Lecture 9 - Evolving policy perspectives on innovation

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Lecture 9 - Evolving policy perspectives on innovation

  1. 1. Science, Technology and innovation policy Merit course – 2006 The evolution of innovation policy A neoclassical perspective on innovation policy An evolutionary perspective on innovation policy
  2. 2. Big Science and WW II Francis Bacon (1627), J.D. Bernal (1939) and V. Bush (1945) The social and economic utility of science Large scale projects: Manhattan Project, nuclear energy, Apollo programme (Big Science) Little science and the linear model
  3. 3. Science policy Mobilization of sufficient funds and allocation to projects / disciplines Serendipity vs. demand steering A modern issue: should university knowledge be patented?
  4. 4. Technology policy Science based technologies as an engine of growth Specialization and strategic industries (Krugman’s strategic trade) Latecomers and catching-up
  5. 5. Technology policy questions Which technologies? At what stage of development? What about competition? The market knows best?
  6. 6. Innovation policy Innovation as a broad phenomenon (not only high-tech sectors) Innovation systems: – systemic failures (lack of coordination) – Interaction (public-private) Learning and education
  7. 7. Neoclassical policy: market failure Spillovers and the lack of incentives – Basic science (the Ps) – R&D subsidies (growth models) But also: negative spillovers – R&D taxes?
  8. 8. The implementation of policies Tax cuts vs. subsidies Additionality of R&D subsidies? “Picking winners”? and generic vs. specific policies
  9. 9. Evolutionary innovation policy The blind watchmaker revisited – Does the free market generate enough experimentation? No role for optimality The adaptive policymaker (Metcalfe)
  10. 10. Adaptive policy – the basics A disequilibrium approach: deviant economic behaviour drives change Innovation systems are capable of multiple responses to incentives Innovation outcome is unpredictable Brings in resources and capabilities (to manage innovation processes)
  11. 11. Collaboration and systems Linked to the management of innovation resources Missing system elements: are all relevant knowledge sources present? – Set up new research organizations – Entrepreneurship Missing connections: opportunities and incentives for collaboration – Enhancing awareness – Removing barriers to collaboration
  12. 12. Trends Privatization of (semi-)public research organizations Globalization and European integration: the FWP Entrepreneurship and innovation

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