UPA Boston Conference 2011             Brian Sullivan
Time Shift:The flood of content disrupts our daily life! It is likea maniacal paperboy throwing new editions at yourdoorst...
What exactly is attention?  How is it defined?
Classic Definition of Awareness            Attention is the taking possession            by the mind, in clear and vivid f...
Attention   Distraction Implies     Implies  Focus      Disorder
Attention Economy (1971)           The wealth of information means a           dearth of something else: a scarcity of    ...
Information Attention  Scarcity vs Scarcity
Attention Currency (2001)             Attention is focused mental             engagement on a particular item             ...
Attention Can Equal Money                 Attention                 Interest                 Desire                 Ac...
Your Attention Modes
Passive Attention [pas-iv] [uh-ten-shuhn] Passive attention is involuntary use of attention. Some scholars have called it ...
Passive Mode:You perform a mundane task (likedriving to work for 500th time), so itdoes not require your full attention.-T...
Active Attention [ak-tiv] [uh-ten-shuhn] Active attention is the voluntary focusing of attention under difficulties, atten...
Active Mode:You perform a task that requiresyour full attention.- A surgeon focuses on a patient- An athlete focuses on a ...
Types of Active Attention
Active Attention Types:1. Normal2. Concentration3. Selective4. Alternating5. Divided
Active Attention Types:                           1. Normal                           2. Concentration                    ...
Normal Attention:You consciously focus on a singletask:- Nurse listens to the heart monitor- Player blocks a basketball sh...
Active Attention Types:                                1. Normal                                2. Concentration          ...
Concentration:                        Concentration is a sustained focus,                        usually dealing with dist...
Concentration:                           Concentration is a sustained focus,                           usually dealing wit...
A gymnast adding a new twist to the vault   during a competition (in the finals).
Active Attention Types:                             1. Normal                             2. Concentration                ...
Selective Attention:Selective attention is just how ourbrain processes information in ourvisual field. People miss largech...
Active Attention Types:                          1. Normal                          2. Concentration                      ...
Concentration:                          Concentration is a sustained focus,                          usually dealing with ...
“That’s pretty freakin’ sweet. It’s one of the   Star Wars episodes. Have I seen it?”
Concentration:                          Concentration is a sustained focus,                          usually dealing with ...
“That’s pretty freakin’ sweet, Brian! I love  this part. Sure, my reading can wait.”
Active Attention Types:                                 1. Normal                                 2. Concentration        ...
Myths About Multi-tasking You do not multi-task. You do rapid task switching. Better to complete one task. Task effici...
Design Strategies for Awareness
Awareness Strategies:1. User-Driven2. System-Driven
User-Driven Approach
Awareness Strategies:1. User Driven Approach   - Task-Driven Training   - Verbal Protocols   - Advanced Training   - User ...
How Training = Awareness               Rehearsal               Memorization               Recovery               Focus...
Verbal Protocols (NASA)                “Wait”                “Activate”                “Deactivate”                “Ex...
Verbal Protocols (6 Thinking Hats)                   White = Neutral                   Blue = Organize                  ...
Advanced Training Saves Lives
Simple Checklists are Effective               Checklist Manifesto (2007)               WHO adopts it in 2008:           ...
Awareness Strategies:1. User-Driven Approach2. System-Driven Approach   - Interruption Strategy   - Notification Strategy ...
Interruption versus NotificationInterruption strategy         Notification strategy   ”How we actively              “How w...
Interruption Strategy = Obvious Put in center of screen Make it BIG (obvious) Design a binary choice Use multi-modal d...
Interruption Design Protocols Life or death Significant impact Usually, in center of a design Requires immediate atten...
Use Sound, Sometimes With most interruption strategies, use sound to draw  attention (ie the phone), but not always (surve...
Notification Strategy = Subtle Put in edges of design Informational, interactive Can be a binary choice (i.e. Take Our ...
Notification Design Protocols Show important information Make aware of a change Not a significant impact “Awareness” p...
Notification of 1 new item.
Notification of 1 new item.                              No pic (usually spammer).
Notification of 1 new item.                              No pic (usually spammer).      This item is new.
Notification of 1 new item.                                    No pic (usually spammer).Damn, an advertisement!           ...
Notification of 1 new item.                                    No pic (usually spammer).                                  ...
Notification of 1 new item.                                       No pic (usually spammer).                               ...
Notification of 1 new item.                                       No pic (usually spammer).                               ...
