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How are social protection programmes targeting or inclusive of adolescence?

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How are social protection programmes targeting or inclusive of adolescence?

  2. 2. WHY INVEST IN ADOLESCENTS THOUGH SOCIAL PROTECTION? 01. Social Protection (SP) can play critical role in facilitating safe transitions to adulthood • Period of rapid physiological, biological and psychological change • Heighted exposure to poverty and vulnerabilities (Neetu, et. al, 2017). 02. Unique window of opportunity for SP to: • Improve opportunities constrained by gender norms • Promote more equitable gender roles and relations • In many countries, there is a limited recognition of adolescence as a distinct life stage
  3. 3. HOW ARE ADOLESCENTS REPRESENTED IN SP PROGRAMMING? 01. With global attention in adolescent development growing, key moment to step up the efforts and leverage impacts of SP for adolescents 02. Traditionally, adolescents not the primary focus of government- run SP • Prioritization of ECD and adult outcomes • In SSA, targeting often includes large number of adolescents, but their multiple needs and vulnerabilities rarely reflected in programme design 03. Gender lens inconsistently used for understanding risk & vulnerability and informing design • Many issues related to adolescence (eg. sexuality, SRH) remain sensitive and a cultural taboo, limiting buy-in for adolescence-focused programming
  4. 4. Target Groups in SP Programmes in SSA Source: Cirillo & Tebaldo 2016 (Social Protection in Africa: Inventory of Non-Contributory Programmes): http://www.ipc- ADOLESCENTS ARE FALLING THROUGH THE CRACKS IN (DIRECT) TARGETING
  5. 5. HOW ARE NEEDS REFLECTED IN PROGRAMMING 01. Sub-set of adolescent-focused programmes (typically run as pilots) to address different (overlapping) vulnerabilities faced by adolescents 02. Social transfers mainly used for this purpose include: • Cash transfers (conditional and unconditional) • Educational stipends/scholarships/vocational training • Fee waivers • In-kind transfers (eg. school feeding, uniforms/school supplies) 03. Focus on a narrow set of issues and younger cohorts (e.g. meeting practical needs) 04. ‘Transformative’ programs can be used as a vehicle to promote: • empowerment, voice and agency among adolescents • tackle harmful socio-cultural practices • improve their strategic position in families and community
  6. 6. FOCUS PRIMARILY ON YOUNGER ADOLESCENT GIRLS 01. Affirmative action for girls is justified given their greater (multidimensional) poverty, compared to boys (UN Women, 2015) 02. More efforts are needed to reflect in programming how gender norms and ideologies of masculinity expose boys to specific risks
  8. 8. SOCIAL PROTECTION AND ADOLESCENTS 01. Main adolescent-focus to date: promote secondary school access 02. Strong evidence that conditional and unconditional programs: • improve school attendance and attainment (Baird et al. 2014) • delay sexual debut, marriage and childbearing and reduce risky behavior but not in all settings (Dake et al. 2018 Handa et al. 2014; Handa et al. 2015; Heinrich et al. 2017) • improve mental health (Kilburn et al. 2016) • reduce intimate partner violence (Pettifor et al. 2016) 03. Transformative potential: • reduce gender disparities in secondary school enrolment • challenge traditional attitudes around how girls are valued by their families and communities • provide safe, progressive environment for girls and boys where they can learn new values/norms, and be empowered.
  9. 9. SOCIAL AND GENDER NORMS CAN MODIFY IMPACTS ON SAFE TRANSITIONS 01. Transfer Project research has identified education and increases in household economic stability as 2 main pathways through which SCTs facilitate safe transitions to adulthood • But, varies by context, and pathways found to be more important among female populations 02. Differential impacts on some outcomes (sexual behaviour, mental health among others) for males vs. females has been demonstrated in some countries 03. Can be hypothesized that traditional gender norms may be underlying and moderating some of these differential effects, but further research needed.
  10. 10. Need robust research to unpack the links between norms, core pathways & programme impacts Important for research & evaluations to measure gender norms/attitudes & examine moderating impacts Even if no impacts on norms expected/feasible
  11. 11. PROGRAMMES MAY ALSO CHALLENGE DISCRIMINATORY GENDER NORMS AND HARMFUL PRACTICES HEAD ON Child Marriage Examples 01. “Our daughters, our wealth”, CCT program in India conditional on girls remaining unmarried until the age of 18 02. Transformative scope: i) Send message to invest in girls (valuable and not a burden) ii) use cash for girls education rather than marriage. • No positive effects, may have encouraged families to marry off their daughters once they turned 18. • Poor design jeopardized results (e.g. absence of clear messaging to promote intent) 03. UNICEF supported Integrated Safety Net Programme (INSP) in Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) – case management focus to combat harmful gender norms and practices around early marriage, invest in adolescent SRH (among other aims) rolling out in 2018
  12. 12. 01. Targeting by itself may not be enough to achieve specific objectives if transfers are not shared equitably within HH 02. Adolescent-sensitive design innovations • South Africa: providing transfers directly to adolescent girls (not caregivers) • Malawi: transfers (varied amounts) provided to adolescent girl and caregiver in participating HH • India: individual entitlements have been piloted in the Basic Income Grant pilot in India 03. Transfer size can address specific gender and age vulnerabilities • Mexico, Colombia, Tanzania: Higher amounts for secondary- school-age girls than for primary-school- age girls • Jamaica: Higher payments for secondary-school age boys HOW CAN DESIGN FEATURES BE USED STRATEGICALLY TO IMPROVE (TRANSFORMATIVE) OUTCOMES FOR ADOLESCENTS?
