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Im information systems

  1. 1. Alex Domínguez Lecture notes, Grenoble Graduate School of Business, France, May 2008.
  2. 2. Objective and Contents From the point of view of non-IT management, the main objective of this course is to analyse, represent and apply the theoretical models and frameworks which support the strategic analysis and development of an organisation‘s Information Strategy and Information Systems 5. Project 1. Organisation 2. IS, IT, and all Identification, 3. Types of IS 4. IS Strategy Components That Justification and Planning 10. IS 9. IS Testing, 7. Business Operations, 8. IS 6. IS Installation, Process Maintenance, Acquisitions Architecture and Integration Reengineering and Updating 12. Enterprise 11. 13. Managing IS: ERP, CRM, Internetworks International IS and SCM 2
  3. 3. Information Technology Requirements Hardware • Lap Top computer, if possible • Speakers Software applications • Acrobat Reader – Version 7 or higher • Windows Media Player – Version 9 or higher • Real Player – Version 6 or higher Telecommunications • Internet Connection 3
  4. 4. Bibliography Books • Applegate, L.M., R.D. Austin, and F.W. McFarland. Corporate Information Strategy and Management. 7th Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 2007. • Carr, N.G. Does IT Matter: Information Technology and the Corrosion of Competitive Advantage. HBS Press, USA, 2004. • Laudon, K.C., and J.P. Laudon. Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm. 10th Edition. Prentice-Hall, USA, 2007. • Lutchen, M.D. Managing IT as a Business: A Survival Guide for CEOs. John Wiley & Sons, USA, 2004. • O‘Brien, J.A. and G.M. Marakas. Enterprise Information Systems. 13th Edition. McGrah-Hill International Edition, USA, 2007. • Smith, H.S. and P. Fingar. IT Doesn´t Matter: Business Process Do. Meghan- Kiffer Press, USA, 2003. • Turban, E., E. McLean, and J. Wetherbe. Information Technology for Management. 6th Edition. Wiley, USA, 2008. Websites • BRINT: • CIO: 4
  5. 5. Organisation Components An organisation is made of … PEOPLE must posses knowledge and skills required to perform assigned tasks and job positions must be fulfilled by appropriate people Other people participating in organisation: • Customers • Suppliers • Partners • Outsourced people 5
  6. 6. Organisation Components An organisation is made of PEOPLE, … PEOPLE uses is required by INFORMATION must be self-consistent and normalised Information = data + meaning = (symbols + structure) + meaning • It provides answers about ―who‖, ―what‖, ―where‖, and ―when‖ • It is independent of the way it is obtained Major types of information in organisation: • Human resources information • Finance and accounting information • Manufacturing and production information • Sales and marketing information 6
  7. 7. Organisation Components An organisation is made of PEOPLE, INFORMATION, … PEOPLE • Human resources processes • Hiring employees • Evaluating employees‘ job performance • Evaluating employees‘ in benefits plans • Finance and accounting processes INFORMATION respond • Paying creditors defines • Creating financial statements feeds • Managing cash accounts • Manufacturing and production processes • Assembling the product respond • Checking for quality • Producing bills of materials • Sales and marketing processes • Identifying customers PROCESSES • Making customers aware from the product must be normalised • Selling the product and controlled 7
  8. 8. Organisation Components An organisation is made of PEOPLE, INFORMATION, PROCESSES, … PEOPLE feedback • Products are made; services are delivered • Products are used; services are experienced • Products possess physical characteristics we INFORMATION can evaluate before we buy; services do not modify even exist before we buy them • Products are impersonal; services are personal feeds define modify produce PROCESSES PRODUCTS / SERVICES 8
  9. 9. Organisation Components An organisation is made of PEOPLE, INFORMATION, PROCESSES, PRODUCTS/SERVICES, and … • Technology is the relationship that an organisation has with its tools and crafts, and to what extent organisation can PEOPLE control its environment • Technology is machines, equipment, and systems considered as a unit INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY is fed by and interacts with each component It refers to technological side of systems PROCESSES PRODUCTS / SERVICES 9
  10. 10. Organisation Components The organisation as a system PEOPLE Complexity of model: • 30 communication channels • Each component must be linked with itself as well as among other 4 components INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Complexity reveals the intrinsic systemic nature of a organisation A system is a set of interacting or interdependent entities, real or PROCESSES PRODUCTS / abstract, forming an integrated SERVICES whole 10
  11. 11. Organisation Components Organisation’s internal and external attributes Government Customers Communities Environment Standard operating procedures Internal Internal Competitors culture politics Suppliers Internal structure Regulatory Agencies Stakeholders Worker Unions 11
