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Ending Violence Against Girls, Boys and Women Via A Gender-Transformative, Life-Course Approach

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Ending Violence Against Girls, Boys and Women Via A Gender-Transformative, Life-Course Approach

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Ending Violence Against Girls, Boys and Women Via A Gender-Transformative, Life-Course Approach - A Partner and Donor Roundtable Discussion

Ending Violence Against Girls, Boys and Women Via A Gender-Transformative, Life-Course Approach - A Partner and Donor Roundtable Discussion

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Ending Violence Against Girls, Boys and Women Via A Gender-Transformative, Life-Course Approach

  1. 1. Welcome!
  2. 2. Introduction Matodzi Amisi Senior Research Consultant, Institute for Security Studies, South Africa Instructor and M&E Specialist at CLEAR- AA, Witwatersrand University
  3. 3. A brief overview of the state of the evidence Alessandra Guedes Gender and Development Research Manager, UNICEF Innocenti, Italy
  4. 4. Addressing intersections of violence against children (VAC) and violence against women (VAW) Alessandra Guedes aguedes@unicef.org Gender & Development Research Manager UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti Florence, Italy
  5. 5. • Relatively new areas of work that are drastically underfunded • Highly political areas of work • Led by passionate advocates, researchers, activists • Competing agendas: empowering women / protecting children • Concern that placing violence against women next to violence against children will: • infantilize women • divert attention away from children • diminish funding • Separate programs, policies, laws, research and advocacy Fields that have grown in parallel, but separate ways…
  6. 6. Intergenerational effects of violence • Pathways by which intimate partner violence (IPV) affects children are complex and gendered: • men exposed to childhood trauma more likely to perpetrate IPV • women exposed to childhood trauma more likely to experience IPV • children exposed to violence against their mothers experience the same outcomes as victims of direct violence • Gendered assumptions about parents affect how systems approach IPV • Women living with IPV • experience most of the burden of caregiving • face difficult decisions about how to protect children • often blamed for not protecting children, despite few options
  7. 7. • Rationale for greater attention to gender dimensions of violence • Existing frameworks for action: INSPIRE + RESPECT • Review of evidence on effective gender- transformative strategies • Ways UNICEF can strengthen violence prevention and response • Recommendations for UNICEF’s strategic planning UNICEF Discussion Paper (2021) Child Protection, Gender, Innocenti Office of Research
  8. 8. 2 Systematic Reviews (SR) London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, U. Edinburgh & UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti Co-occurrence + risk factors (published) • LMICs only • Jan 2000-Feb 2021 • Any language • grey literature • 33 studies • 31 cross-sectional • 1 case control • 1 birth cohort Effective coordinated interventions (forthcoming) • Both HICs + LMICs • Jan 2000-Feb 2021 • Any language • grey literature + additional search via experts • 28 studies • 25 unique interventions = 17 prevention + 8 response • 15 countries (3 HIC)
  9. 9. Systematic review on co-occurrence + associated risk factors: key findings • Consistent and significant association between IPV + VAC (29 / 30 studies). Only 3 studies examined risk factors for co-occurring IPV + VAC • Systematic review results: more info about data gaps and study design bias than evidence for policy + practice • Uneven conceptualization + measurement of parent-to-child violence • No measure of frequency + severity in some studies • Only 2 studies included sexual abuse • Strong bias towards recording female caregivers use of VAC and not males • Almost half of studies (15) focused exclusively on female-perpetrated VAC • Only 5 out of 33 examined VAC perpetrated by men, even when they were perpetrating IPV • Unclear how much more likely men who abuse partners are to also abuse children as usually only female caregivers are asked about parenting practices
  10. 10. Interesting, but inconclusive findings • Conflicting results about risk factors – e.g., maternal age + parental education • Women’s experience of emotional IPV + partners’ controlling behavior decreased protective effect of female caregiver’s education on VAC (1 study) • Co-occurring IPV + VAC associated w/ maternal depression, younger maternal age, absence of child’s biological father, paternal antisocial behavior, neighborhood violence, high levels of criticism in relationship (1 cohort study) • Strongest association b/w women’s use of harsh discipline & her partner’s use of harsh discipline (2 studies) • Male caregiver emotional attachment w/ partner + attitudes against VAC protective of male-perpetrated VAC (1 study)
  11. 11. SR on effective coordinated interventions: Primary prevention Category # Key components Findings Community-based / couples' programs Cambodia, PNG, Rwanda, S. Africa, Uganda 6 • Critical reflection on gender norms condoning IPV • Conflict resolution, problem solving, communication skills, consequences of IPV on children • Non-violent discipline (only 3) Decreases: • IPV • Violent discipline • Children’s exposure to IPV • Acceptability of violence • VAC tolerance Parenting/ caregiver support programs Targeted: Kenya, Philippines, Rwanda, US Universal: Colombia, Liberia, Uganda 8 • Reduce violent discipline • Teach non-violent discipline • Developing positive caregiver-child relationship + Improvements: • Awareness of effects of violence on children • Caregiver + child mental health • Communication + problem-solving skills Decreases: • Physical violent discipline • IPV (indirectly) School-based programs + community component Afghanistan, South Africa 2 • Changing harmful social norms on gender and violence at school + Improvements: • Respectful attitudes towards women and girls • Communication skills Decreases: • IPV, harsh punishment of children Cash transfer Peru 1 • Changing social norms on VAW • Improving communication & conflict resolution • No effect: IPV + violent discipline • Low impact: changes in social norms