  13. 13. HOW CAN DESIGN FEATURES BE USED STRATEGICALLY TO IMPROVE (TRANSFORMATIVE) OUTCOMES FOR ADOLESCENTS? 04. Messaging/soft conditions: Influence allocation of resources, strengthen the bargaining power of individuals who may otherwise lack it (Pace et al. 2018). • Conditions found to improve the outcomes of ‘marginal’ children in whom parents are less likely to invest (eg. Burkina Faso pilot). • Soft conditionality’ labeling also effective (eg. ‘tagging’ transfers) • Using messaging to promote certain adolescent- focused outcomes (eg. sexual behavior, education, gender equity) 05. Cash+ programming: cash alone not enough to address the multifaceted challenges faced by adolescents. 06. Efforts to link adolescents in SCT participating households with complementary programming/services targeting specific vulnerabilities. • Malawi, Zambia: linked adolescents to information, treatment and testing for HIV • Tanzania: livelihoods training, mentoring & linkages to SRH/HIV services
  15. 15. 01. Mainstream adolescent lens into programming: • Ensure their needs are explicitly and systematically reflected in the programme cycle (e.g. vuln. assessments, objectives, features, M&E) • Invest in staff capacity and operational systems, building political commitment and support. 02. Where programmes specifically target adolescents: • Consider when girls and/or boys should be preferentially targeted, and base this selection on evidence instead of well-worn assumptions • Target especially vulnerable groups of adolescents/those ‘hard-to-reach’ e.g. teen mothers, out-of-school adolescents etc. 03. Adolescent-sensitive messaging: • Should be well-designed and implemented: • Broad (or gender-neutral) awareness raising messages can easily signal the wrong message, inadvertently reinforcing negative behaviors CONCLUSIONS
  16. 16. 04. Complementary support Should be tailored to adolescent needs, vulnerabilities, age and priorities (life cycle lens) 05. Social/gender norms lens critical for advancing transformative programming but must be practical/feasible • Relative importance of ‘social norms approach’ depends on specific issues/context • Understand when/how norms act as a barrier to development outcomes • Recognition that design and implementation practices themselves are informed by social norms and beliefs (eg. gender assumptions in CCTs) • Should not oversell the potential of SP to affect social and gender norms (eg. cost effectiveness) 06. Evaluation needs: • Methodologies to measure/assess changes in norms related to SP (what should we measure, at what level and how?) • More analysis of moderating effects of norms CONCLUSIONS
  17. 17. • Baird, S., et al. (2014). "Conditional, unconditional and everything in between: a systematic review of the effects of cash transfer programmes on schooling outcomes." Journal of Development Effectiveness 6(1): 1-43. • Cluver, L., Boyes, M., Orkin, M., Pantelic, M., Molwena, T., & Sherr, L. (2013). Child-focused state cash transfers and adolescent risk of HIV infection in South Africa: a propensity-score-matched case-control study. The Lancet Global Health, 1(6), e362-e370. • Dake, F., Natali, L., Angeles, G., De Hoop, J., Handa, S., & Peterman, A. (2018). Income transfers, early marriage and fertility in Malawi and Zambia. Studies in family planning, in press. • Handa, S., Halpern, C. T., Pettifor, A., & Thirumurthy, H. (2014). The government of Kenya's cash transfer program reduces the risk of sexual debut among young people age 15-25. PLoS One, 9(1), e85473-e85473. • Handa, S., Peterman, A., Huang, C., Halpern, C. T., Pettifor, A., & Thirumurthy, H. (2015). Impact of the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children on Early Pregnancy and Marriage of Adolescent Girls. Social Science & Medicine, 141, 36-45. • Heinrich, C. J., Hoddinott, J., & Samson, M. (2017). Reducing adolescent risky behaviors in a high-risk context: the effects of unconditional cash transfers in South Africa. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 65(4), 619-652. • Kilburn, K., Thirumurthy, H., Tucker Halpern, C., Pettifor, A., & Handa, S. (2016). Effects of a large-scale unconditional cash transfer program on mental health outcomes of young people in Kenya: a cluster randomized trial. Journal of Adolescent Health, 58(2), 223-229. • Neetu, A., et al. (2017) Gender Socialization During Adolescents in Low- and Middle-Income countries: Conceptualization, influences and outcomes. Innocenti Discussion Paper 2017-01. • Pace, N., et al. (2018). Shaping Cash Transfer Impacts Through ‘Soft-conditions’: Evidence from Lesotho. Journal of African Economies, 2018, 1-31. • Pettifor, A., et al. (2016). "The effect of a conditional cash transfer on HIV incidence in young women in rural South Africa (HPTN 068): a phase 3, randomised controlled trial." The Lancet Global Health 4(12): e978-e988. • Rosenberg, M. et. al, (2013) The Impact of a National Poverty Reduction Program on the Characteristics of Sex Partners Among Kenyan Adolescents. Journal of AIDS and Behaviour (2014) 18:311-316. • UN Women. 2015. Progress of the world’s women 2015-2016. Transforming economies. Realizing rights. New York, USA. REFERENCES
  18. 18. Transfer Project: Facebook: @TransferProject Twitter: @TransferProjct Email: THANK YOU.

Editor's Notes

  • [Introduction]
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  • [Conclusion]
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