  12. 12. IS, IT, and All That Information Systems (IS) An Information System (IS) collects, processes, stores, analyses, and disseminates information for a specific purpose Environment Inputs Processing Output Information Processing Information (input) Information (output) Control Control Information Feedback 12
  13. 13. IS, IT, and All That Types of IS Agreed-upon procedures Standard inputs and Information features outputs Fixed definitions Long-range planning policies Strategic information Decision Support Formal Systems Policy implementation and control Managerial information Management Information Systems Information needed to operate business Operational information Data processing Information Systems Systems Office gossip networks Group of friends Informal Information exchange Chat systems Based on computers Computer-based Used for handling business applications 13
  14. 14. IS, IT, and All That Computer-based IS (CBIS) A CBIS is a IS that uses computer technology to perform some or all of its intended task Hardware Software Network Databases Procedures People 14
  15. 15. IS, IT, and All That Computers versus IS An IS involves much more than computers Organisation Technology • Computer- Based Management Information Systems The successful application of an IS requires an understanding of the business and its environment that is supported by the IS 15
  16. 16. IS, IT, and All That Information Technology (IT) IT is the organisation‘s collection of information systems, their users, and the management to oversees them IT is also known as: • Information and Communication Technology (ICT) • Information Technology and Telecommunications (IT&T) in Australia • Infocomm in Asia 16
  17. 17. Paper - IT Doesn’t Matter Objective Dimension the importance of IT into organisations DIRECTIONS Create multidisciplinary Before lecture: Read the international teams paper (3 people) Discuss the paper in your Review the paper own team (5 minutes) (10 minutes) Explain your conclusions to Free discussion other teams (10 minutes) (3 minutes by team) 17
  18. 18. Types of IS IS versus Groups served KIND OF IS GROUPS SERVED Strategic Senior Executive Support Systems Level Managers Decision Support Systems Management Level Middle Management Information Systems Managers Knowledge Work Systems Knowledge Knowledge & Level Data Workers Office Automation Systems Operational Operational Transaction Processing Systems Level Managers Sales and Manufacturing Finance and Human Source: Laudon & Laudon, Chapter 2 Marketing & Production Accounting Resources 18
  19. 19. Types of IS IS definitions Executive • Address non-routine decisions requiring judgment, evaluation, Support and insight because there is no agreed-on procedure for arriving Systems a solution (ESS) • Support non-routine decision making, focus on problems Decision- that are unique and rapidly changing, for which the Support procedure for arriving at a solution may not be fully Systems (DSS) predefined in advance Management • Provide managers with reports and, in some Information Systems cases, with online access to the organisation‘s (MIS) current performance and historical records • Promote the creation of a new knowledge Knowledge Work Systems and ensure that new knowledge and (KWS) technical expertise are properly integrated into the business • Increase productivity by supporting Office Automation Systems (OAS) the coordinating and communicating activities of the typical office • Perform and record the daily routine transactions Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) necessary to conduct business 19
  20. 20. Types of IS Systemic nature of IS Information Groups Kind of IS Type of IS Information Inputs Processing Outputs Served Executive Graphics Projections Strategic Aggregate data, Senior Support Simulations Responses to Level external, internal Managers Systems (ESS) Interactive queries Special reports Decision- Low-volume data Interactive Professionals Analytic models Decisions analyses Support Simulations Staff Systems (DSS) Data analysis tools Responses to managers Analysis Management queries Level Summary transactions Management Routine reports data Summary Middle Information Simple models High-volume data Exception reports Managers Systems (MIS) Low-level analysis Simple models Knowledge Work Design specifications Models Professionals Modelling simulations Systems (KWS) Knowledge base Graphics Technical staff Knowledge Level Office Document management Documents Automation Clerical Documents schedules Scheduling Schedules workers Systems (OAS) Communications Mail Sorting Transaction Operations Operational Transactions Listing Detailed reports lists Processing personnel Level Events Merging Summaries Systems (TPS) Supervisors updating 20