  12. 12. SR on effective coordinated interventions: Response Category # Key components Findings Men who perpetrate IPV (US, Vietnam) 2 • US: individual therapy, substance abuse, IPV/child maltreatment, reducing hostile thoughts, restoring father-child relationship • Vietnam: group-based, gender norms, anger management, limited VAC content, use of “time out” • Only commonality: encouraged fathers to reflect on own childhood experiences of violence Decreases: • Physical + psychological partner violence • Affect dysregulation + anger, violent discipline • Children’s exposure to IPV • Acceptability of violence • VAC tolerance Women survivors + their children (Sweden, US) 4 • Strengthen mother-child relationship • Improve psychosocial wellbeing Service responses for health + social care professionals (UK) 2 • Training of providers on domestic violence + child safeguarding • Multi-agency coordination + Improvements • Knowledge, confidence, self-efficacy • Better understanding of processes to address IPV + safeguard of children
  13. 13. RESPONSE INTERVENTION PATHWAYS TO REDUCED VIOLENCE FOR SURVIVORS AND THEIR CHILDREN
  14. 14. Interesting, but inconclusive findings • Larger reduction of severe forms of violence with the addition of community + violence component to parenting programs (1 study) • Increased male involvement in children’s upbringing -> motivated more positive relationships and some reported reduction in spousal conflict (1 study) • None of the 4 targeted parenting programs addressed gender norms that reinforce IPV + VAC • Coordination across services / agencies challenging due to need for both adult + child-focused response
  15. 15. So what? • Measurement: • Promote consistent measurement of VAC • Improve measurement of VAC / VAW intersections • Measure spill-over impacts on “other” types of violence • Eliminate gender biases in study design, collect data on caregiver gender • Develop and evaluate joint VAC/VAW interventions • What works to address IPV and violence against children in the home? • Among adolescents, what strategies are effective for promoting gender equitable relationships? • How can coordination across systems be strengthened to meet the needs of both children and women exposed to violence? Key take-aways Key questions
  16. 16. So what? • Promote consistent measurement of VAC, including severity + frequency • Improve measurement of VAC / VAW intersections, including magnitude and associated risk factors • Measure spill-over impacts on “other” types of violence • Eliminate gender biases in study design – collect data on male and female caregiver use of VAC • Develop and evaluate joint VAC/VAW interventions while recognizing need for vertical programs
  17. 17. Key questions • What works to address IPV and violence against children in the home? • Parenting/caregiver support • Among adolescents, what strategies are effective for promoting gender equitable relationships? • How can coordination across systems be strengthened to meet the needs of both children and women exposed to violence? • Health sector interventions (primary, prenatal).
  18. 18. Thank you Approach gender equality and violence as rights issues that are inextricably linked, as are intersections between violence against children and violence against women.
  19. 19. Reflections/Comments/Questions?
  20. 20. How is the evidence influencing action? Lori Heise Professor of Gender, Violence and Health at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA Cornelius Williams Director of Child Protection, Programme Group Catherine Ward Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Cape Town, South Africa.
  21. 21. Gender-transformative parenting Catherine L. Ward & Natalie Davidson University of Cape Town
  22. 22. Co-occurrence Risk factors Consequences Parenting VAC VAW
  23. 23. How do parenting programmes reduce violence? Through teaching children (and parents) self-regulation Through strengthening the parent-child relationship Through setting up a family environment where conflict is less likely Through role-modelling non-violent solutions to problems Through teaching children responsibility
  24. 24. What about parent gender? Traditional gender roles: • Mothers do housework and emotional care • Fathers provide What our participants wanted: • Mothers wanted income generation • Fathers wanted to learn ways of communicating with their children, and about child development
  25. 25. Where would a parenting programme fit in? Integrate gender-transformative material • The importance for children of parents working together • Opens up the possibility of introducing both parents to non-violent conflict resolution • Ensures that both parents agree to non-violent parenting practices Emphasise co-parenting, including:
  26. 26. Reflections/Comments/Questions?
  27. 27. What role can partners play in breaking down silos and promoting coordination across VAC/VAW work? Emily Esplen Head of Ending Violence Team, FCDO, UK Tesmerelna Atsbeha Senior Program Officer, Wellspring Foundation
  28. 28. Group Discussion
  29. 29. Word cloud placeholder

