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1. Opportunities and barriers to children's rights in a digital, global age – Bu Wei

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Bu Wei described the Chinese context, where 195 million users are urban children and there are 61.5 million rural users; 20.7 million on average go online weekly; and 38 per cent of the total child population are rural children and young people left behind by one or both of their parents. About four out of every 10 children in China are affected by migration. It affects mostly rural children and young people with serious consequences; most drop out of school or lack any social or family support. However, internet use statistics show a growing trend, particularly among urban children, who spend on average 20.7 hours per week online. Access and use differ starkly between urban and rural children and young people. Efforts to use digital devices and social media for social support include ‘Baby Come Back Home’, an internet project launched by NGOs to help trafficking victims find their parents. To raise awareness of this issue, UNICEF developed a documentary, ‘Stories through 180 lenses’, for and by left-behind children. The ‘1kg More’ project encourages urban children and young people to carry an additional 1kg in their backpack when travelling to rural areas to help rural children (carrying textbooks, etc.). While research is not a main focus, these projects serve to highlight a digital divide, not just in access, but also in resources, information and languages. While a majority of urban children in China fully participate in the digital age, most rural children do not have access to the internet and other new ICTs. Policy and programming interventions tend to prioritise urban children and new ICTs.
Bu Wei also reported on sampling issues when studying migrant children. She recommended content analysis of information used by children to better understand their use patterns and experiences. Pairing research with participatory action, Wei invited participants to consider how new mobile technologies can address the needs of migrant children.

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1. Opportunities and barriers to children's rights in a digital, global age – Bu Wei

  1. 1. Researching  children’s  rights  globally  in  the  digital  age   What  is  the  problem  in  China?   Cri8cal  Perspec8ve     Bu  Wei   The  Ins8tute  of  Journalism  and  Communica8on     Chinese  Academy  of  Social  Sciences     Feb.,  12-­‐14,  LSE,  London,  UK
  2. 2. What  is  the  problem  in  China?  Cri8cal  Perspec8ve 1.  children  popula8on  structure  in  China     2.  ICTs  use  by  children     3.  the  opportuni8es  and  barriers  to  children  rights   when  they  begin  to  use  internet-­‐enabled   technologies       4.  Law  and  policy  framework  and  agenda.       5.  some  points:  what  is  our  problem  in  Chinese   context?  
  3. 3. 1.Real  China—Census  Data  about  Children  in  China   Key  Data  and  Facts  in  2013 The  Sixth  Na8onal  Census:   the  child  popula8on  aged  0-­‐17  in  China  was  279  million  in   2010,  accoun8ng  for  21%  of  the  total  na8onal  popula8on     By  sex:  There  were  150  million  males,  accoun8ng  for  54%,   and  129  million  females,  accoun8ng  for  46%  of  the  child   popula8on  in  2010     By  urban-­‐rural  residence:  There  were  125  million  children   in  urban  areas,  accoun8ng  for  45%,  and  154  million   children  in  rural  areas,  accoun8ng  for  55%  of  the  child   popula8on.    
  4. 4. 1.Real  China—Census  Data  about  Children  in  China   Key  Data  and  Facts  in  2013 Over  100  million  children  na8onwide  were  affected  by   migra8on       migrant  children  aged  0-­‐17  was  35.81  million   rural  le_-­‐behind  children  aged  0-­‐17  was  69.73  million      38%  of  the  total  child  popula8on  in  China     about  4  out  of  every  10  children  in  China  were  directly   affected  by  migra8on.     The  vast  majority  of  children  affected  by  migra8on  came   from  or  lived  in  rural  areas.      
  5. 5. 1.Real  China—Census  Data  about  Children  in  China   Key  Data  and  Facts  in  2013 Children  affected  by  migra8on  face  a  series  of  challenges   to  their  development:     Migrant  children  lose  access  to  tradi8onal  and  community   support  systems,  and  are  confronted  with  difficul8es  and   discrimina8on   in   terms   of   urban   schooling,   medical   treatment,  social  security  and  other  aspects.     As   for   le_-­‐behind   children,   with   one   or   both   parents   working  away  from  home,  it  is  difficult  for  them  to  receive   emo8onal  support  and  help  from  their  families,  which  can   be   detrimental   to   their   physical,   emo8onal   and   mental   health.     These   challenges   require   adequate   social   and   policy   responses.    
  6. 6. 1.Real  China—Census  Data  about  Children  in  China   Key  Data  and  Facts  in  2013 In  2010,  the  number  of  children  living  in  poverty-­‐stricken   areas   (832   coun8es   in   total)   was   es8mated   to   be   70   million,  accoun8ng  for  about  25%  of  the  child  popula8on   na8onwide.  Child  poverty  is  mul8-­‐dimensional.       More  rural  children  drop  out  from  school       The  legal  age  of  entry  into  employment  in  China  is  16  years   of  age.  There  were  39.57  million  children  aged  16-­‐17  in   China,  of  which  8.39  million  or  21.2%  were  economically   ac8ve.    
