? </li></ul><ul><li>Question2: How many Operator stations does your plant have? </li></ul><ul><li>Question3: Has an HAZOP ever revealed information overload and led to operability improvements? </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Unfortunately incidents (re)focus attention </li></ul><ul><li>Esso LongFord </li></ul><ul><li>Total BunceField </li></ul><ul><li>BP Refinery Texas City </li></ul><ul><li>Texaco Refinery Milford Haven </li></ul><ul><li>Increased attention leads to regulation and improvements </li></ul>
  24. 24. An Example - Milford Haven (’94) <ul><li>On 24th July 1994 there was a major explosion at the oil refinery at Milford Haven jointly owned by Texaco and Gulf. There was plant damage that cost about £48M to repair. There was also two months lost production from the complete plant and four months lost production from the area that was damaged. The plant owners were prosecuted and fined a total of £200,000 plus costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm system shortcomings were one major contributor to this incident. There was a lightning strike which caused a significant plant upset. For several hours after the lightning strike the operators were heavily loaded with alarms at a rate estimated to be in excess of 1 every 2-3 seconds. During this period several operators failed to identify the build up of liquid in a knock-out vessel. This eventually overfilled and resulted in the explosion taking place. A number of instrument faults contributed to the operating confusion. A large number of people (26) sustained minor injuries as a result of the explosion, but fortunately there were no major injuries. </li></ul>Source HSE CRR 166
  25. 25. An Example - Milford Haven (’94) <ul><li>Lesson 1 - Alarm System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The control displays and alarms did not aid operatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A process overview would have helped diagnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The alarms appeared faster than they could be responded to and key alarms were missed in the flood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>87% of the 2040 alarms displayed as &quot;high&quot; priority, despite many being informative only - safety critical alarms were not distinguishable from the rest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lesson 2 - Safety Management System (SMS) </li></ul><ul><li>SMS failures included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The plant modification procedure did not prevent removal of the flare knock-out drum emptying facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The instrument maintenance system did not prevent 40% of instruments from being defective </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. An Example - Milford Haven (’94) <ul><li>Lesson 3 - Training and competence </li></ul><ul><li>Training should include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear guidance on how to manage unplanned events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear guidance on when to initiate emergency plant shutdown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear authority to initiate shutdown </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lesson 4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimate plant safety must not depend on operator response </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Milford Haven Has Led To ? Recognition of the Alarm Management Problem Definition of Alarm Metrics EEMUA 191 (1999/2007) … . and Many Alarm Improvement Programs based on EEMUA 191 Guidelines Be careful with using this picture .. Statistics and Averaging tend to hide real issues
  28. 28. Some EEMUA Metrics Source EEMUA 191
  29. 29. Some EEMUA Metrics Source EEMUA 191 Message: Start Measuring Your Alarm System Performance Compare and Take Action
  30. 30. <ul><li>OKAY ….. </li></ul><ul><li>We know what to measure and how to compare </li></ul><ul><li>We are engineers … </li></ul><ul><li>Lets Start ! </li></ul>Using What Framework ?
  31. 31. <ul><li>Don’t start building your house without a good foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation: </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm Philosophy (Rules) </li></ul><ul><li>Management of Change </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring & Assesment KPIs + Follow-up </li></ul>
  32. 32. The SP18 – The Alarm Management Lifecycle <ul><li>The lifecycle model is useful in identifying the requirements and responsibilities for implementing an alarm management system. </li></ul><ul><li>The lifecycle is applicable for the installation of new alarm systems or managing an existing system. </li></ul>Source ISA SP18
  33. 33. The Alarm Philosophy Source ISA SP18
  34. 34. The Alarm Philosophy <ul><li>The Alarm Philosophy Document can be a small document. Keep in mind that the purpose is to get common understanding, metrics and rules for MOC </li></ul>
  35. 35. First Focus On? <ul><li>When writing an Alarm Philosophy first Focus on: </li></ul><ul><li>Roles & Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm Prioritization Method </li></ul><ul><li>Key Performance Indicators </li></ul>
  36. 36. Roles & Responsibilities in Alarm Management <ul><li>Key is to (re)define Roles & Responsibilities related to alarm management activities. An example: </li></ul>
  37. 37. Prevent Information Overflow <ul><li>Adopt a Single Prioritization Method: </li></ul><ul><li>Classify the Health, Safety, Environment, Financial & Reputation Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Decide what Operator Response Times you use to prioritize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< 3 minutes = Immediate Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 – 10 minutes = Swift Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 minutes > = Take Action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decide levels for Consequences of no Response, f.ex.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small - Immediate Action required but Small Consequence = LOW Priority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate - Immediate Action required but Medium Consequence = HIGH Priority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High - Immediate Action required but Severe Consequence = EMERGENCY Priority </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Example Matrix
