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Alpha dot unido_sustainable_transport_and_mobility_for_cities_workshop_gerhardswart_20170330

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The United Nations Industrial Development Organization's Low Carbon Transport Project hosted a workshop seminar on sustainable transport and mobility for cities in Durban on the 30th of March 2017. This workshop was presented with the aim of highlighting the benefits of using electrified mobility powered by renewable energy. The objectives of the workshop included: Enlightening members of the sustainable transport fraternity in South Africa; sharing the current policy developments for sustainable transport use and operations; discussing the environmental benefits of including electric vehicles in South Africa’s transportation modal mix; offering insights to the various types of transport modes available and those suitable for city commuting and public services; proposing methods to include green vehicles into local government fleets; discussing the possibilities of converting a fleet to electric drive vehicles through other initiatives; demonstrating macroeconomic factors to better understand how the introduction of electrified transport modes could add value to the economy of the city and South Africa at large.

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Alpha dot unido_sustainable_transport_and_mobility_for_cities_workshop_gerhardswart_20170330

  1. 1. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd The Electric Mobility opportunity in South Africa Maximising the impact Research is using money to get knowledge, Innovation is using knowledge to make money…
  2. 2. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd 2
  3. 3. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Supporting our customers… 3 We help our customers develop, make and sell innovative products through technical advice and engineering. Complex productsRenewable Energy Socio-economic benefit In areas where it has high impact… Manufacturing efficiency Energy efficiency Resulting in… Lower risk Lower costSatisfied customers Greater profitability Electric Mobility
  4. 4. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Why EV’s make a difference in SA Environmental benefits 4
  5. 5. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd http://knowledge.allianz.com/demographics/population_growth/?799/world-population-how-we-have-grown-since-1700 “Two-thirds of South Africa's population now lives in urban areas, according to a recent survey”
  6. 6. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd http://mcensustainableenergy.pbworks.com/w/page/20638072/Food%20System Transport fraction of energy used
  7. 7. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd http://osqar.suncor.com/2010/12/is-there-a-link-between-energy-use-and-standard-of-living.html HDI is a comparative measure of: -life expectancy, -literacy, -education, -standards of living As countries develop they use more energy per person
  8. 8. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd As countries develop they use more energy per person
  9. 9. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Finite resources Mostly Transport Most of our sources are not sustainable
  10. 10. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Source: Nick A. Owen, Oliver R. Inderwildi, David A. King, The status of conventional world oil reserves—Hype or cause for concern?, Energy Policy, Volume 38, Issue 8, August 2010, Pages 4743-4749, Oil discovery slowing down and more expensive to extract
  11. 11. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Source: http://www.castlecover.co.uk/historic-home-utility-prices/ www.forbes.com Oil conflicts Consequence – price instability
  12. 12. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd “The majority of greenhouse gases come from burning fossil fuels to produce energy” – USA Environmental Protection Agency Global Warming
  13. 13. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Coal combustion in China causes an estimated 250,000 deaths per year - Scientific Evidence of Health Effects from Coal Use in Energy Generation, E. Burt, P. Orris, S. Buchanan, University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois, USA, APRIL 2013 http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEAPREGTOPENVIRONMENT/Resources/China_Cost_of_Pollution.pdf eMalahleni (Witbank), South Africa (This is more than the total of all the nuclear-related disasters in the world!) Air pollution
  14. 14. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd “Houston, we have a problem !” We must use sustainable energy. We must use energy more efficiently.
  15. 15. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd ESKOM Electricity gives you ~1015g CO2 per kWh ESKOM annual report 2011 eMalahleni (Witbank), South Africa Are EV’s just displacing the location of pollution and CO2? But will e-mobility help SA?
  16. 16. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Internal combustion engines are inefficient 17 Bosch Automotive Handbook - 4th edition
  17. 17. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Oil as an energy source in conventional cars
  18. 18. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Electric drivetrains are efficient 19 6% 2% 11% 81% EV losses Charging Battery Motor Left for Propulsion
  19. 19. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Coal-fired electricity as an energy source in electric cars
  20. 20. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Joule CO2 compared to conventional cars 22 Source: Optimal Energy
  21. 21. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd What about Hydrogen-Fuelled vehicles? 23 https://cleantechnica.com/2014/12/01/fuel-cell-economics-vs-batteries/ Other problems to solve: • Making hydrogen from non-fossil sources still a problem • From renewable electricity FCV is ~26% efficient vs BEV’s 80% • Refuelling infrastructure 10x the cost of EV charging • EV’s can be charged at home
  22. 22. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd 2008 Aug 28th SAIAMC WORKSHOP
  23. 23. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd 2008 Aug 28th SAIAMC WORKSHOP
  24. 24. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd The opportunity of EV batteries Local supply chain & integration 27
  25. 25. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Everything is related – need Balance Cost •Material •In-bound •Out-bound •Efficiency •Labour rate •CAPEX •IP Safety •Chemistry •Consistency •BMS •Pack Design •Vehicle Design Performance •Pack Mass •Charge acceptance •Discharge character •Cycle life •Thermal range
  26. 26. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd SA Battery Industry • CSIR gave birth to important Li-ion Chemistries • Mile Thackeray - ANL • ZEBRA battery • New Li-ion research: UWC, CSIR, UL • UWC also developed “Modular battery System” => 29
  27. 27. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Batteries are not all equal and can be unsafe 30
  28. 28. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Chemistry dictates material & cell cost 31 Cells make up ~60% of pack cost Integration with the EV is complicated
  29. 29. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Choose the right chemistry: HEV vs BEV 32
  30. 30. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Why SA needs a local EV Industrialisation at a large scale
  31. 31. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Economics of manufacturing SA-owned IP 34 For every person employed in automotive assembly the are more than 5 jobs created elsewhere. For Joule, using local technology, this would be ~8. Joule would have created ~10 000 jobs…
  32. 32. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd 37Source: Optimal Energy
  33. 33. 38
  34. 34. What’s inside? 39Source: Optimal Energy
  35. 35. DRIVE SYSTEM 40 STM type 380Nm at standstill 70kW peak 55kW continuous Regenerative braking KPI’s: -High Efficiency -Low Cost -Low Mass Source: Optimal Energy
  36. 36. BATTERY PACK 75 cells per module 16 modules per pack Voltage: 400V Energy: 32kWh Power: 75kW peak (215A) Mass: 300kg Life: 7 years Failures: 0 KPI’s: Low Cost, Low Mass, High Efficiency, Safe Source: Optimal Energy
  37. 37. Gerhard Swart 42 VEHICLE CONTROL, SW & INFOTEL Integrated EV Architecture Optimised EV “feel” Connectivity to cloud In-house control of vehicle performance Source: Optimal Energy
  38. 38. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd What about electrification of other segments of transport? Forecast Ex-factory value of EV sales in 2023 by application sector SOURCE: IDTechEx, Hybrid & Pure Electric Vehicles for Land, Water & Air 2013-2023: Forecasts, Technologies, Players, Sept 2013
  39. 39. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd CONCLUSION • We need to use less oil, urgently – New oil refinery costs billions, rather invest in EV • BEV’s use the least oil and emit least CO2, well-to-wheel (when energy sources are sustainable) • Don’t just focus on passenger cars! • SA can still do a local EV/bus development • Balance the job creation with the “green” issues – don’t just import complete vehicles!!
  40. 40. High-impact Innovation CONFIDENTIALCopyright – Alphadot (Pty) Ltd Thank You Acknowledgements: - UWC Energy Storage Innovation Lab - Prof. Ben Bladergroen - Optimal Energy

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