Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Can Universal Child Grants Lead to a More Gender-Equal Society?

1,899 views

Published on

Exploring measures for gender-transformative design and implementation - A Presentation by Maja Gavrilovic of UNICEF Innocenti and Juan Gonzalo Jaramillo Mejia of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) at the International Conference on Universal Child Grants
6-8 February 2019 | Geneva

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Can Universal Child Grants Lead to a More Gender-Equal Society?

  1. 1. International Conference on Universal Child Grants 6-8 February 2019 | Geneva 1 Can Universal Child Grants Lead to a More Gender-Equal Society? Maja Gavrilovic UNICEF Innocenti @UNICEFInnocenti Juan Gonzalo Jaramillo Mejia Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) @juangogogo Exploring measures for gender- transformative design and implementation
  2. 2. Presentation structure 1. What is our starting point? 2. Why does gender matter for social protection? 3. Is a Basic Income policy truly revolutionary? 4. Are there any discussions looking at the gender elements of a UBI and its spin-offs? 5. How can we evaluate UBI and UCG proposals from a gender perspective? Three analytical frameworks and preliminary findings 6. Conclusions and policy implications
  3. 3. Despite the positive gender effects, there is a general lack of gender-sensitivity across the SP policy cycle: What is our starting point? 1. Programs mainly explore and respond to the material causes of poverty 2. There is a limited understanding of the role played by gender inequalities either as root causes or exacerbating factors of poverty and vulnerability 3. There is resistance, limited willingness and insufficient functional and technical capacities to promote change and foresee programmatic options 4. Due to their nature, social (gender) norms are harder to capture and modify: requires time, sustained and complementary measures. International Conference on Universal Child Grants FAO (2018). Promoting Gender-sensitive Social Protection Programs to Combat Rural Poverty and Hunger. Rome, Italy.
  4. 4. International Conference on Universal Child Grants Why does gender matter for social protection? 4 Gender Social Norms: PERMEATE, MEDIATE and SHAPE the in/visible social structures in which interventions operate; either facilitating or hindering the achievement of objectives Linkages between gender inequalities & poverty Two interlinked drivers of gender discrimination influence outcomes for women and men in terms of income insecurity, limited access to social security, material dependency and limited agency: a) Women's relative structural disadvantage in the labor market and occupational segregation and men’s role as main providers b) Women’s disproportionate responsibility for care work and resultant risk of 'double burdens,‘ while men are deprived of caregiving.
  5. 5. International Conference on Universal Child Grants 5 UBI is a result of a growing set of commitments to expand ‘social protection for all’ and address (multidimensional) poverty But existing UBI debates do not pay enough attention to gender or may retain old framings (“old wine in new bottles” syndrome) So what to do? Learn from experience and available evidence from cash transfers to integrate gender into all stages of policy-making to ensure the revolutionary promise of UBI is fulfilled, harnessing the potential to maximize positive effects on gender equality and avoid harm Is UBI a truly REVOLUTIONARY proposal?
  6. 6. International Conference on Universal Child Grants A gender perspective for UBI? 6 Academic debates on UBI are rich…however, they are: • Theoretical rather than empirical and policy-based • Focused mainly on 'developed' country contexts • Not applying a relational lens mainly focusing on women • Missing spin-offs such as Universal Child Grants (UCG) Our purpose: to address some of these gaps, looking at 'How can UCG promote or hinder gender equality outcomes, and through what pathways?'
  7. 7. International Conference on Universal Child Grants Key areas of our gender analysis 7 OUTCOME AREAS INTERMEDIARY OUTCOMES STRUCTURAL CHANGES • Access to social protection • Gender division of labor in care work • Participation in paid work • Income security, material independence • Access to, and control over resources • Agency & bargaining power • Psychosocial welfare • Gender norms • Gender roles & relations • Gender identities (feminine/masculine)
  8. 8. International Conference on Universal Child Grants Analytical frameworks to analyze UBI & UCG 8 Basic elements of UBI Gender equity principles Triple R framework
  9. 9. International Conference on Universal Child Grants 9 Looking at five principles for Gender Equity Gender Equity Anti- poverty Anti- exploitation Equality of income, leisure time, respect Anti- marginalization Anti- androcentrism 1. Anti-poverty: SP goal is to prevent and reduce (multi- dimensional) poverty 2. Anti-exploitation: reduces the risk of abuse of vulnerable people and ‘exploitative dependency’ 3. Equality principles: • Income: Reducing vast discrepancy between men's and women's income • Leisure time: Crucial to women who suffer time poverty and are overburdened by domestic labor • Respect: Recognition of women's personhood and status 4. Anti-marginalization principle: promote women's participation in all areas of social and political life 5. Anti-androcentrism principle: requires re-shaping masculine norms embedded in welfare arrangements Fraser, 1994
  10. 10. International Conference on Universal Child Grants Potential effects on access & gender dynamics 10 Universal UnconditionalIndividualistic No strings attached • Avoids paternalism and coerciveness, risk of exacerbating time poverty, deepening inequality • No ‘triple’ burden • Still some 'targeting' based on age – stage in the lifecycle • Mixed effects: children’s guardians treated as 'means to an end' & may cause friction Non-targeted • Benefits are not tied to social or employment status • Avoids exclusion, inclusion errors, stigma, stereotyping & costs • If women are kept as primary recipients, there is risk of perpetuating the traditional division of labor and gender stereotypes Independent entitlement • Provides access to independent income • Potential positive spillover effects on wo/men’s agency and position • Primary caregiver (mainly women) typically remains the recipient of benefits • Potential backlash in patriarchal contexts UBI UCG **CT evidence: Outcomes depend on regularity, size of transfers, delivery mechanisms & intra-hh dynamics regarding allocation, use patterns and control over cash