Call of Duty—Player Notification
Your Buddy PiX3L Monkey is Online
Assume, an Interruption Method
It Could Look Like This         - Level 53     - 17 Awards         - 10 Boosts    - 22 Missions         - 88 Medals    - 4...
A notification strategydoes not have to exist onthe fringe of your design.It can be meaningfullyplaced into the mainviewin...
   1 missed call   voicemail   2 text messages   2 unread emails   Partly cloudy46 degrees   No meetings on Saturday...
Make It Multi-Modal               Different parts of the brain                process information.               Multi-m...
MIT, 2009
MIT, 2009
MIT, 2009
2,000 bits/second   (awareness) 60 bits/second    (process)
Recite Ingredients of a Big Mac
You Know Them By Heart Two all beef patties, special sauce, lettuce, cheese,    pickles, and onions on a sesame seed bun.
Multi-modal Encoding in Memory You know these ingredients because of multi-modal encoding (see, smell, taste, feel, eat, s...
Common Multi-Modal Patterns Vibration of a game controller Temperature activated labels Ring tones on a cell phone Cha...
Lastly, Interaction Design
Interactions Are Personal                    Allows for exploration                    Entices Interest                 ...
Example: Pivot of Large Data Sets  Hotels by price, nearness, star rating  My tweets, tweets mentions, DMs, retweets  M...
Interactions with Context Recent Popular Frequent Events Location (or Nearby) Share What Others Like Recommendations
Last Example: Fandango Swipe, tap, or pinch You can see:  - In Theaters Now  - Within 15 miles  - Opening This Week  - R...
My Contact Information Email = brian@bigdesignevents.com Twitter = @BrianKSullivan World Usability Day, 2011 (Education...
Awareness in the attention economy
Awareness in the attention economy
Awareness in the attention economy
Awareness in the attention economy
Awareness in the attention economy
Awareness in the attention economy
Awareness in the attention economy
Awareness in the attention economy
Awareness in the attention economy
Awareness in the attention economy
Awareness in the attention economy
Awareness in the attention economy
Awareness in the attention economy
Awareness in the attention economy
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Awareness in the attention economy

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Awareness in the attention economy

  1. 1. UPA Boston Conference 2011 Brian Sullivan
  2. 2. Time Shift:The flood of content disrupts our daily life! It is likea maniacal paperboy throwing new editions at yourdoorstep every 15 seconds.
  3. 3. What exactly is attention? How is it defined?
  4. 4. Classic Definition of Awareness Attention is the taking possession by the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought. Focalization, concentration, of consciousness are of its essence. -William James
  5. 5. Attention Distraction Implies Implies Focus Disorder
  6. 6. Attention Economy (1971) The wealth of information means a dearth of something else: a scarcity of whatever it is that information consumes, (which is) the attention of its recipients. A wealth of information creates a poverty of attention and a need to allocate that attention efficiently among the overabundance of information sources that might consume it. -Herbert Simon (1971)
  7. 7. Information Attention Scarcity vs Scarcity
  8. 8. Attention Currency (2001) Attention is focused mental engagement on a particular item of information. Items come into our awareness, we attend to a particular item, and then we decide whether to act. -Tom Davenport(2001)
  9. 9. Attention Can Equal Money  Attention  Interest  Desire  Action
  10. 10. Your Attention Modes
  11. 11. Passive Attention [pas-iv] [uh-ten-shuhn] Passive attention is involuntary use of attention. Some scholars have called it “being in auto-pilot.” People usually snap out of passive attention because of an external factor (sudden loud noise).
  12. 12. Passive Mode:You perform a mundane task (likedriving to work for 500th time), so itdoes not require your full attention.-The laundry is piled up.- I need to go to the store.- I need money from the ATM.When you almost hit a car, yourattention moves to ACTIVE mode!!!
  13. 13. Active Attention [ak-tiv] [uh-ten-shuhn] Active attention is the voluntary focusing of attention under difficulties, attention by disregarding distraction, attention to which there are rival claimants, — in short, choosing to mentally focus on something.
  14. 14. Active Mode:You perform a task that requiresyour full attention.- A surgeon focuses on a patient- An athlete focuses on a free-throw- Ice climbing on a slippery slopeYou attention is very focused inactive mode.
  15. 15. Types of Active Attention
  16. 16. Active Attention Types:1. Normal2. Concentration3. Selective4. Alternating5. Divided
  17. 17. Active Attention Types: 1. Normal 2. Concentration 3. Selective 4. Alternating 5. DividedNormal attention is when you focus on a single task.