  21. 21. Types of IS The six major types of IS Sales and Manufacturing Human Groups Kind of IS Type of IS Finance Accounting Marketing & Production Resources Served Executive N-year sales N-year Strategic N-year Profit Personnel Senior Support trend budget Level operating plan planning planning Managers Systems (ESS) forecasting forecasting Decision- Pricing / Sales region Production Cost Contract cost Support profitability analysis scheduling analysis analysis Management Systems (DSS) analysis Middle Level Management Capital Managers Sales Inventory Annual Relocation Information investment management control budgeting analysis Systems (MIS) analysis Knowledge Work Systems Engineering IS Graphics IS Managerial IS (KWS) Knowledge Knowledge and Data Level Office Workers Automation Word processing Document imaging Electronic calendars Systems (OAS) Machine Compensation control Payroll Order Securities Training and Transaction tracking Plant trading Accounts Operational development Operational Processing Scheduling payable Level Managers Systems (TPS) Order Cash Employee processing Material management Accounts record movement receivable keeping control 21
  22. 22. Types of IS IS and decision making Organisational Level Type of Decision Operational Knowledge Management Strategic Structured Accounts Receivable Electronic Production Scheduling Cost Overruns TPS OAS MIS Budget semi-structured Preparation Project DSS scheduling Facility KWS Location ESS Unstructured Product New Products Design New Markets 22
  23. 23. Types of IS Interrelationships among IS ESS MIS DSS KWS & TPS OAS 23
  24. 24. Video case - UPS International Distribution What external factors affect international operations at UPS? How do these factors cause UPS to adjust its operations? Explain how ISPS facilitates the ability of UPS to ship packages internationally. Describe the type and role that the Delivery Information Acquisition Devise (DIAD: a handheld computer) plays in UPS business processes. How important is information to the global expansion of UPS? What advantages does UPS gain by carefully capturing information? Discuss the role of volume in the business activities of UPS. DIRECTIONS Create multidisciplinary Before lecture: Watch the Review the video international teams video (10 minutes) (3 people) Explain your conclusions to Discuss the video in your own Free discussion other teams team (10 minutes) 24 (3 minutes by team) (10 minutes)
  25. 25. IS Strategy Alignment •Performance Measurement / Analysis / Reporting •Business Management IS Management Lens Liaison / Service Level Agreement •Governance and Leadership • 6 IS business risk Resiliency •Data Quality and drivers Operations •Service Delivery Management • 14 main •Business Continuity / (Operations & Initiatives) Disaster Recovery competencies •Enterprise Core Systems •Security /Confidentiality / • Qualitative and Privacy quantitative focus Context Filter Leverage Futures •User Technology •Emerging Technologies Competencies & Skills Support •Organisation / People / Skills •Marketing Communications •Sourcing Management & Legal Contract Issues •Finance / Budgeting 25
  26. 26. IS Strategy Managers of IS IS Management CIO & IT CEO & CIO CIO & CTO Managers Managing Managing the Managing the Managing Managing IS Managing Application IT IT Business Strategy Technology Development Organisation Infrastructure 26
  27. 27. IS Strategy The Chief Information Officer (CIO) CIO: A senior strategic-level management position that oversees all IS and personnel for an organisation, concentrating on long-range IS planning and strategy 27
  28. 28. IS Strategy The CIO yesterday and today 28
  29. 29. IS Strategy Strategy and IS IS IMPACT AND POTENTIAL Business Strategy Business Where is the business going and Strategies why • Business Decisions • Objectives and Direction • Change Business Applications Processes Supports Direction for business business IS Strategy What is required • Business Based • Demand Orientated • Application Focused Organisational Infrastructure Needs and Data Classes Databases and services priorities IT Strategy How it can be delivered Information Architecture • Activity Based • Supply Orientated • Technology Focused 29
  30. 30. IS Strategy 5 major steps in IS strategy and planning Step 1 - Project Identification, Justification, and Planning IS and enabler Identify IS projects From business goals to information needs Justify IS investment System-required functionalities Need to solve problems Step 2 – IS Architecture Business Information Architecture Technical Architecture IT Process Data Architecture Organisation Architecture Infrastructure Reengineering Application Architecture Feasibility Step 3 – Acquisition /Development) Options Management Build – How, which methodology Buy – What, from whom Vendor Management Business Lease – What, from whom Project Management Partners Partner – Which partner, how to partner Evaluation Outsource – Where to outsource Step 4 – Testing, Installation, and Integration Business Testing Installation Partners Business Integration Training Partners Security Conversion Deployment Step 5 – Operations, Maintenance, and Updating Operations Maintenance Updating Replacement 30