  7. 7. 2.  ICTs  use  from  cri8cal  perspec8ve Key  data  from  CNNIC     By  the  end  of  December  2013,  China  has  had  256  million   young  internet  users  (6-­‐24),  accoun8ng  for  71.8%  of  china   young   popula8on;   and   China   has   140   million   children   Internet  users  (6-­‐17).       Most  users  are  urban  children,  it  is  195  million;  rural  users   reached  61.40  million.  The  ra8o  is  76:24.  The  urban  young   people  use  more  func8ons  than  rural  young  people,  unless   the  instant  messaging      
  8. 8. 2.  ICTs  use  from  cri8cal  perspec8ve Key  data  from  CNNIC     In  the  end  of  2014,  weekly  average  online  dura8on  of  the   young  Internet  users  in  China  reached  20.7  hours.     Online  experience  from  young  people:   Search   engine,   online   music,   blog/personal   space,   online   video,   online   game,   Online   literature,   and   instant   messaging.    
  9. 9. 2.  ICTs  use  from  cri8cal  perspec8ve Key  data  from  CNNIC     Mobile   Internet   users   reached   221   million,   accoun8ng   for   86.3%。Three  top  using  rates  by  mobile  phone  to  access  the   Internet:   instant   messaging,   90.6%;   search,   79.4%,   online   music,  70.2%。 In   China,   maybe   it   is   mobile   phone-­‐enabled   technologies   from   online   experiences   of   Chinese   young   people,   for   migrant   children   and   young   people,   they   like   to   use   QQ   or   QQ  space,  not  computer  or  the  Internet  resource.    
  10. 10. 3.  Opportuni8es  and  Barriers Survivor  and  development  rights     Have   access   to   health   knowledge;   HIV/ADS;   reproduc8on   health,   nutri8on,   personal   hygiene,   and   public   health,   and   have  access  to  appropriate  informa8on,  including  educa8on   and  entertainment  ——for  children  who  can  have  access  to   the  Internet.     Distance  educa8on    
  11. 11. 3.  Opportuni8es  and  Barriers Protec8on  rights:   Separa8on  from  parents:  keep  in  touch  through  mobile  phone   “Baby,   come   back   to   home”,   the   Internet   project   launched   by   a   NGOs,   help   some   trafficked   women   and   children   to   find   their   parents  a_er  10  or  20  years.     Par8cipa8on  rights:     For  children  by  our  country:  “Chinese  Chip”  Computer  Applica8on   Compe88on  for  Children  in  China,  supported  by  government  and   NGOs,   20   years,   5   million   children   par8cipated   it   for   crea8ng   knowledge,  informa8on  and  new  technologies  in  2014.    
  12. 12. 3.  Opportuni8es  and  Barriers Par8cipa8on  rights:     For  children  by  youth   1kg  more  project     launched  by  a  young  people,  when  you  plan  to  travel  in  rural   places,   please   take   1kg   more   in   your   back   bag   for   rural   children,   1kg   maybe   textbook,   story   book,   or   football,   any   things  that  can  help  rural  children.  Par8cipants  will  provide   and   share   the   needs   from   rural   children,   exchange   experiences  and  lessons.    
  13. 13. 3.  Opportuni8es  and  Barriers Par8cipa8on  rights:     For  children  by  children,  Design  for  Change  China   DFC   is   a   global   movement   that   empowers   children   to   be   the   change  they  wish  to  see  in  this  world.  Founded  by  Kiran  Bir  Sethi,   this  movement  has  spread  to  over  36  countries  and  reaching  out  to   300,000  children  in  the  past  six  years.       Based  on  a  simplified  design  thinking  process,  this  ini8a8ve  asks   students  to  FEEL  any  problem  that  bothers  them,  IMAGINE  a  way   to  make  it  beoer,  DO  an  act  of  change  and  SHARE  their  story  of   change  with  the  world.     In  China,  ini8ator  and  managers  are  children  and  young  people.      