  11. 11. International Conference on Universal Child Grants 11 RedistributeRecognise Reduce • Implicit recognition and value of unpaid care work • Risk reinforcing gender roles and perpetuating ‘free riding’ among men because norms and roles may remain intact • Provides choice to change work-related time allocations • Men and women can shift time to leisure • Invest in labor-saving technologies and outsource care work • Potential change in the HH distribution of labor mainly through women's agency pathway • ↓ Expectations on men as main breadwinners, freeing their time to adopt caregiving roles • From family to state as a merit good; From family to market, yet, leading to the ‘commodification‘ of care and transmission along class lines CTs evidence: changes in agency/bargaining power are not automatic & depend on many moderating factors: i.e. context, design, hh composition & dynamics Potential effects on gender ÷ of labor SDG 5.4 “recognize & value unpaid care & domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure & SP & the promotion of shared responsibility within the hh & family”
  12. 12. International Conference on Universal Child Grants Potential effects on employment status 12 CLAIM: UBI will have potentially negative effects on work incentives & regressive outcomes for women in terms of employment participation, gender equality and stereotypes. Is this concern warranted? First, predicting gender-specific employment and time allocation outcomes is complex • Evidence from CTs generally show increase in paid work and income generation activities • Significance of work goes beyond income (equal respect principle) • Leaving 'lousy' jobs due to income security is a positive outcome (anti-exploitation principle) • Working less and re-allocating time to leisure is positive, especially for ‘overburdened’ women (equal leisure principle) • UBI policies should not be evaluated strictly in relation to paid-unpaid work (anti-androcentric principle) • UBI affords freedom to choose 'meaningful' work based on individual preferences: different paths of fulfillment
  13. 13. International Conference on Universal Child Grants In summary… 13 UBI has potential to improve women & men’s welfare and tackle unequal gender dynamics by: • In the short term: Meeting practical needs and reducing gaps in coverage: addressing income poverty and basic consumption requirements • In the medium and long term: Addressing strategic interests: greater agency and control over resources, status within HH and community, improved gender relations There is potential to reduce & distribute care work more equitably in the HH & address men’s deprived roles in caregiving. However, UBI cannot radically destabilize the gender division of labor. UBI does not directly and explicitly address distribution of paid work, but has potential for gender de-coding of roles, provided that other measures are implemented alongside UBI. Outcomes are moderated by programmatic & contextual factors; there is a need for explicit framing, additional features & complementary measures to maximize positive and transformative effects
  14. 14. International Conference on Universal Child Grants Final Remarks and Policy Implications 14 Gender transformative narratives and framing are key to promote right-based entitlements. • Focus on care-receivers as much as in care-givers and emphasize the importance of fatherhood as much as motherhood in UBI and UCG • Need to question or at least nuance the assumption that women should be sole recipients: HH cooperative models Universal transfers are no panacea – well-designed ‘cash+’ approaches are required to tackle structural causes of poverty and gender inequality. • Policies must incorporate gender explicitly into objectives and design provisions • Policies must be complemented by social services and embedded in anti-discrimination legislation Incentivizing men to support and contribute to gender equality (caregiving) through: • Complementary parental policies • Messaging and awareness-raising: promote positive parenthood role models, engage men as allies • Provision of public caregiving services Long-term and sustained investments are needed in capacity building, women-friendly institutional arrangements, and M&E and learning systems.
  15. 15. International Conference on Universal Child Grants Bibliography 15 Bastagli, F., Hagen-Zanker, J., Harman, L., Sturge, G., Schmidt, T. & Pellerano, L. 2016. Cash transfers: what does the evidence say? A rigorous review of impacts and the role of design and implementation features. London, ODI. Bergmann, B.R. (2008) “Basic Income Grants or the ’Swedish Model‘: Which Better Promotes Gender Equality?” Basic Income Studies 3 (3), pp. 1–7. Enríquez, C. (2016). Basic Income and Time Use Democratization. Basic Income Studies, 11(1), pp. 39-48. Retrieved 4 January 2019, from doi:10.1515/bis-2016-0012 Fraser, N. (1996) “Gender Equity and the Welfare State: A Postindustrial Thought Experiment,” in Seyla Benhabib (ed.) Democracy and Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Fraser N. (1994) ‘After the Family Wage: Gender Equity and the Welfare State’, Political Theory 22(4): 591–618. FAO (2018). FAO Technical Guide 1 Introduction to gender-sensitive social protection programming to combat rural poverty: Why is it important and what does it mean? Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Gheaus, A. (2008) “Basic Income, Gender Justice, and the Costs of Gender- Symmetrical Lifestyles” Basic Income Studies 3 (3), pp. 1–8. Holmes, R. and Jones, N. (2010) Rethinking social protection using a gender lens ODI Working Paper No. 320 Overseas Development Institute, London. McKay, A. (2007). Why a citizens' basic income? A question of gender equality or gender bias. Journals.sagepub.com. Retrieved 2 January 2019, from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0950017007076643 O’Reilly, J. (2008) “Can a Basic Income Lead to a More Gender Equal Society?” Basic Income Studies 3 (3), pp. 1–7. Robeyns, I. (2008) ‘Introduction: revisiting feminism and the basic income debate’ Basic Income Studies Vol. 3 (3): 1- 6
  16. 16. Thank You 16 mgavrilovic@unicef.org j.jaramillo@cgiar.org @juangogogo

×