  31. 31. Video case - Cisco and Centrica: E-working and IS Transformation What are Centrica's guiding principles? How does Centrica's CIO define a network? What are the components of Centrica's E-working model? What are some of the challenges that Centrica faces in maintaining effective networking systems? What are some of the specific tools that Centrica has implemented? Provide examples of quantifiable benefits that Centrica has experienced as a result of its Cisco initiatives How does Centrica plan to extend the benefits of its E-working systems? DIRECTIONS Create multidisciplinary Before lecture: Watch the Review the video international teams video (10 minutes) (3 people) Explain your conclusions to Discuss the video in your own Free discussion other teams team (10 minutes) 31 (3 minutes by team) (10 minutes)
  32. 32. Project Identification, Justification, and Planning Step 1 - IS strategic planning process Understanding of Business Objectives IS Objectives Organisation Strategy Business Strategic Plan Identifying IS IS Vision Vision Defining IS IS Strategic Strategic Initiatives Objectives Financial Investment Internal Efforts (Cost/Benefit) (Activities) Analysing IS Risk Assessment Objectives (Project Risks) IS Activities Portfolio External Efforts Portfolio (Environment trends) Personnel Requirements Project Schedule Analysis (Skills needed) Analysing IS Gantt Chart First Year Budget Objectives IS Strategic Plan Time and Links among activities First Year Profits Portfolio 32
  33. 33. Project Identification, Justification, and Planning Step 1 – IS strategic planning (growth model) Data Administration Integration • Information • Expenditures on requirements rather integrating (via than processing drive Control telecommunications the applications • In response to and databases) portfolio management existing systems concern about Expansion cost versus (Contagion) benefits, systems • Centralised projects are expected to show growth takes place as users a return Initiation demand more applications • When computers are initially introduced 33
  34. 34. Project Identification, Justification, and Planning Step 1 – Determining Critical Success Factors What objectives are central to the organisation? What are the critical factors What IS can that are supply these essential to measures? meeting these objectives? Ask What What variables decisions or underlie these actions are decisions, and key to these how are they critical measured? factors? 34
  35. 35. Project Identification, Justification, and Planning Step 1 – Defining scenarios • Descriptions of alternative coherent and plausible futures • ―Narratives‖ of the evolving dynamics of the future They are • Specific strategy-focused views of the future • The combination of tacit and explicit knowledge • Predictions They are • Variations around a midpoint/base case not • Generalised views of feared or desired Futures • The product of outside futurists or consultants • The short to medium term prognosis is unstable / uncertain Do use • You need to understand ―why‖ something is happening them if • You need to create a shared understanding of key issues and uncertainty • … • You need to create a more outward looking open and customer focused culture You need to have a strategic conversation with stakeholders, employees, users, etc. Do not • The scenarios aren‘t designed to address a clear strategic question use them • You can‘t get a reasonable level of support or visibility within the organisation • You can‘t ensure a reasonable level of involvement in the process if … 35
  36. 36. Project Identification, Justification, and Planning Step 1 – Scenario planning Develop a Strategic Vision • Balance Commitment • Flexibility Implement Identify Key Effectively Success Factors Develop Multiple Monitor in Real Future Scenarios Time • Embracing • Adjust Dynamically • Uncertainty Generate Strategic Options 36
  37. 37. Project Identification, Justification, and Planning Step 1 – From scenarios to strategy Actions that are needed whatever the scenario (Imperatives) Recommen- dations for Drivers of Strategic Scenarios future change implications strategy & action Actions needed to reach a preferred future outcome (Preferences) Involves assessing actions against capabilities and competencies, identifying opportunities and reviewing risks 37
  38. 38. Project Identification, Justification, and Planning Step 1 - Why invest in IS projects Strategic Support to Top Competitive Long-term- objectives of corporate management performance costs and investment strategy support objectives benefits in IS Strategic Considerations Performance Involvement indicators Evaluation Priority of Market ROI & profit Security of senior Budgets Product cost generating methods investment research level managers data Tangibles • Financial Tactical • Nonfinancial Considerations Labour Defective rate Lead-time Inventory Setup time absence of products Operational Intangibles Considerations Quality and Improve Securing Competitive Data User‘s System image customer future Teamwork Existing IS Servers Advantage migration perception integration improvement relationship business 38