  18. 18. Normal Attention:You consciously focus on a singletask:- Nurse listens to the heart monitor- Player blocks a basketball shot- Clown juggles 7 ballsPeople perform best when they focuson a single task.
  19. 19. Active Attention Types: 1. Normal 2. Concentration 3. Selective 4. Alternating 5. Divided Concentration is sustained focus on activity, where youpurposely avoid distractions, stretch your current skills, or do something you consider to be very important.
  20. 20. Concentration: Concentration is a sustained focus, usually dealing with distractions, doing something important, or doing something beyond your normal limits. - Listening to someone at a noisy party - Reading a book - Doing a skateboard stuntTuning out conversations at a party to talk with someone important.
  21. 21. Concentration: Concentration is a sustained focus, usually dealing with distractions, doing something important, or doing something beyond your normal limits. - Listening to someone at a noisy party - Reading a book - Doing a skateboard stuntReading a book for a school or work project, so you focus on specific information.
  22. 22. A gymnast adding a new twist to the vault during a competition (in the finals).
  23. 23. Active Attention Types: 1. Normal 2. Concentration 3. Selective 4. Alternating 5. DividedSelective attention is unconsciously blocking out other stimulus, while you are performing some task.
  24. 24. Selective Attention:Selective attention is just how ourbrain processes information in ourvisual field. People miss largechunks of data in their visual field.- Banner Blindness- Not understanding a page changed- Not seeing the gorillaYou selectively “ignore” a lot ofthings. In the Selective Attentiontests on You Tube, you might miss:- A Gorilla- A moon-walking bear- A storm trooper- Child-dressed up as a Ninja Turtle
  25. 25. Active Attention Types: 1. Normal 2. Concentration 3. Selective 4. Alternating 5. DividedAlternating attention is focus in on one task andyou “tune in” to another one from time to time.
  26. 26. Concentration: Concentration is a sustained focus, usually dealing with distractions, doing something important, or doing something beyond your normal limits. - Listening to someone at a noisy party - Reading a book - Doing a skateboard stuntYou are reading a book for pleasure, while an episode of “Family Guy” plays on TV.
  27. 27. “That’s pretty freakin’ sweet. It’s one of the Star Wars episodes. Have I seen it?”
  28. 28. Concentration: Concentration is a sustained focus, usually dealing with distractions, doing something important, or doing something beyond your normal limits. - Listening to someone at a noisy party - Reading a book - Doing a skateboard stunt“I’ve seen that episode back to the book.” (for now)
  29. 29. “That’s pretty freakin’ sweet, Brian! I love this part. Sure, my reading can wait.”
  30. 30. Active Attention Types: 1. Normal 2. Concentration 3. Selective 4. Alternating 5. Divided Divided attention is when you divide your level attentionbetween many things. You do not really focus on any one, as you split your attention. Some folks call it “multi-tasking.”
  31. 31. Myths About Multi-tasking You do not multi-task. You do rapid task switching. Better to complete one task. Task efficiency decreases with each additional task. Digital natives think they are great multi-taskers: - Do homework - Update Facebook - Search Internet
  32. 32. Design Strategies for Awareness
  33. 33. Awareness Strategies:1. User-Driven2. System-Driven
  34. 34. User-Driven Approach
  35. 35. Awareness Strategies:1. User Driven Approach - Task-Driven Training - Verbal Protocols - Advanced Training - User Checklists2. System-Driven Approach
  36. 36. How Training = Awareness  Rehearsal  Memorization  Recovery  Focus on primary task(s)  Ignore distractions
  37. 37. Verbal Protocols (NASA)  “Wait”  “Activate”  “Deactivate”  “Explain”
  38. 38. Verbal Protocols (6 Thinking Hats)  White = Neutral  Blue = Organize  Green = Creative  Yellow = Positive  Black = Critical  Red = Emotional
  39. 39. Advanced Training Saves Lives
  40. 40. Simple Checklists are Effective  Checklist Manifesto (2007)  WHO adopts it in 2008: - 8 remote Tanzania hospitals - Post surgery issues drop 36% - Deaths reduced by 47%  Only checklist was adopted: - No new equipment bought - No extra money spent - Results were in 6 months
  41. 41. Awareness Strategies:1. User-Driven Approach2. System-Driven Approach - Interruption Strategy - Notification Strategy - Make it Multi-modal - Interaction Design
  42. 42. Interruption versus NotificationInterruption strategy Notification strategy ”How we actively “How we passively interrupt people to show relevant make them aware of information that critical or sensitive people might want to information?” know?” Interruptions = Active Awareness Notifications = Passive Awareness
  43. 43. Interruption Strategy = Obvious Put in center of screen Make it BIG (obvious) Design a binary choice Use multi-modal design (recommend using sound) Did you know…….. Multi-modal design is not equal. NOTE According to Welch (1986), the modality of sound was better for active interruptions than heat, smell, vibration, color, or light.