  14. 14. 3.  Opportuni8es  and  Barriers Par8cipa8on  rights:     Voice  from  migrant  children   Documentary  For  and  by  le_-­‐behind  children,  launched  by  UNICEF   projects,  “Stories  through  180  Lenses”,       MV  for  and  by  migrant  children,  launched  by  a  Labor  NGO     Children  can  enjoy  the  experience  of  interac8vity  online,  collec8ve   crea8on  TV  drama  or  story,  and  enjoy  their  fans  culture.     For   social   networking:   blued.cn,   APP   for   LGBT   group,   15   million   users,  big  business    
  15. 15. 3.  Opportuni8es  and  Barriers Barriers:   most   children,   especially   rural   children   can’t   have   access  to  the  Internet,  not  only  digital  divide  in  Access,  also   digital  divide  in  resources,  informa8on  and  languages.       For   these   children,   they   need   social   change   for   them,   and   par8cipa8ng  into  social  change  as  agent.  It  makes  us  rethink   the  digital  technology,  why  digital  technology?  Why  not  ICTs,   why   not   mass   media?   or   alterna8ve   media   or   tradi8onal   media?     In  many  cases,  ICTs  will  benefit  the  poor  more  significantly   when   the   poor   par8cipate   as   ‘Informa8on   Sources’   rather   than  as  ‘Informa8on  Recipients’.      
  16. 16. 3.  Opportuni8es  and  Barriers The  problem:   What  kind  of  ICTs  can  promote  marginal  groups  to  par8cipate   into   social   change?   How   do   they   create   new   media   form   (convergence  from  below,  or  cross  media  communica8on)  for   social  change?     cri8cal  perspec8ve:   Who  establish  the  ICT  standard,  criterion,  or  rules?  Who  get   benefits  from  these  criterions,  and  rules?  It  is  city-­‐centered,   so  it  highlights  the  new  T  as  an  advanced  force  and  have-­‐not   Internet   as   a   backward   value,   so   that   technology   maybe   excludes  the  marginal  groups  in  our  society.    
  17. 17. 4.  Policy  and  its  agenda Laws  and  Policies  framework  on  children’s  right  and  ICTs:     •  The   Law   of   the   People’s   Republic   of   China   on   the   Protec8on  of  Minors   •  The  Law  of  the  people's  Republic  of  China  on  preven8on  of   juvenile  crime   •  The   Na8onal   Plan   for   Medium   and   Long-­‐Term   Educa8on   Reform  and  Development  (2010–2020)   •  The  Outline  for  Development-­‐oriented  Poverty  Reduc8on   for  China's  Rural  Areas  (2011-­‐2020)   •  NPAs  1990s,  2001-­‐2010,  and  2011-­‐2020    
  18. 18. 4.  Policy  and  its  agenda Key  content:     Suppor8ng   more   accesses   to   the   ICTs   for   educa8on   and   culture   development   ——   Improving   access   to   the   Internet   in   rural   primary   and   secondary  schools  the  propor8on,  the  expansion  of  rural  modern   distance   educa8on   network   coverage,   increase   the   per   hundred   students   in   primary   and   secondary   schools   have   computers,   is   equipped   with   mul8media   distance   learning   facili8es   for   rural   primary  and  secondary  schools;     ——   con8nue   to   promote   the   radio,   TV,   film   coverage   to   every   village,  and  other  major  projects  for  cultural  construc8on  such  as   rural  library.     Providing  good  content  for  children      
  19. 19. 4.  Policy  and  its  agenda Main  points:        Preven8ng  Internet  addic8on     The   pornography,   violence,   murder,   terror,   gambling   and   other   harmful   to   minors   in   books,   newspapers,   audio   and   video   products,   electronic   publica8ons   and   Internet   informa8on   are   prohibited.     Informa8on  literacy  educa8on     Protec8on  of  privacy     We   have   not   more   details   on   network   abduc8on,   and   Content   ra8ng  system  based  on  age  of  children.  Some  organiza8ons  tried  to   discuss   on   legisla8on   to   protect   young   people   online   from   2013,   but  has  not  yet  been  put  it  into  Na8onal  agenda.      
  20. 20. 4.  Policy  and  its  agenda Key  content:     Preven8ng  Internet  addic8on     The   content   including   pornography,   violence,   murder,   terror,   gambling  and  other  harmful  to  minors  in  books,  newspapers,  audio   and   video   products,   electronic   publica8ons   and   Internet   informa8on  are  prohibited     Informa8on  literacy  educa8on     Protec8on  of  privacy     Not  include:  network  abduc8on;    Content  ra8ng  system    
  21. 21. 5.  Problems   In  the  digital  age,     (1)  most  rural  children  have  not  access  to  the  Internet  and   other  new  ICTS;     (2)  pay  more  aoen8on  to  urban  children  use  of  New  ICTS;     (3)   pay   more   aoen8on   to   new   technologies,   instead   of   alterna8ve  technologies  for  migrant  children      
  22. 22. 5.  Problems   Challenges  to  our  research:     (1)   par8cipatory   survey   for   rural   children:  how   do   they   define  ICT   (2)  researching  migrant  children:  sampling  and  data   (3)   what   kind   of   informa8on   used   by   children?   Content   analysis   (4)  how  to  develop  mobile  appropriate  technology  according   to  needs  from  migrant  children   (5)  Qualita8ve  research  on  ICT  projects  in  China     小小渴望VTS_02_1.VOB    

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