  39. 39. Project Identification, Justification, and Planning Step 1 – Project identification Project Identification 1. Identification of IS project 2. Project description 3. Project value 4. Project costs (Project ownership) (What is the project?) (Benefits) (Anticipated costs) Anticipated Requestor and/or Project's objectives Strategic Technical resources and department and deliverables criteria criteria funding needed Outcome(s) to be Organisational Intra- or Inter- IS and IT needed realised excellence dependencies Stakeholders for Communication Organisational Staff effort this project? improvement prioritisation required Impacted on Architecture & Leadership infrastructure organisation development dependencies Customer service Timetable learning Impact of not doing Affordable & accessible this project products/services “Best practice" to Risk reduction be used as guidance 39
  40. 40. Project Identification, Justification, and Planning Step 1 – Project types Type 4 Projects Type 2 Projects (research-and- (product-development- organisational-change- like METHODS WELL DEFINED like projects) NO projects) Project Management Project Management Style: Eagle Style: Coach Type 3 Projects Type 1 Projects (systems-development- (engineering-like like projects) projects) YES Project Management Project Management Style: Conductor Style: Sculptor YES NO GOAL WELL DEFINED 40
  41. 41. Project Identification, Justification, and Planning Step 1 – Why projects fail Inexperience Lack of in scope and communication complexity 20% 17% Failure to define objectives 17% Technical issues 14% Project Management Problems 32% 41
  42. 42. Project Identification, Justification, and Planning Step 1 - Constraints in planning A: An IS project B: An IS project is managed stumbles on crisis Overrun As an IS Time Cost project is Time Cost A managed B Resources Resources Performance Performance 42
  43. 43. Videocase - Blue Rhino Slows Down to Get Ahead What is Blue Rhino's business strategy? How well was that strategy supported by information systems? Why did Blue Rhino have to revamp its systems and business processes? What management, organisation, and technology issues did the company have to deal with as it built its new systems? What management, organisation, and technology issues did the company have to deal with as it built its new systems? How successful has Blue Rhino been in responding to the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley legislation? DIRECTIONS Create multidisciplinary Review the case Before lecture: Read the case international teams (10 minutes) (3 people) Explain your conclusions to Discuss the casein your own Free discussion other teams team (10 minutes) 43 (3 minutes by team) (10 minutes)
  44. 44. IS Architecture Step 2 – IS architecture framework What is an Architecture? A definition of the IS via models What is an Architecture A representation of the IS via views of Framework? models How does this relate to an IS The architecture model guides the implementation? implementation 44
  45. 45. IS Architecture Step 2 – Building a 2D IS business architecture Scope (Planner) What External Requirements and Business Function Modeling Data Drivers Enterprise Model - Conceptual (Business Owner) How Business Process Models Process System Model – Logical (Designer) Where versus Logical Models Requirements Definition Location Network Technology Model - Physical (Implementer) Who Solution Definition and Physical Models People Role Development Detailed Representation - Out of Context (Builder When Subcontractor) As Built Deployment Time Schedule Functioning Enterprise (User’s View) Why Functioning Enterprise Evaluation Motivation 45
  46. 46. IS Architecture Step 2 – IS architecture rules Basic Model = Entities and Relationships Relationship Entity Entity Rule 1: Rule 2: Rule 3: Rule 4: Rule 5: • Each column • Basic model • Each row • Each cell is • Combining the has a simple, of each represents a unique cells in one basic model column is distinct view row forms a unique complete description from that view What How Where Who When Why (Data) (Function) (Locations) (People) (Time) (Motivation) Scope (Contextual) Planner Enterprise Model (Conceptual) Business Owner System Model (Logical) Designer Technology Model (Physical) Implementer Detailed Representation (Out-of-Context) Subcontractor Functioning System 46
  47. 47. IS Architecture Step 2 - Zachman Enterprise Architecture Framework What How Where Who When Why (Data) (Function) (Location) (People) (Time) (Motivation) List of List of locations List of List of List of Scope List of things processes that in which the organisations events/cycles business (Contextual) important to the business business important to the important to goals/strategi Planner the business performs operates business the business es Enterprise Model e.g., Business e.g., Semantic e.g., Business e.g., Workflow e.g., Master e.g., Business (Conceptual) Logistics Model Process Model Model Schedule Plan Business Owner System System Model e.g., Distributed e.g., Human e.g., Logical e.g., Application e.g., Process e.g., Business (Logical) System Interface Data Model Architecture Structure Rule Model Designer Architecture Architecture Technology e.g., e.g., Model e.g., Physical e.g., System e.g., Control e.g., Rule Technology Presentation (Physical) Data Model Design Structure Design Architecture Architecture Implementer Detailed Representation e.g., Data e.g., Network e.g., Security e.g., Timing e.g., Rule e.g., Program (Out-of-Context) Definition Architecture Architecture Definition Definition Subcontractor Functioning e.g., e.g., Data e.g., Function e.g., Network e.g., Schedule e.g., Strategy System Organisation 47