Editor's Notes

  • Manuela Colombini, Assistant Professor in Health Systems and Policy and Gender-based Violence, and Loraine Bacchus, Associate Professor of Social Science, LSHTM, United Kingdom 
    Chandré Gould, Senior Research Fellow, and Matodzi Amisi, Senior Research Consultant, Institute for Security Studies, South Africa 
    Isabelle Pearson, Research Fellow for the Gender Violence & Health Centre at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), United Kingdom, and Heidi Stöckl, Professor of Public Health Evaluation, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany 
  • Manuela Colombini, Assistant Professor in Health Systems and Policy and Gender-based Violence, and Loraine Bacchus, Associate Professor of Social Science, LSHTM, United Kingdom 
    Chandré Gould, Senior Research Fellow, and Matodzi Amisi, Senior Research Consultant, Institute for Security Studies, South Africa 
    Isabelle Pearson, Research Fellow for the Gender Violence & Health Centre at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), United Kingdom, and Heidi Stöckl, Professor of Public Health Evaluation, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany 
  • How do violence against children and against women intersect?

    shared risk factors
    co-occurrence in the same household
    intergenerational effects
    common and compounding consequences
    violence against adolescents often overlooked by both fields
  • 12 studies – physical violence only
    1 study – only severe forms of physical VAC
    14 studies – physical + emotional
    5 studies – included neglect
    2 studies – included sexual violence
  • Parenting
    4 universal / 4 targeted
    Aimed at caregivers of younger children (up to 7), but one included kids up to 17
  • Parenting
    4 universal / 4 targeted
    Aimed at caregivers of younger children (up to 7), but one included kids up to 17
  • What strategies are effective at preventing and mitigating both IPV and violence against children in the home? Parenting / Caregiver support?
    What strategies are effective for promoting non-violent, gender equitable relationships in adolescence?
    How can coordination across systems be strengthened to respond to the needs of both children and women exposed to violence? Health sector interventions (primary, prenatal).
  • What strategies are effective at preventing and mitigating both IPV and violence against children in the home? Parenting / Caregiver support?
    What strategies are effective for promoting non-violent, gender equitable relationships in adolescence?
    How can coordination across systems be strengthened to respond to the needs of both children and women exposed to violence? Health sector interventions (primary, prenatal).
  • Manuela Colombini, Assistant Professor in Health Systems and Policy and Gender-based Violence, and Loraine Bacchus, Associate Professor of Social Science, LSHTM, United Kingdom 
    Chandré Gould, Senior Research Fellow, and Matodzi Amisi, Senior Research Consultant, Institute for Security Studies, South Africa 
    Isabelle Pearson, Research Fellow for the Gender Violence & Health Centre at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), United Kingdom, and Heidi Stöckl, Professor of Public Health Evaluation, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany 
  • Manuela Colombini, Assistant Professor in Health Systems and Policy and Gender-based Violence, and Loraine Bacchus, Associate Professor of Social Science, LSHTM, United Kingdom 
    Chandré Gould, Senior Research Fellow, and Matodzi Amisi, Senior Research Consultant, Institute for Security Studies, South Africa 
    Isabelle Pearson, Research Fellow for the Gender Violence & Health Centre at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), United Kingdom, and Heidi Stöckl, Professor of Public Health Evaluation, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany 

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