  39. 39. Set Targets <ul><li>Set Targets for: </li></ul><ul><li>Average Alarm Rate per time period (day/hour/minute) ~ 6 per hour </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage of hours containing more than >= N alarms – 2% = 14 hours per month in flood condition </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage contribution of the top 10 most frequent alarms to the overall alarm load </li></ul><ul><li>Number of standing alarms on any day </li></ul><ul><li>Annunciated priority distribution during alarm flood </li></ul><ul><li>Annunciated priority distribution in steady operation </li></ul><ul><li>The top 10 most frequent disabled/enabled alarms. </li></ul><ul><li>The top 10 most frequent inhibited alarms. </li></ul><ul><li>~ 6 per hour </li></ul><ul><li>2% = 14 hours per month in flood condition </li></ul><ul><li>< 5% (otherwise many bad actors) </li></ul><ul><li>< 5 </li></ul><ul><li>~5%, 15%, 80% (Emergency, High Low) </li></ul><ul><li><1%, 10%, 90% (Emergency, High Low) </li></ul><ul><li><1% of total configured alarms </li></ul><ul><li>< 1% of total configured alarms </li></ul>
  40. 40. Monitor & Take Action <ul><li>Monitor Weekly/Bi-Weekly/Monthly </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by quick bad-actor mitigation to improve </li></ul>Actual Target
  41. 41. Identify & Improve <ul><li>Bad Actor Mitigation is a quick-win solution (fixes the alarms that are a problem now). </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm Performance Monitoring may have identified following Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Priority Distribution is Off </li></ul><ul><li>Too many alarms in stable operation </li></ul><ul><li>Too many alarms during and following trips </li></ul><ul><li>Large number of disabled alarms </li></ul><ul><li> Rationalize: rethink and document your alarms </li></ul>
  42. 42. Document & Rationalize <ul><li>Choose a fitting Rationalization approach: </li></ul><ul><li>Unit-by-Unit </li></ul><ul><li>Full-scale </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce scope: Only rationalize the alarms that actually triggered during the last 12 months </li></ul><ul><li>Document and Rationalize according to your rules in your Alarm Philosophy. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Alarm Rationalization & Documentation <ul><li>What Alarm Information Should you document: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm Rationale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm Cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm Consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm Consequential Alarms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm Actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm Settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm Priority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarm Mode Dependencies </li></ul></ul>Tools available that help you retrieve current settings and alarm information, store and audit (and enforce) unrequested changes
  44. 44. What Do you Have? <ul><li>Seminar Attendees: </li></ul><ul><li>Question 1: Does your plant/site have an Alarm Philosophy? </li></ul><ul><li>Question 2: Do you have clear metrics whereby you can measure system performance? .. And do you frequently monitor these? </li></ul><ul><li>Question 3: Do you have an alarm historian? </li></ul><ul><li>Question 4: Do you store and audit changes on your alarm configuration data? </li></ul>
  45. 45. Where to Start? <ul><li>HELP … I just experienced an Alarm Management Information Overflow … Where to Start: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Alarm Philosophy Document </li></ul><ul><li>2. Use Current Systems Improve Procedures: </li></ul><ul><li>Document </li></ul><ul><li>Measure </li></ul><ul><li>Audit </li></ul><ul><li>Take Actions (Weekly/Bi-Weekly) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Invest in Alarm Systems: </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm & Event Historization </li></ul><ul><li>Master Alarm Configuration Database </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm MOC (Electronic) </li></ul><ul><li>OASYS-AM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State Based Alarming/Shelving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operator Advisories: supporting the non routine situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing the alarm load </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent Alarm Storms with Alarm Predictions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HMI improvements : sounds and presentation! </li></ul>Foundation Document/Measure & Improve
  46. 46. Your Goal ?! <ul><li>Good Alarm Management Practices: </li></ul><ul><li>Allow your operator to focus on improving the process instead of responding to the system </li></ul><ul><li>Result in less stress and reduction of human failure </li></ul><ul><li>Result in less excursions to the safety and integrity limits of your operations and as a result fewer trips and reduction of downtime </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>UReason can help you in the entire Alarm Management Lifecycle: </li></ul><ul><li>- Alarm Awareness Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm Philosophy Development </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm Rationalization & Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm MOC </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring & Improving Alarm Systems Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm Management Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A&E Historian, A&E Reporting, Master Alarm Database, Alarm MOC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced Alarm Reduction </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Thank You for your Attention !! </li></ul><ul><li>Questions !?? </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Contact Details: </li></ul><ul><li>UReason Leiden </li></ul><ul><li>Pompoenweg 9 </li></ul><ul><li>2321DK Leiden </li></ul><ul><li>071-5281700 </li></ul><ul><li>www.UReason.com </li></ul><ul><li>Presenters: </li></ul><ul><li>Lieven Dubois: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Jules Oudmans: [email_address] </li></ul>
  50. 50. Future developments <ul><li>The average age of control room operators is high – knowledge retention is becoming more and more a hot topic </li></ul><ul><li>There is a change in workforce: </li></ul><ul><li>Higher educated control room operators staying short period of time (2/3 yrs in control room) </li></ul><ul><li>Lower educated control room operators requiring smarter systems helping them </li></ul><ul><li>Improved Operational Information (at the fingertips) and Operator Training ! </li></ul>
  51. 51. Future developments <ul><li>ISA S18 is released this will lead to updated OSHA regulations in turn leading to investments in Improved AM procedures, Reporting and Improved Alarm Management systems </li></ul><ul><li>New regulations to follow … </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Further reading: </li></ul><ul><li>ISA SP18: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.isa.org/MSTemplate.cfm?Site=SP18,_Instrument_Signals_and_Alarms </li></ul><ul><li>EEMUA 191: http://www.eemua.co.uk/p_instrumentation.htm </li></ul><ul><li>HSE CRR 166: ISBN: 0717615154 </li></ul><ul><li>Human Factors & Alarm Management: http://www.hse.gov.uk/humanfactors/topics/alarm-management.htm </li></ul>

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