  48. 48. IS Architecture Step 2 - General enterprise IS architecture Processes Enterprise Systems Supply Customer Chain Processes Relationship Management Management Customers & Systems Processes Systems Customers & Distributors Distributors Enterprise IS automate Knowledge processes that span Management multiple business Systems functions and organisational levels and may extend outside the Sales and Manufacturing Finance and Human organisation Source: Laudon & Laudon, Chapter 2 Marketing & Production Accounting Resources 48
  49. 49. IS Architecture Step 2 - Specific enterprise IS architecture Suppliers, Distributors, Resellers Supply Chain Management (Sourcing, Procuring) Knowledge Management IS, Collaboration IS, Decision Support IS, Administrative Control Financial(Accounting/Auditing IS, Partner IS, Human Resources/Procurement IS, Relationship Management IS, (Selling, Distribution), Management Control IS Logistics Production Distribution Enterprise Resource Planning IS Stakeholders Employees Partners, Enterprise Application Decision Support IS Integration Customer Relationship Management IS Customer Marketing Sales Service Supply Chain Management (Delivering) Customers, Resellers 49
  50. 50. IS Architecture Step 2 – A simple network architecture Network consists of two or more connected computers Network interface device (NIC) is the connection Network operating system (NOS) point between one routes and manages communications on computer and the network the network and coordinates network resources (saving or retrieving files on your hard drive versus a network drive) Switch has more intelligence than Router (bridge) is a special a hub and can forward data to a communications processor used to specified device or destination. route packets of data through different The switch is used within a given networks, ensuring that the message network to move information sent gets to the correct address Number of possible connections on a network Hub connects network composed of N computers is N×(N-1) components, sending a packet of data to all other connected devices If there are 10 computers on a network, there are 10×9 = 90 possible connections Source: Laudon & Laudon, Chapter 7 50
  51. 51. IS Architecture Step 2 – IS feasibility Objectives • To find out if an IS development project can be done • it possible? • it justified? To suggest possible alternative solutions • Alternative 1: Insourcing (Build) • Alternative 2: Buy • Alternative 3: Lease • Alternative 4: Partner • Alternative 5: Outsource To provide management with enough information to know • Whether the project can be done • Whether the final product will benefit its intended users • What the alternatives are • Whether there is a preferred alternative A management-oriented activity • After a feasibility study, management makes a ―go/no-go‖ decision • Need to examine the problem in the context of broader business strategy 51
  52. 52. IS Architecture Step 2 – IS feasibility analysis Operational Feasibility • It is the measure of how well particular IS will work in a given environment • It is people-oriented Technical Schedule Feasibility Feasibility • It is the measure of the practicality of a specific • It is a measure of how technical IS solution reasonable the project and the availability of timetable is technical resources • It is computer oriented Feasibility Analysis Legal Feasibility • It is the measure of Economic legal aspects such as Feasibility contracts, liability, violations, and legal • It is the measure of the other traps frequently cost-effectiveness of an unknown to the IS solution technical staff 52
  53. 53. IS Architecture Step 2 – Feasibility study contents 1. Purpose & scope of the study • Objectives (of the study) • Who commissioned it & who did it • Sources of information • Process used for the study • How long did it take,… 2. Description of present situation • Organisational setting, current system(s) • Related factors and constraints 3. Problems and requirements • What‘s wrong with the present situation? • What changes are needed? 4. Objectives of the new system • Goals and relationships between them 5. Possible alternatives • …including ‗do nothing‘ 6. Criteria for comparison • Definition of the criteria 7. Analysis of alternatives • Description of each alternative • Evaluation with respect to criteria • Cost/Benefit analysis and special implications 8. Recommendations • What is recommended and implications • What to do next •E.g. may recommend an interim solution and a permanent solution 9. Appendices • To include any supporting material 53
  54. 54. Whitepaper – Developing a Enterprise Architecture Objective Discus the growing role and importance of enterprise architectures in the management of organisations DIRECTIONS Create multidisciplinary Before lecture: Read the international teams whitepaper (3 people) Discuss the whitepaper in Review the whitepaper your own team (5 minutes) (10 minutes) Explain your conclusions to Write team‘s conclusions other teams (3 minutes by team) Free discussion (10 minutes) 54