  44. 44. Interruption Design Protocols Life or death Significant impact Usually, in center of a design Requires immediate attention
  45. 45. Use Sound, Sometimes With most interruption strategies, use sound to draw attention (ie the phone), but not always (survey).
  46. 46. Notification Strategy = Subtle Put in edges of design Informational, interactive Can be a binary choice (i.e. Take Our Poll)
  47. 47. Notification Design Protocols Show important information Make aware of a change Not a significant impact “Awareness” patterns on fringe of eye path (usually)
  48. 48. Notification of 1 new item.
  49. 49. Notification of 1 new item. No pic (usually spammer).
  50. 50. Notification of 1 new item. No pic (usually spammer). This item is new.
  51. 51. Notification of 1 new item. No pic (usually spammer).Damn, an advertisement! This item is new.
  52. 52. Notification of 1 new item. No pic (usually spammer). Short URL (by Owl.ly)Damn, an advertisement! This item is new.
  53. 53. Notification of 1 new item. No pic (usually spammer). Short URL (by Owl.ly)Damn, an advertisement! This item is new. Hashtag for like posts
  54. 54. Notification of 1 new item. No pic (usually spammer). Short URL (by Owl.ly)Damn, an advertisement! This item is new. See conversation thread Hashtag for like posts
  55. 55. Call of Duty—Player Notification
  56. 56. Your Buddy PiX3L Monkey is Online
  57. 57. Assume, an Interruption Method
  58. 58. It Could Look Like This - Level 53 - 17 Awards - 10 Boosts - 22 Missions - 88 Medals - 42 Weapons - 12 Friends - 76 Enemies Completed: Zombie Moscow Level
  59. 59. A notification strategydoes not have to exist onthe fringe of your design.It can be meaningfullyplaced into the mainviewing area.
  60. 60.  1 missed call voicemail 2 text messages 2 unread emails Partly cloudy46 degrees No meetings on Saturday, 29th
  61. 61. Make It Multi-Modal  Different parts of the brain process information.  Multi-modal designs use different sensory triggers in the brain. Did you know…….. Neuroscientists recommend doctors play classical music in surgery. It relaxes the stress centers of the brain and seems to aid to eye-hand coordination.
  62. 62. MIT, 2009
  63. 63. MIT, 2009
  64. 64. MIT, 2009
  65. 65. 2,000 bits/second (awareness) 60 bits/second (process)
  66. 66. Recite Ingredients of a Big Mac
  67. 67. You Know Them By Heart Two all beef patties, special sauce, lettuce, cheese, pickles, and onions on a sesame seed bun.
  68. 68. Multi-modal Encoding in Memory You know these ingredients because of multi-modal encoding (see, smell, taste, feel, eat, sing the words).
  69. 69. Common Multi-Modal Patterns Vibration of a game controller Temperature activated labels Ring tones on a cell phone Change color on selection Phone lights up for a call
  70. 70. Lastly, Interaction Design
  71. 71. Interactions Are Personal  Allows for exploration  Entices Interest  Leads to focus
  72. 72. Example: Pivot of Large Data Sets  Hotels by price, nearness, star rating  My tweets, tweets mentions, DMs, retweets  Movies – at box office, on DVD, upcoming Price Nearby Star Rating
  73. 73. Interactions with Context Recent Popular Frequent Events Location (or Nearby) Share What Others Like Recommendations
  74. 74. Last Example: Fandango Swipe, tap, or pinch You can see: - In Theaters Now - Within 15 miles - Opening This Week - Reviews - Coming Soon Interactions + Context ----------------- Awareness
  75. 75. My Contact Information Email = brian@bigdesignevents.com Twitter = @BrianKSullivan World Usability Day, 2011 (Education Theme) Big Design Conference on July 14-16, 2011 (Dallas)

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